TIGER

Journal Articles: 304 results
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography  Pei-Yu Chao, Yao-Yuan Chuang, Grace Hsiuying Ho, Shiow-Huey Chuang, Tseng-Chang Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Shang-Tien Tsai, and Jun-Fu Huang
This analytical or physical chemistry sorption experiment uses hexane isomers as probe molecules to demonstrate the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites. Students can also modify the sorption protocol to build their own experiments.
Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1558.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition
A Non-Mercury Thermometer Alternative for Use in Older Melting Point Apparatuses  Lois K. Ongley, Clayton S. Kern, and Barry W. Woods
This work demonstrates that lab-calibrated thermocouples are a statistically accurate and economically reasonable substitute for mercury thermometers to measure the melting point temperature for organic compounds in older Mel-Temp devices.
Ongley, Lois K.; Kern, Clayton S.; Woods, Barry W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1263.
Calibration |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation To Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces  Phillip R. Burkholder, Gordon H. Purser, and Renee S. Cole
This article presents a series of experiments incorporating molecular dynamics simulations which predict the motion of chemical species based on the application of empirical rules and a physical analysis of the forces that act between the species. These motions can then be shown in vivid graphical form.
Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1071.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
Diamagnetic Corrections and Pascal's Constants  Gordon A. Bain and John F. Berry
This article presents an explanation for the origin of diamagnetic correction factors, comprehensive tables of diamagnetic constants and their application to calculate diamagnetic susceptibility, and a simple method for estimating the correct order of magnitude for the diamagnetic correction for any given compound.
Bain, Gordon A.; Berry, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 532.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Transition Elements
Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces  Donald W. Mundell
Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution and previous demonstrations of surface motion are explored.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1773.
Aromatic Compounds |
Liquids |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science |
Noncovalent Interactions
Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC  Gregory T. Rushton, William G. Burns, Judi M. Lavin, Yong S. Chong, Perry Pellechia, and Ken D. Shimizu
After the synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, students estimate the rotational barrier about a CarylNimidesingle bond by studying the reequilibration of the two resulting isomers using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, followed by a more accurate determination through a 1H NMR time study.
Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1499.
Alcohols |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Which Method Is Most Precise; Which Is Most Accurate?  A. D. Jordan
The main objective of this experiment, which involves determining the density of a liquid by several methods, is to familiarize students with the concepts of precision and accuracy using data that can be acquired easily with a variety of apparatus and analyzed by simple statistics and a linear regression.
Jordan, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1459.
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Describes a typical student experiment on the determination of the viscosity of liquids using a quartz-crystal microbalance.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1337.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Self-Motion Depending on the Physicochemical Properties of Esters as the Driving Force  Satoshi Nakata, Kyoko Matsuo, and Junko Kirisaka
An investigation of the self-motion of various ester boats was revealed that velocity and the duration of the motion decreased with an increase in the number of carbon atoms in the esters of acetic acid, characteristics that were subsequently reproduced by a computer simulation.
Nakata, Satoshi; Matsuo, Kyoko; Kirisaka, Junko. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 704.
Colloids |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Hydrophilic Inorganic Macro-Ions in Solution: Unprecedented Self-Assembly Emerging from Historical "Blue Waters"  Tianbo Liu, Ekkehard Diemann, and Achim Müller
The behavior of supramolecular structures in solution is different from that of simple ions, polymers, surfactant micelles, and colloids. New research involving polyoxometalates, which are fully hydrophilic but tend to self-associate into macro-ionic structures, may change our understanding of inorganic ionic solutions.
Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Müller, Achim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Physical Properties
Cp/Cv Ratios Measured by the Sound Velocity Method Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology  Mario Branca and Isabella Soletta
The values ? = Cp /Cv (heat capacity at a constant pressure / heat capacity at constant volume) for air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were determined by measuring the velocity of sound through these gases at room temperature using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology.
Branca, Mario; Soletta, Isabella. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 462.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Characterization of High Explosives and Other Energetic Compounds by Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  John A. Bumpus, Anne Lewis, Corey Stotts, and Christopher J. Cramer
Four experiments suitable for use in the undergraduate instructional laboratory demonstrate the use of computational chemistry and molecular-modeling procedures to calculate selected physical and chemical properties of several high explosives and other energetic compounds.
Bumpus, John A.; Lewis, Anne; Stotts, Corey; Cramer, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 329.
Computational Chemistry |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching Structure–Property Relationships: Investigating Molecular Structure and Boiling Point  Peter M. Murphy
The boiling points for 392 organic compounds are tabulated by carbon chain length and functional group to facilitate a wide range of inquiry-based activities that correlate the effects of chemical structure on physical properties.
Murphy, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 97.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A Developmental History of Polymer Mass Spectrometry  Matthew J. Vergne, Robert P. Lattimer, and David M. Hercules
This review provides a historical perspective of the development of polymer mass spectrometry, divided into three eras: the small molecule era (1950s and 1960s); the macromass era (1970s and 1980s); and the modern era (the late 1980s to the present).
Vergne, Matthew J.; Lattimer, Robert P.; Hercules, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 81.
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Popcorn—What's in the Bag?  Marissa B. Sherman and Thomas A. Evans
Three independent activities explore microwave popcorn, the nature of the packaging, and the popcorn produced.
Sherman, Marissa B.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 416A.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Refractive Index Determination of Transparent Polymers: Experimental Setup for Multi-Wavelength Determination and Calculation at Specific Frequencies Using Group Contribution Theory  Jay Dlutowski, Andres M. Cardenas-Valencia, David Fries, and Larry Langebrake
A simple lab that clearly shows the dependence of light reflection on the angle of incidence for transparent polymers is described. Light transmission measurements are used to determine the reflection magnitude and the refractive index of the material.
Dlutowski, Jay; Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Fries, David; Langebrake, Larry. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1867.
Physical Properties |
Polymerization |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment  Bruno M. Vittimberga and Ben Ruekberg
Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze their results.
Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1661.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Density Visualization  Richard L. Keiter, Whitney L. Puzey, and Erin A. Blitz
Metal rods of high purity for several elements can be used to construct a display in which their relative densities may be assessed visually.
Keiter, Richard L.; Puzey, Whitney L.; Blitz, Erin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1629.
Metals |
Physical Properties |
X-ray Crystallography
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Intelligent Thermochromic Windows  Ivan P. Parkin and Troy D. Manning
This article covers the background and related science associated with a thermochromic window, a device that changes its reflectance and transmission properties at a specific critical temperature.
Parkin, Ivan P.; Manning, Troy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 393.
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry
Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System  Mark Iannone
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for vapor pressure measurements in a closed system and the procedure for its use.
Iannone, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 97.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
An Engaging Illustration of the Physical Differences among Menthol Stereoisomers  Edward M. Treadwell and T. Howard Black
The differences and similarities in the physical behavior of enantiomers and diastereomers can easily be demonstrated using the commercial stereoisomers (-)-menthol, (+)-menthol, (+)-isomenthol, and (+)-neomenthol. Thin-layer chromatography and melting point determinations clearly show that diastereomers have different physical properties from enantiomers and each other, but that enantiomers have identical physical properties in achiral environments. By obtaining a mixed melting point and optical rotations the difference in enantiomers can be observed.
Treadwell, Edward M.; Black, T. Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1046.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Physical Properties
Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate  Lawrence Koby, Jyothi B. Ningappa, Maria Dakessian, and Louis A. Cuccia
Optimized conditions for the chiral crystallization of ethylenediamine sulfate, which can serve as an ideal undergraduate experiment, are described. Large, flat, colorless crystals of ethylenediamine sulfate are obtained in an undisturbed evaporation dish within a period of approximately five to seven days. The crystals are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets. Students become familiar with polarizing filters and how they can be used to distinguish between dextrorotatory and levorotatory crystals.
Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakessian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1043.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Stereochemistry |
Physical Properties
Hands On Plastics  Hal Harris and Mary Harris
Hands On Plastics is a project to encourage teaching about polymers and plastics, and has been generously supported by the American Plastics Council. The complete kit (which includes a CD with the video) is available to teachers for no charge (accessed Dec 2004).
Harris, Hal; Harris, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Physical Properties
M&M Orange  John W. Elder
Hands On Plastics is a project to encourage teaching about polymers and plastics, and has been generously supported by the American Plastics Council. The complete kit (which includes a CD with the video) is available to teachers for no charge (accessed Dec 2004).
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 209.
Physical Properties
Modern Projects in Organic Chemistry: Miniscale and Standard Taper Microscale, 2nd Edition (Jerry R. Mohrig, Christina Noring Hammond, Paul F. Schatz, and Terence C. Morrill)  Richard Pagni
Modern Projects and Experiments in Organic Chemistry comes in two closely related versions, one for miniscale and standard taper microscale and the other for miniscale and Williamson microscale, in conjunction with the authors techniques in organic chemistry book.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 649.
Chromatography |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
N,N-Dimethylformamide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of N,N-dimethylformamide are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 632.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chloroacetic acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of chloroacetic acid are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 631.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Variability of the Cell Potential of a Given Chemical Reaction  Ladislav H. Berka and Ilie Fishtik
It is demonstrated in this article that while the value of the free energy change for any chemical reaction is independent of path (a state function), the value of the standard cell potential of a reaction is dependent on the half-cell reactions used to carry out that reaction.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Fishtik, Ilie. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 584.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Calcium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 479.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Silver  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for silver.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 478.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Aluminum Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Iodide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium iodide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 330.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 187.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chlorine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chlorine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 186.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Using a Disposable Pipet for Preparing Air-Sensitive Compounds for Melting Point Determinations or Storage  Martial Sanz
An inexpensive disposable Pasteur pipet can be transformed into a capillary tube, which, once correctly coupled with a Quickfit adapter with a side arm by means of a rubber septum, can receive under a dried and inert atmosphere air-sensitive samples from a Schlenk-type vessel.
Sanz, Martial. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 106.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Stearic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for stearic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 25.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
Triethanolamine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for triethanolamine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 24.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Alcohols
Lead Acetate Trihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for lead acetate trihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1374.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Mercury(II) Nitrate Monohydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) nitrate monohydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium dichromate dihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1250.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Why Does a Helium-Filled Balloon "Rise"?  Richard W. Ramette
The article is a lighthearted, conversational exploration of the microscopic basis for Archimedes principle. The principle is discussed in terms of molecular collisions and density gradients in a gravitational field.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1149.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Physical Properties
Nitrogen, Liquid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for liquid nitrogen.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1133.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Hydrogen Peroxide, 3%  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for 3% hydrogen peroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1132.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
An Elementary Picture of Dielectric Spectroscopy in Solids: Physical Basis  Mario F. García-Sánchez, Jean-Claude M'Peko, A. Rabdel Ruiz-Salvador, Froilan Fernández-Gutierrez, Geonel Rodríguez-Gattorno, Adolfo Delgado, and Yuri Echevarría
The principles of DS of solids are discussed starting from simple concepts. The physical basis is presented, emphasizing the meaning of the magnitudes and phenomena involved, including the microscopic aspects of the chemical nature of solids. The applications, advantages, and limitations of DS are also discussed. Some examples are given that provide a practical overview of the main ideas as well as to show the usefulness of the technique.
García-Sánchez, Mario F.;M'Peko, Jean-Claude; Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Fernández-Gutierrez, Froilan; Rodríguez-Gattorno, Geonel; Delgado, Adolfo; Echevarría, Yuri. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1062.
Conductivity |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Student-Centered Learning
Potassium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 998.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 997.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Dichromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium dichromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potassium Permanganate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium permanganate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Diethyl Phthalate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for diethyl phthalate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 736.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Carbon Disulfide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for carbon disulfide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 735.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Antimony(III) Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for antimony(III) chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 611.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Cobalt(II) Chloride Hexahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 610.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isopropyl Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for isopropyl ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 609.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Canola Oil  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for canola oil.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 481.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Citric Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for citric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 480.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Graphite  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for graphite.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 379.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium Carbide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium carbide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 378.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Foundations of Physics for Chemists. Oxford Chemistry Primer No. 93 (G. A. D. Ritchie and D. S. Sivia)  John P. Ranck
Physics primer for chemistry students.
Ranck, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 268.
Physical Properties
Chromium(VI) Oxide, CrO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chromium(VI) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 259.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 258.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Copper(I) Oxide, Cu2O  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for copper(I) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 257.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Iron(II) Sulfate Heptahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 141.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Zirconium(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for zirconium(IV) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 140.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CLIP: Glycerol  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for glycerol.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 25.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CLIP: Ammonia, aqueous  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ammonia.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 24.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Sodium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium nitrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1414.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nitric Acid (approx. 70%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for nitric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1413.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Carbonate (anhydrous) Na2CO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1315.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Acetate CH3COONa  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium acetate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1314.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Spectroscopy for Schools and Colleges [CD-ROM] (by the Royal Society of Chemistry and GlaxoWellcome)  Thomas H. Eberlein
Interactive CR-ROM to assist in learning the fundamentals of interpreting spectroscopy in organic chemistry.
Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1204.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Sodium Fluoride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium fluoride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1197.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hypochlorite solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1196.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Correction to Featured Molecule of July 2002 (re J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 772)  
Correct formula of anthracene.
J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1071.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Potassium Chromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1065.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Osmium Tetroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for osmium tetroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1064.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sulfur (S8)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sulfur.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1063.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Perchlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium perchlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 937.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 936.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Partial Molar Volumes from Refractive Index Measurements  Anthony F. Fucaloro
Analysis of the use of indexes of refraction to measure the density of liquid mixtures.
Fucaloro, Anthony F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 865.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Mercury(I) chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 799.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 798.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Glass Wool  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for glass wool.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 673.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Acetaldehyde  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetaldehyde.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 672.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 426.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 425.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Metals
Copper(II) Sulfate Pentahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 158.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Formic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for formic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 157.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Oleic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for oleic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 24.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Arsenic(III) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for arsenic(III) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 23.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Semimetallicity?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of whether semimetals are semiconductors and distinctions between metals, semimetals, and nonmetals.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity
Chemical Laboratory Information Profiles (CLIPs) (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 444)  Stanley H. Pine
Value of Chemical Laboratory Information Profiles and similar resources on safety information.
Pine, Stanley H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1593.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Petroleum Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for petroleum ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1588.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Asbestos  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for asbestos.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1587.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sucrose  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sucrose.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1460.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carbohydrates
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Turpentine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for turpentine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1459.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Cobalt(II) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for cobalt(II) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1328.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Manganese(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for manganese(IV) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1327.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Iron(III) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for iron(III) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1326.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic anhydride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1176.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetone  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetone.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1175.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Correction to Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: n-Hexane (J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587)  Jay A. Young
Corrected formula for n-hexane.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1021.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Water  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for water.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Hydrochloric Acid (approx 36%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for hydrochloric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sulfuric Acid (approx. 98%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for concentrated sulfuric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 722.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Borax  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for borax.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 588.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: n-Hexane  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for n-hexane.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Phenolphthalein Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for phenolphthalein solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 448.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Introducing Chemical Laboratory Information Profiles: CLIPs  Jay A. Young
Documentation that describes the hazards of a chemical in a manner that is useful for teachers and their students; proposed list of chemicals to consider.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 444.
Administrative Issues |
Descriptive Chemistry |
TA Training / Orientation |
Toxicology |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero  Myung-Hoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and Suw-Young Ly
A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10-mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, Suw-Young. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 2nd Edition
by Pradyot Patnaik

  Douglas Walters
Reference book that contains a wealth of valuable information on about 1500 chemicals.
Walters, Douglas. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1122.
Physical Properties |
Toxicology

Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
Reply to Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Response to challenges in graphing the triple point of water and correction to original article.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Letters  
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1714.
Catalysis |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law
Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment: Abstract of Issue 9907  N. Papadopoulos, A. T. Pitta, N. Markopoulos, M. Limniou, M. A. N. D. A. Lemos, F. Lemos, and F. G. Freire
Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F. M.; Freire, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1600.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemical Etching of Group III - V Semiconductors  Najah J. Kadhim, Stuart H. Laurie, and D. Mukherjee
This article reviews the chemical etchants used for the treatment of GaAs and others III - V. Semiconductors, the factors involved in their mechanism and the many potential pitfalls, arwillan defects associated with them.
Kadhim, Najah J.; Laurie, Stuart H.; Mukherjee, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 840.
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Physical Properties
Swift Measurement of Densities of Low Melting Point Compounds  Bruno Lunelli
For compounds that are solid at room temperature, the procedure described gives the density of the liquid near its melting point (similar to that quoted in the Aldrich catalog), and not that of the phase stable at room temperature.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 639.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Determination of Density of Liquid by a Capillary with Two Pinhole Ends  Shui-Ping Yang
To improve the precision and accuracy in measuring the density of a liquid at the microscale level, a capillary with a volume of about 30 L and two pinhole ends has been designed. The density determined by this capillary method is precise to four significant figures.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 368.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids by Optical Interference  Scott A. Riley, Nathan R. Franklin, Bobbie Oudinarath, Sally Wong, David Congalton, and A. M. Nishimura*
Laser light reflects and refracts at the air-surface interface; the latter beam then reflects at the lower liquid glass interface. These two beams are focused onto a photodiode. The optical interference occurs as a result of the different distances traveled by the two beams and the intensity at the detector oscillates as the liquid evaporates. The frequency of oscillation is used to determine the rate of evaporation.
Riley, Scott A.; Franklin, Nathan R.; Oudinarath, Bobbie; Wong, Sally; Congalton, David; Nishimura, A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1320.
Instrumental Methods |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Lasers
Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils  C. Wes Fountain, Jeanne Jennings, Cheryl K. McKie, Patrice Oakman, Monty L. Fetterolf
A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition, an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.
Fountain, C. Wes; Jennings, Jeanne ; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 224.
Physical Properties |
Food Science |
Fatty Acids
Boiling Point and Molecular Weight  Rich, Ronald L.
No relationship between boiling points and molecular weight.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A294.
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Letters  
No relationship between boiling points and molecular weight.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A294.
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  D. J. Adam, J. Mainwaring, Michael N. Quigley
A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity.
Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1171.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties
Polymer Mechanical Properties via a New Laboratory Tensile Tester   T. Carter Gilmer, Matthew Williams,
A laboratory tensile testing device has been developed, which allows quick and inexpensive measurements of tensile properties of polymeric materials in a uni-axial mode. The device is mostly for instructive purposes and is not necessarily precise enough to collect research mechanical property data.
Gilmer, T. Carter; Williams, Matthew. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1062.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Testing the Electrical Resistivity of Wax and Copper Composites: An Experiment for Simulating the Electrical Behavior of Metal-Filled Plastics  Gabriel Pinto
Testing the Electrical Resistivity of Wax and Copper Composites: An Experiment for Simulating the Electrical Behavior of Metal-Filled Plastics
Gabriel Pinto. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 683.
Materials Science |
Polymerization |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Polymer Science Pilot Program   Mary L. Maier
The Polymer Science Pilot Program consists of a sequence of experiences with polymers, designed to focus upon the ways in which these materials resemble and/or compare with nonpolymers in physical properties, versatility, and function.
Mary L. Maier. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 643.
Polymerization |
Physical Properties |
Materials Science
Raman Spectroscopic Determination of Heats of Vaporization of Pure Liquids  Roosevelt Shaw and Mohammad Hokmabadi
This article describes an experiment which offers a Raman method whereby Raman intensity measurements obtained from the vapor over pure water to yield the heat of vaporization of water.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Hokmabadi, Mohammad. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 474.
Raman Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Easy-to-Build Rotational Viscometer with Digital Readout  Turgay Seckin and Suphi M. Kormaly
Low-cost rotational viscometer with digital readout that was well-suited for measuring viscosity was constructed with two dc motors, a rotor, a measuring cup, and milivolt recorder. This rotational viscometer can be used for quick, unsophisticated tests and comparative measurement.
Seckin, Turgay; Kormaly, Suphi M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 193.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Meaningful Melting Points   Kenneth Nolon Carter and Kenneth Nolan Carter, Jr.
Recommendations for laboratory standards for determining and reporting melting points.
Carter, Kenneth Nolon; Carter, Kenneth N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 647.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Buoyancy Programs; Viscosity of Polymer Solutions; Precision of Calculated Values  Bertrand, Gary L.
Software to simulate the determination of the density of solids; the preparation of polymer solutions and their time to flow through a viscometer; and a program to calculate the uncertainties of results given the input values.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Spectrofluorimeters as Light-Scattering Apparatus: Application to Polymers Molecular Weight Determination  Mougan, Manuel A.; Coello, Adela; Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Vazquez Tato, Jose
Procedure for determining the molecular weight of polymers using fluorescent spectroscopy; includes sample data and analysis, and listing of molecular weight determinations appearing in previous issues of JCE.
Mougan, Manuel A.; Coello, Adela; Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Vazquez Tato, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 284.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties
A Simple Demonstration of the Effect of Impurities on Melting Point  Hardinger, Steven A.
Demonstration of melting point depression of a substance because of the presence of impurities.
Hardinger, Steven A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 250.
Rate Law |
Physical Properties
Put the Body to Them!  Perkins, Robert R.
Examples of chemistry demonstrations involving student participation, including quantized states and systems, boiling point trends, intermolecular vs. intramolecular changes, polar/nonpolar molecules, enantiomers and diastereomers, and chromatography.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 151.
Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Analysis of Cryoscopy Data  Wloch, Peter; Cherniak, E. A.
Method for analyzing cryoscopic data with applications to freezing point depression; includes data and analysis.
Wloch, Peter; Cherniak, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 59.
Physical Properties |
Physical Properties |
Stoichiometry
Solving Nonlinear Simultaneous Equations by the Method of Successive Substitution: Applications to Equations of State  Eberhart, J. G.
Several student programming exercises based on the use of various equations of state to predict a variety of fluid properties are described.
Eberhart, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1038.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A Simple "Back of the Envelope" Method for Estimating the Densities and Molecular Volumes of Liquids and Solids  Girolami, Gregory S.
The method described for the estimation of densities and molecular volumes are surprisingly accurate and very simple.
Girolami, Gregory S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 962.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Solids
Rubber Elasticity: A Simple Method for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties  Byrne, John P.
A modified triple-beam balance that uses an optical lever to detect small changes in the length of a stretched rubber band.
Byrne, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 531.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A Simple-To-Construct Density Gradient Tube  Quigley, Michael N.
A density gradient tube used by forensic scientists for soil characterization.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 516.
Physical Properties |
Forensic Chemistry |
Geochemistry
The Determination of Number-Average Molecular Weight: A Polymer Experiment for Lower-Division Chemistry Students  Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R.
Procedure to determine the number-average molecular weight of a polymer.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 265.
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties of Metals: Experiments with Steel, Copper, Tin, Zinc, and Soap Bubbles  Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Penn, Rona L.; Lisensky, George C.; Stone, Donald S.
Annealing, hardening, and tempering of metals; using bubbles to model the crystalline structure of metals.
Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Penn, Rona L.; Lisensky, George C.; Stone, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 254.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Crystals / Crystallography
Collecting and Using the Rare Earths  Solomon, Sally; Lee, Alan
Prices, sources, handling tips, and specific suggestions about how to use the lanthanide elements in the classroom and the laboratory.
Solomon, Sally; Lee, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 247.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Physical Properties
Polymer additives: Part I. Mechanical property modifiers  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Discussion of both organic and inorganic materials added to polymers to modify their properties.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 444.
Physical Properties |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Identifying polymers through combustion and density   Blumberg, Avrom A.
Using analytical chemistry class experiences as a way to not only quantitatively and qualitatively analyze substances, but also to gain practical experience with characteristic chemical reactions of those substances.
Blumberg, Avrom A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 399.
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Polymerization |
Quantitative Analysis
Plastic density determination by titration  Bruzan, Raymond.; Baker, Douglas
A density lab involving volumetric analysis.
Bruzan, Raymond.; Baker, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 397.
Physical Properties |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Preparation of 2-aminobenzaldehyde: A fragrant component of floral odors  Foy, Brian D.; Smudde, R. Allen; Wood, William F.
This article summarizes an experimental procedure and lists spectroscopic and physical properties of the products.
Foy, Brian D.; Smudde, R. Allen; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 322.
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties
The importance of understanding structure   Galasso, Frank
Solid state chemistry and its link with atomic structure is a topic that is still being neglected in students' education., despite the interesting scientific discoveries and developments that will likely be relevant in students' lives and possible careers.
Galasso, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 287.
Solid State Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solids |
Physical Properties
A Discussion of the Term "Polymorphism"  Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin
Authors propose an extended definition for the term "polymorphism", especially in low molecular weight compounds.
Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 101.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding
Intensive and extensive: Underused concepts  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Methods for teaching intensive and extensive properties.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 957.
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Viscosity of polymer solutions  Bertrand, Gary L.
This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions".
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Illustration of Mn and Mw in chain-growth polymerization using a simplified model: An undergraduate polymer chemistry laboratory exercise  Snyder, Donald M.
This exercise helps to attain three pedagogical objectives. Laying out the chains illustrates that a polymer is composed of a mixture of various chain lengths, the random-number assembly of the chain illustrates the statistical aspects of chain growth, the limited number of chains and chain length of the chain allows direct calculation of the number of chains and the weight averages of the chains.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 422.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the critical temperature of a high-temperature superconductor  Green, David B.; Douphner, Dijon; Hutchinson, Bennett
This note describes a simple, inexpensive method of measuring the temperature at which the Meissner effect exists in a disk of YBa2Cu3O7.
Green, David B.; Douphner, Dijon; Hutchinson, Bennett J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 343.
Superconductivity |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fugacity-More than a fake pressure  Donkersloot, Maarten C. A.
The equivalence of fugacity and chemical potential, in terms of dependence on pressure, should be obvious to any student based on the following equations.
Donkersloot, Maarten C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 290.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Weight-average molecular weights: How to pick a football team  Pilar, Frank L.
Author uses a football team analogy to help student understand how the weight-average definition is computed.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 280.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A least-squares technique for determining the van der Waals parameters from the critical constants.  Eberhart, J. G.
The author reviews three of the six methods for calculating the van der Waals constants for a fluid.
Eberhart, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 220.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties
An alternative view of fugacity.  Combs, Leon L.
The author notes two conceptual problems with the normal derivation of fugacity equations and offers a solution.
Combs, Leon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 218.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
KC? Discoverer with Knowledgeable Counselor  Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C.
KC? Discoverer is a program that permits students and faculty to explore a wide range of properties of the elements and is closely coordinated with the periodic table.
Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 40.
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Microscale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine and chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in undergraduate chemistry   Krumpolc, Miroslav
A standard experiment has been modified to incorporate microscale techniques and employ chiral high performance liquid chromatography to determine enantiomeric purity.
Krumpolc, Miroslav J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A176.
Enantiomers |
Amides |
Diastereomers |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Textile fiber identification: An organic-polymer laboratory  Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W.
A laboratory that introduces student to an important application of polymers-textile fibers.
Flachskam, Robert L., Jr.; Flachskam, Nancy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1044.
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Materials Science
A laboratory study of 1,3-dipole-dipolarophile addition: An extension of the Diels Alder reaction  Gingrich, Henry L.; Pickering, Miles
Some easy organic reactions that can also be used as the basis for puzzles, or as facile heterocyclic syntheses: an area neglected in the student experiment literature.
Gingrich, Henry L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 614.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Physical Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
An analytical balance as tensiometer and densimeter   Sanchez-Rubio, Manuel; Castellanos-Ortega, Jose R.; Puig, Jorge E.
How to convert an analytical balance into an accurate ring tensiometer or densimeter.
Sanchez-Rubio, Manuel; Castellanos-Ortega, Jose R.; Puig, Jorge E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 158.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Surface Science |
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis
Polarity and selectivity of ionic stationary phases used in gas chromatography: Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings  Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana
Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 74.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
A computer-aided optical melting point device  Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond
The device should improve the precision of these determinations by eliminating human judgement from the process.
Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A75.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Identification of unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography in combination  Levine, Samuel G.
Identification from among 12 unknowns by melting point and thin-layer chromatography.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 972.
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
A suggested improvement for the computer-aided optical melting-point device  Masterov, Michael; Sylvestre, Jude
This addition will allow the original device to analyze several samples overnight without human intervention.
Masterov, Michael; Sylvestre, Jude J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 963.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Introducing on-line searching of Chemical Abstracts in the undergraduate curriculum: An alternative approach  Dess, Howard M.; Kesselman, M.; Muha, G. M.
Implementation of an undergraduate search exercise involving Chemical Abstracts.
Dess, Howard M.; Kesselman, M.; Muha, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 946.
Physical Properties
Ice under pressure  Chang, Raymond; Skinner, James F.
A piece of steel music wire pulled through a block of ice by weights on either side.
Chang, Raymond; Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 789.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Classroom demonstrations of polymer principles: IV. Mechanical properties  Rodriguez, F.
Demonstrating the tensile strength of polymers.
Rodriguez, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 784.
Physical Properties
Apparatus for two-probe conductivity measurements on compressed powders  Wudl, Fred; Bryce, Martin R.
A simple two-probe apparatus used to measure the room-temperature d.c. conductivity of solids in the form of compressed pellets.
Wudl, Fred; Bryce, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 717.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Physical Properties
A reusable apparatus for the convenient determination of the molecular weight of air- or moisture-sensitive compounds  Zoellner, Robert W.
Construction and application of an apparatus for the determination of the apparent molecular weight of air- or moisture sensitive compounds employing Singer's method of isothermal distillation.
Zoellner, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 714.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Empathy for the exile: Chemistry and the classical literature  Tanner, A. C.; Johnson, J. F.
Estimating the temperature experienced by Ovid 2000 years ago based on his description of frozen wine.
Tanner, A. C.; Johnson, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 690.
Physical Properties
Distillation and the Macintosh: PT Nomograph, an "in-lab" utility  Simon, R.; Senecal, T.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. This program duplicates the generic pressure-temperature nomograph, found in a variety of sources, for the detection of the boiling point of a liquid under reduced pressure.
Simon, R.; Senecal, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 505.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Identification of polymers in university class experiments  Bowen, Humphry J. M.
With a certain amount of skill and experience, most students can learn how to identify common polymers.
Bowen, Humphry J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 75.
Physical Properties |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
The direct relation between altitude and boiling point  Earl, Boyd L.
Since the physical parameter whose variation is responsible for the change in boiling point due to altitude is atmospheric pressure, one must make the connection between boiling point and altitude via the pressure, which is directly connected to both.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 45.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Identifying polar and nonpolar molecules  Tykodi, R. J.
A scheme based on the ideas of molecular symmetry for determining the polar / nonpolar nature of simple molecules.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1007.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Refractive index - A simple demonstration experiment  Mishra, S. K.; Parasher, P.; Sharma, P. D.
Adding benzene and bromobenzene to glass wool makes it disappear.
Mishra, S. K.; Parasher, P.; Sharma, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Physical Properties
High-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Constructing a high-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases using a 2 L plastic bottle.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 786.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
KC? Discoverer: A computer program for descriptive inorganic chemistry  Kotz, John C.
106. Teaching sophomore inorganic chemistry using "KC? Discoverer: Exploring the Periodic Table".
Kotz, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 750.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Determination of the density of crystalline solids in the undergraduate laboratory  Craig, Rhoda E. R.
Using the flotation method for determining the density of crystalline solids.
Craig, Rhoda E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 599.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Different Choices (author response)  Kemp, H.R.
Ronald Rich discusses the use of descriptive units in the problem of calculating the concentration of a 96% sulfuric acid solution of a known density.
Kemp, H.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Different Choices  Rich, Ronald L.
Kemp wisely advocates that the values of physical quantities be treated as independent of the units used.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Buoyancy measurements for teaching and research  Miller, Bernard
The following examination of the venerable buoyancy principle can serve as a simple but rigorous illustration of a falsification test that not only clears up a possible misconception but also points the way to a number of practical uses of buoyancy measurements that have not generally been recognized.
Miller, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 267.
Liquids |
Physical Properties
A simple apparatus for maintaining low temperature  Ansari, M. Shahid; Saleem, M.
The apparatus has provided fairly constant temperatures in the range of 265 - 140 K.
Ansari, M. Shahid; Saleem, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 180.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Saturation properties at a given temperature from cubic equations of state  Aguirre-Ode, Fernando
99. Bits and pieces, 39. The advantage of cubic equations of state (EOS) lies in the fact that they can be solved analytically for the volume of a real gas when both the temperature and pressure are given.
Aguirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 54.
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
A simple demonstration of the activation energy concept   Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.
A demonstration based on the high coefficient of thermal expansion of organic liquid substances.
Rocha-Filho, Romeu C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 157.
Physical Properties
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
On the boiling points of the alkyl halides  Correla, John
Most textbooks spend some time discussing the relationship between boiling point and molecular structure, however, their reasons behind this relationship differ. This variation among textbooks warrants further investigation and discussion in order to uncover which of the factors are the major contributors to the variation of boiling point.
Correla, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 62.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Physical Properties |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Musical molecular weights revisited  Augustine, Frederick B.
A simple way of comparing the propagation of sound in two different gases.
Augustine, Frederick B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1053.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Color classification of coordination compounds  Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.
Color classification of some yellow coordination compounds and a proposal that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary.
Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1001.
Coordination Compounds |
Physical Properties
Quantitative application of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of organic compounds: Determining the molecular weights of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and dicarboxylic acids  Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul
This simple, easy, and inexpensive method provides a good illustration of the importance of polarity on solubility and a unique demonstration of the effectiveness of TLC as a quantitative tool.
Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 625.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Part I. Molecular structure and molecular mass  Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr.
Suggestions for models and techniques to illustrate the structure of polymers, copolymers, molecular mass, osmotic pressure, light scattering, and dilute solution viscosity.
Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 72.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Hazardous Chemicals, Information and Disposal Guide, Second Edition (Armour, Margaret-Ann)  McKusick, Blaine C.
Properties, hazards, and handling of 220 common laboratory chemicals.
McKusick, Blaine C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A302.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Microscale organic laboratory: III: A simple procedure for carrying out ultra-micro boiling point determinations  Mayo, Dana W.; Pike, Ronald M.; Butcher, Samuel S.; Meredith, Marcia L.
Reproducible and reasonably accurate boiling points can be observed on 3-4 microliters of many liquids using a modified Wiegand procedure.
Mayo, Dana W.; Pike, Ronald M.; Butcher, Samuel S.; Meredith, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1114.
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
Molarity (atomic density) of the elements as pure crystals  Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.
Comparisons of atomic densities as a function of periodicity.
Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1086.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Covalent Bonding
Chemical arithmetic on a pocket computer  Pollet, Patrick L.
60. Bits and pieces, 23. Program produces an empirical formula and molecular weight given a line-type structural formula.
Pollet, Patrick L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 413.
Physical Properties
An ionic model for metallic bonding  Rioux, Frank
The tangent spheres approach, combined with several simplifying assumptions, enables one to calculate the lattice energy, the lattice constant and the density of metals.
Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 383.
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Physical Properties
A quick method for determining the density of single crystals  Roman, Pascual; Gutierrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.
Using the Archimedes method for the determination of the density of a single crystal of ammonium oxalate monohydrate.
Roman, Pascual; Gutierrez-Zorrilla, Juan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 167.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties
Electric birefringence: A simple apparatus for determining physical parameters of macromolecules and colloids  Trimm, Harold H.; Parslow, Kevin; Jennings, Barry R.
A simplified electric birefringence apparatus that can be used to measure both the dimensions and dipole moments of many macromolecules.
Trimm, Harold H.; Parslow, Kevin; Jennings, Barry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1114.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Colloids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
High impedance comparator for monitoring water resistivity  Holewinski, Paul K.
Design of a high impedance comparator suitable for monitoring the resistivity of a deionized or distilled water feed line.
Holewinski, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
The dependence of strength in plastics upon polymer chain length and chain orientation, an experiment emphasizing the statistical handling and evaluation of data  Spencer, R. Donald
Experiment to give students a practical understanding of how statistics can be applied to the evaluation of experimental results and greatly enhance the ability to solve scientific problems.
Spencer, R. Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 555.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Analysis of alcohols  McCullough, Brother Thomas
Identifying unknown alcohols using boiling point and viscosity measurements.
McCullough, Brother Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 68.
Alcohols |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Single-pan balances, buoyancy, and gravity or "a mass of confusion"  Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G.
Most manufacturers of balances either do not understand the idea of buoyancy corrections or believe them to be irrelevant.
Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 51.
Physical Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
APPLESEARCH - A mass spectral search system  Traeger, John C.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Traeger, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 779.
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Dispensing low-melting solids: Freezing point depression  Hill, John W.
A solution for dispensing low-melting point solids.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 699.
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A convenient melting/freezing point depression apparatus  Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald
Incorporates an easily read digital thermometer.
Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 682.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Boiling points and small volumes: An apparatus and a method  Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D.
The authors describe a convenient apparatus that can be used with thousands of students to perform qualitative analysis of organic substances using boiling points.
Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1029.
Qualitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Dense, denser, densest  Conroy, Lawrence E.
Iridium is more dense than osmium.
Conroy, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Efficient use of the Kofler Heizbank melting point apparatus  Brown, W. H.
Using of the Kofler Hotbench as a micro drying oven.
Brown, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 231.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
BASIC program for calculation of diamagnetic susceptibilities using Pascal's constants  Weller, Robert R.; Hatfield, William E.

Weller, Robert R.; Hatfield, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 652.
Magnetic Properties |
Physical Properties
Chemical origins of color  Orna, Mary Virginia
Color is one of the few disciplines that cuts across the boundaries of art, biology, physics, psychology, chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and many other fields. There is hardly an object or a substance in nature that is not colored and virtually every commercially marketed item today is either deliberately colored or de-colored.
Orna, Mary Virginia J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 478.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Gasoline vapor: An invisible pollutant  Stephens, Edgar R.
An apparatus and procedure to demonstrate the substantial contribution vaporized gasoline makes to hydrocarbon pollution.
Stephens, Edgar R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 682.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Molecular weight determination of weak acids  Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H.
The use of virial equations for the calculation of molecular weights of weak acids from colligative property experiments.
Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 513.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The buoyant density of DNA and the G + C content  Panijpan, Bhinyo
128. Explains the density difference between AT-rich and GC-rich DNA.
Panijpan, Bhinyo J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 172.
Physical Properties
Experiments with butane lighter fluid  Davenport, Derek A.
Non-disposable butane lighters make possible useful semi-quantitative experiments.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 306.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkylation
Compact compacts  Evilia, R. F.
The referenced method requires unrealistically accurate pH measurements to yield acceptable results.
Evilia, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
A timesharing computer program for a general chemistry laboratory  Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A.
Determining the heat of vaporization of a volatile substance from experimental data using timesharing techniques.
Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 529.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The nitric oxide dimer - Blue, with rectangular molecules?  Mason, Joan
122. Confusion regarding the properties of the N2O2 dimer.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 445.
Physical Properties
The commonness of the phenomenon of azeotropy  Kurtyka, Zdzislaw M.
The opinion that azeotropy is a rarely encountered phenomenon is not justified and should be abandoned.
Kurtyka, Zdzislaw M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 366.
Physical Properties
Phase changes of hexachloroethane  Shavitz, Richard
A demonstration of the sublimation of hexachloroethane.
Shavitz, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 231.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The measurement of wettability  Pirie, Brian J. S.; Gregory, David W.
Provides a simple method for contact angle determinations.
Pirie, Brian J. S.; Gregory, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 682.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography  Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P.
Simple procedure for determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography.
Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 625.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Fatty Acids
Micro hot stage  Klimis, Dorothy J.; Tibbetts, Donald L.
A micro hot stage for determining the melting points of very small quantities.
Klimis, Dorothy J.; Tibbetts, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 576.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Coordination compound analysis program  Miller, Joel S.; Goedde, Andreas O.
A Fortran IV program has been developed in order to simplify the calculation of the molecular weight, formula, and elemental percentages of organic and especially coordination compounds.
Miller, Joel S.; Goedde, Andreas O. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 431.
Coordination Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Diphenyl ether. A versatile substance for laboratory demonstrations  Cases, Jaime C.
The purification, properties, and uses of diphenyl ether in a variety of demonstrations.
Cases, Jaime C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 420.
Ethers |
Solid State Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds
Critical temperature of elements and the periodic system  Horvath, A. L.
Presents the critical temperatures of the elements and relates this to their position in the periodic table.
Horvath, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 335.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Metals |
Physical Properties
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Selected properties of selected solvents  Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D.
Selected properties of fifty common solvents.
Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 267.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Lecture demonstration of a phase transition in a solid  Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred
The solid-solid phase transition between two different allotropes of silver iodide.
Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 109.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values  Lederberg, Joshua
Presents a table of mass fractions for all combinations of H, N, O, for the rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values.
Lederberg, Joshua J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 613.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry
A simple, effective demonstration of magnetic properties of materials  Burke, John A., Jr.
A simple demonstration of diamagnetism that requires only a magnet of a few kilogauss in strength.
Burke, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 568.
Magnetic Properties |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Transition Elements
A modified Rast method for molecular weights  Wawzonek, Stanley
Avoiding problems associated with the Rast method for determining molecular weights.
Wawzonek, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The cyclodehydrogenation of azobenzene. A photochemical experiment for an undergraduate organic course  Evans, Russell F.
A photochemical experiment for an undergraduate organic course is described here.
Evans, Russell F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 768.
Physical Properties
An introduction to principles of the solid state  Weller, Paul F.
One basic analogy is used to consider electrical conductivity; variations in conductivity between metals, semiconductors, and insulators; and conductivity temperature dependencies.
Weller, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 501.
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals |
Semiconductors |
Physical Properties
Approximate boiling points of submilligram samples  McCullough, Thomas; Braun, Werner H.; Reidinger, Philip A.
The lower limit of the capillary tube method for determining the boiling point of a small liquid sample can be extended to even smaller samples by using a U-shaped capillary.
McCullough, Thomas; Braun, Werner H.; Reidinger, Philip A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 57.
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
An attachment for semiautomatic melting point determination  Vogel, George
This simple yet rugged device notifies the experimenter when a small crystalline sample in a capillary tube first begins to melt.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 789.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Purification of low-melting compounds  Kaye, Irving Allan
Presents a procedure that addresses difficulties to purification by recrystallization caused by the tendency of some low-melting compounds to precipitate from solution as oils.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 696.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility
Basic organic laboratory techniques and problem solving: The nitration of 4-nitrophenol  Pearson, Robert E.
The experiment described requires application of melting point data and the technique of recrystallization to identify the product of a simple chemical reaction.
Pearson, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 692.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis |
Phenols
Molecular weight distributions of polymers  Rudin, A.
Examines different mathematic representations for the molecular weight of polymers.
Rudin, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 595.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Boron and silicon. B. Silicon  Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include selective wetting and the resistance of silicone rubber to heat and cold.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A225.
Physical Properties
Apparatus for determining vapor density  Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V.
Presents a simplified vapor-density experiment suitable for use as a freshman demonstration or an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Computer simulation of experimental data  Shwendeman, R. H.
This note describes some of the techniques in programming used to generate a sufficient variety of experimental data to provide each student with his own set of numbers for analysis in conjunction with the demonstration laboratory.
Shwendeman, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 665.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Gas Chromatography
A bonding parameter and its application to chemistry  Elson, Jesse
In this study, single bond dissociation energies are combined with the associated bond distances to yield additional information about chemical bonding.
Elson, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 564.
Covalent Bonding |
Physical Properties
An apparatus for large-scale sublimation  Walter, Robert I.
Presents an apparatus that is faster than the standard cold-finger type apparatus for vacuum sublimation.
Walter, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 538.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A wing top water spreader  Montecalvo, Donald F.; Jacques, Donald F.
Short note on a simple device to increase the efficiency of the condensate collecting flask on a Buchler Rotary Evaporator.
Montecalvo, Donald F.; Jacques, Donald F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 479.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A simple and accurate dilatometer for liquids  Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F.
The density of a liquid as a function of temperature may be readily measured using this dilatometer.
Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 349.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
Simple construction to determine protein molecular weights by the osmotic pressure method  Candlish, John K.
This short note presents a simple device to determine protein molecular weights through osmotic pressure.
Candlish, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 93.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Physical Properties
Microboiling point determination at atmospheric pressure  Chaco, M. C.
This microboiling point determination uses a melting-point capillary
Chaco, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 474.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
A dimensional analysis of magnetic susceptibility calculations  Abeles, Tom P.; Bos, William C.
Develops a practical set of definitions for treating magnetic phenomena.
Abeles, Tom P.; Bos, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 438.
Magnetic Properties |
Physical Properties
Refractive indices of some carbon compounds as a function of temperature  George, Steven W.; Campbell, J. Arthur
A short description and table of refractive indices of some carbon compounds as a function of temperature.
George, Steven W.; Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 393.
Physical Properties
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
The indirect determination of the heat capacity, Cp, of a liquid  Gill, S. J.; West, Earl M.
The use of a Maxwell relation permits the substitution of an experimentally accessible partial derivative for an experimentally difficult derivative without making any heat measurements.
Gill, S. J.; West, Earl M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 557.
Physical Properties
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
The structure and properties of materials. Volume 1, Structure (Moffat, William G.; Pearsall, George W.; Wulff, John)  Livingston, Robert L.

Livingston, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A832.
Materials Science |
Physical Properties
Melting point depression  Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam
The eutectic temperature of the piperonal / resorcinol system is well below room temperature.
Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A413.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Melting point apparatus  Brown, Richard K.
Describes a simple melting point apparatus that relies on a soldering iron element for heat.
Brown, Richard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 433.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Melting point tables of organic compounds (Utermark, Walter; Schicke, Walter)  Reinheimer, John D.

Reinheimer, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A590.
Physical Properties
Letters  Gates, Henry S.
Brings the reader's attention to work done by Petit and Dulong in revising a large number of atomic weights in order to bring all of their reported atomic heat capacities into agreement with the hypothesis that atomic heat capacity is the same for all elements.
Gates, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 575.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A constant-level oil-bath melting point apparatus  Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F.
Presents a modification of the Theile-Denis melting point apparatus.
Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 345.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Density measurements with a magnetically controlled float  Cartan, F.
Presents suggestions for investigations to accompany and earlier published article.
Cartan, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A538.
Physical Properties |
Magnetic Properties
Semimicro modification of the Rast method for determining molecular weights  Cowles, E. J.; Pike, M. T.
Describes a semimicro modification of the Rast method for determining molecular weights that eliminates some of the drawbacks of some usual methods.
Cowles, E. J.; Pike, M. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 422.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
The physical and chemical character of graphite  Tee, Peter A. H.; Tonge, Brian L.
Examines the physical and chemical character of graphite, its occurrence and manufacture, and uses and future applications.
Tee, Peter A. H.; Tonge, Brian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 117.
Physical Properties
Boiling point and molecular weight  Rich, Ronald
This short note points out that molecular weight, by itself, has negligible influence on boiling point.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 454.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The law of Dulong and Petit  Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H.
In 1819, Dulong and Petit found that when the atomic weight of an element was multiplied by its specific heat, the number obtained was approximately the same for all elements.
Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An aid to weighing by swings  Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A.
To get maximum balance performance, weighing must be done by the method of swings; presented here is an electromagnetic device to facilitate controlled swings.
Stock, John T.; Fill, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 366.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Temperature change demonstration with selsyns  Estok, George K.
Describes an apparatus designed to show qualitative temperature changes to a large lecture class.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 303.
Physical Properties
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Inexpensive and convenient method for powdering solids for melting point determinations  Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G.
Recently a new mulling technique for preparing samples for infrared spectra was reported which makes use of ground glass plates.
Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Physical Properties
The solubility product constant for copper iodate: An experiment  Peterson, B. H.
Copper iodate is a salt of moderate solubility, and a titrimetric analysis of an aliquot portion of saturated solution provides the data necessary for the calculation of the solubility product.
Peterson, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 612.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
An apparatus for the microdetermination of melting points  Jennings, Walter G.
Presents a microscope-mounted melting point apparatus constructed from a machined aluminum block.
Jennings, Walter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 95.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
A nomograph for correction of boiling points  Myers, R. Thomas
Provides a nomograph for the correction of boiling points at elevations above sea level.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 58.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hydrogen bonding and physical properties of substances  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Physical properties influenced by hydrogen bonding considered in this paper include transition temperatures, vapor pressure, water solubility, the ionization of carboxylic acids, stereoisomerism, adsorption, and infrared spectra.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 267.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Semimicro cryoscopic molecular-weight determinations  Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G.
These suggestions eliminate two sources of difficulty encountered by students in carrying out cryoscopic (Rast) molecular-weight determinations.
Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 138.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple melting-point apparatus  Gero, Alexander
The melting-point apparatus described in this paper is distinguished by extreme simplicity of construction and negligible cost.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 645.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The allotropy of sulfur: A demonstration  Butler, S. B.
Demonstrates that the allotropic forms of sulfur have different physical properties.
Butler, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 187.
Physical Properties
A cheap hot stage  Kiplinger, C. C.
Describes an inexpensive air bath and its use in melting point determinations.
Kiplinger, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 33.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A rapid method for routine checking of melting points  Hughes, Virgil E.
Offers a device and procedure for checking the melting points of ten samples simultaneously.
Hughes, Virgil E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 479.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An improved melting point apparatus  Nickels, J. E.
Describes an improved form of the Hershberg precision melting point apparatus.
Nickels, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 303.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A method of estimating the boiling points of organic liquids  Pearson, D. E.
Discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of organic liquids and their boiling point.
Pearson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 60.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Amorphous antimony. A lecture demonstration in allotropy  Fraden, J. H.
Describes the four allotropes of antimony and an apparatus for demonstrating them to a lecture audience.
Fraden, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 34.
Physical Properties