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Journal Articles: 56 results
Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Close-Packed Structure  John A. Hawkins, Linda M. Soper, Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse, and Robert C. Rittenhouse
Examines the pedagogical advantages in presenting the primitive rhombohedral unit cell as a means of helping students to gain greater insight into the nature of the cubic close-packed structure.
Hawkins, John A.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Rittenhouse, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 90.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Stuffed Derivatives of Close-Packed Structures  Bodie E. Douglas
Examines a variety of stuffed silica crystal structures in terms of the close-packing of one set of atoms or ions (P sites) with other atoms or ions in tetrahedral (T) or octahedral (O) sites and filled or partially filled layers in the regular pattern, PTOT.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1846.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Materials Science |
Metals |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
Filling in the Hexagonal Close-Packed Unit Cell  Robert C. Rittenhouse, Linda M. Soper, and Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse
The illustrations of the hcp unit cell that are used in textbooks at all levels and also in crystallography and solid-state reference works are incomplete, in that they fail to include fractions of middle layer atomic spheres with centers lying outside of the unit cell.
Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 175.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State  Brenda S. Kelly and Allen G. Splittgerber
Solid-state parameters such as radius ratios, packing efficiencies, and crystal densities may be calculated for various crystal structures from basic Euclidean geometry relating to the Pythagorean theorem of right triangles. Because simpler cases are often discussed in the standard inorganic chemistry texts, this article only presents calculations for closest-packed A-type lattices (one type of particle) and several compound AB lattices (A and B particles) including sodium chloride, cesium chloride, zinc blende (sphalerite), wurtzite, and fluorite.
Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allen G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 756.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
An In-Depth Look at the Madelung Constant for Cubic Crystal Systems  Robert P. Grosso Jr., Justin T. Fermann, and William J. Vining
A simple, clear, and visual method by which the Madelung constant can be taught to students.
Grosso, Robert P., Jr.; Fermann, Justin T.; Vining, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
X-ray Crystallography
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
Undergraduate Lectures on Infrared Spectroscopy in the Solid State  E. A. Secco
This experimental exercise exposes students to the reduction in symmetry for a polyatomic species such as NO3- or SO42- in a crystalline lattice. The experiment illustrates how splitting of degenerate modes occurs and how infrared inactive modes become active.
Secco, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 373.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Thermal Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates: Microscopic Studies and Introductory Experiments to the Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions  Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K.
Description of solid-state reactions, particularly decompositions/dehydration, and sample studies of dehydration of several hydrates through the microscope; includes pictures and experimental procedure.
Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 251.
Kinetics |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
Direct visualization of Bragg diffraction with a He-Ne laser and an ordered suspension of charged microspheres  Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N.
Bragg diffraction from colloidal crystals proves to be an excellent teaching tool. Only modest equipment and lab skill are needed to produce a diffraction pattern to provide students with an in-depth understanding of what ordered structure is and how it can be probed by diffraction techniques.
Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 97.
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Lasers |
Materials Science
Close packing - A dynamic demonstration  Knox, Kerro
Involves rice in a container that have been agitated into a close-packed solid state by a knife or spatula.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 700.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Determination of the density of crystalline solids in the undergraduate laboratory  Craig, Rhoda E. R.
Using the flotation method for determining the density of crystalline solids.
Craig, Rhoda E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 599.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Interstitial solid solutions: Cooperation of energy and geometry  Lindsay, C. G.
Reviews models of interstitial solid solutions, particularly in regard to their role in studying hydrogen in metals, and introduces the lattice-gas model and the method of geometric inequalities.
Lindsay, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 675.
Gases |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Geochemistry
An easily constructed dodecahedron model  Yamana, Shukichi
A model of a dodecahedron made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1058.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
An easily constructed model of a square antiprism  Yamana, Shukichi
A model of a square antiprism made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1056.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
An easily constructed trigonal prism model  Yamana, Shukichi
A model of a trigonal prism made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1055.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
Easily constructed model of twin octahedrons having a common line  Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto
A model of twin octahedrons made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1053.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry
Freshman-level chemistry shapes the nuclear power industry  Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C.
Applying the modeling of a crystalline lattice to the changes occurring in a nuclear reactor.
Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 523.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Solid state labs: The bubble raft  McCormick, P. D.
Method for producing bubble rafts and experiments for using them to demonstrate the properties of crystals.
McCormick, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Unit cells  Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.
An easy way to construct of have students construct a unit cell in three dimensions.
Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 509.
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Construction of a tetrahedron packing model: A puzzle in structural chemistry  Schweikert, William W.
Proposes the assembly of a tetrahedrally shaped packing model as a game or puzzle for students.
Schweikert, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 501.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
Madelung constants and other lattice sums  Burrows, E. L.; Kettle, S. F. A.
Makes more widely known that fact that in the evaluation of lattice sums one is faced with a fundamental difficulty the solution to which is seldom stated.
Burrows, E. L.; Kettle, S. F. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 58.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Models for simple, close-packed crystal structures  Mann, A. W.
This paper describes some simple crystallographic models made from styrofoam balls.
Mann, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 652.
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
More on the close-packing of atoms  Benedict, H. Courtney
A physical model illustrating the differences between 6-, 4-, and 3-fold axes of symmetry.
Benedict, H. Courtney J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 419.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Demonstration of close-packing phenomena  Birnbaum, Edward R.
Relies in layers of styrofoam balls and an overhead projector for illustrating close-packed structure.
Birnbaum, Edward R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 674.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A computer program for calculating the lattice energy of crystals by the Madelung formula  Brown, John P.
Availability of a Fortran IV program for calculating the lattice energy of crystals by the Madelung formula.
Brown, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 668.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Demonstration of 2-dimensional crystal lattice  Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A.
A laser passing through wire cloth produces a characteristic interference pattern.
Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 558.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Structures of the elements in the PTOT system  Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E.
Presents a simplified system for representing close-packed structures and applies it to crystalline structures of the elements.
Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 74.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Crystal lattice energy and the Madelung constant  Quane, Denis
Clarifies the calculation of crystal lattice energy and defines the Madelung constant for various common crystal structures.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 396.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
One hundred and fifty years of isomorphism  Morrow, Scott I.
This article reviews the history of isomorphism and the discovery that crystals of the same compounds exhibit small differences in their corresponding interfacial angles.
Morrow, Scott I. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 580.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A three-dimensional model of dendritic structure  Olsen, Robert C.
A simple procedure for growing dendritic crystals in a gel that may serve as a model of dendritic structure.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 496.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Fundamental principles of semiconductors  Gurnee, Edward F.
This paper develops a qualitative description of the electronic structure of crystalline solids, and uses the model obtained to describe the fundamental optical and electrical properties of those materials.
Gurnee, Edward F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 80.
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A bonding parameter. II, Rock salt and cesium chloride crystal structures  Elson, Jesse
It is the purpose of this study to compare the rock salt and cesium chloride structures of the alkali halogenides.
Elson, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 28.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Ionic Bonding
Crystal models  Olsen, Robert C.
This short note illustrates a model designed to demonstrate the number of particles in a crystal that can be assigned to a unit cell.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 728.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Metals |
Metallic Bonding
The teaching of crystal geometry in the introductory course  Livingston, R. L.
It is the purpose of this paper to outline an approach to the teaching of crystal structure at the elementary level that will prepare the student for more advanced work in this field or that could be used as the beginning in a more advanced course.
Livingston, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 376.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Crystals: Their Role in Nature and in Science (Bunn, Charles)  Templeton, David H.

Templeton, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A550.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Some models of close packing  Sime, Rodney J.
Presents models constructed from styrofoam balls and connected with toothpicks.
Sime, Rodney J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 61.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Standard ionic crystal structures  Gehman, William G.
Examines the topics of cubic and hexagonal closest packed atom lattices; interstice lattices; standard crystal structures of type MaXb; standard CCP and HCP crystal structures; and deviations from ideal closest packing.
Gehman, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 54.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Solid State Chemistry
Crystallization (Mullin, J. W.)  Honig, J. M.

Honig, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A62.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Paper-made crystal models  Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo
Three-dimensional models of a number of simple ionic crystals are constructed from a box and pieces of cellophane.
Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 580.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Hollow lantern slides illustrating crystal structure  Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M.
The structure of simple crystals can be illustrated by enclosing a layer of bearing balls in a hollow lantern slide and projecting the shadow pattern.
Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 495.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Chemical geometry┬ŁApplication to salts  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne
It is the purpose of this article to illustrate how one may delve rather deeply into some aspects of crystal structure that are of special interest chemically without becoming involved in the symbology and semantic complexities of conventional crystallography.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 578.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Permanent packing type crystal models  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Crystal models made of styrofoam balls are more durable if packed in clear plastic boxes.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 513.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Face-centered cube and cubical close-packing  Barnett, E. De Barry
Instructions for the construction of simple models designed to illustrate the face-centered cube and cubical close-packing.
Barnett, E. De Barry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 186.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author responds to criticism of his suggestions for naming classes of crystals.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 458.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Donohue, Jerry
Commentary of the terminology of crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 310.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author comments on definitions of crystal systems.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 259.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Imperfections in crystals. I. Lattice vacancies and atoms in interstitial positions  Honig, J. M.
The aim of this paper is to present an elementary review of the subject of defects in crystalline solids, particularly Frenkel and Schottky defects.
Honig, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 224.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A new type of crystal model  Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C.
Describes the design and construction of a crystal model in which the positions of atoms are represented by colored lights that can be lit to illustrate various structures.
Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 220.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Some simple solid models  Campbell, J. A.
Describes the use of hard spheres to illustrate a variety of concepts with respect solids, including closest packing and the effects of temperature and alloying.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 210.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Letters to the editor  Lefever, Robert A.
Clarifies a photograph in an earlier article and points out the identification of the growth axis in a silicon crystal.
Lefever, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 101.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Construction of crystal models from styrofoam spheres  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert
Presents a method for constructing crystal models from styrofoam spheres using a specialized aluminum jig.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 99.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
Textbook errors: X. The classification of crystals  Mysels, Karol J.
The classification of crystals into several systems (e.g., cubic, tetragonal, orthorombic) is generally based in textbooks on a consideration of crystal axes, particularly their relative lengths and direction; this approach usually gives correct assignments but occasionally leads to an error.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 40.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Growing crystals: A survey of laboratory methods  Fehlner, Francis P.
The purpose of this article is to provide basic information and readily available references for anyone wishing to begin the production of crystals.
Fehlner, Francis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 449.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids