TIGER

Journal Articles: 116 results
On Capillary Rise and Nucleation  R. Prasad
A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation shows that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. This comparison may help to introduce nucleation with capillary rise, a topic familiar to students.
Prasad, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1389.
Liquids |
Materials Science |
Metallurgy |
Solids
ATR–FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Jennifer D. Schuttlefield and Vicki H. Grassian
Presents several examples of the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, including measuring the infrared spectra of solid and liquid organic compounds commonly used as unknowns and of inorganic solids synthesized by students.
Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Grassian, Vicki H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 279.
IR Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Undergraduate Research
Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Close-Packed Structure  John A. Hawkins, Linda M. Soper, Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse, and Robert C. Rittenhouse
Examines the pedagogical advantages in presenting the primitive rhombohedral unit cell as a means of helping students to gain greater insight into the nature of the cubic close-packed structure.
Hawkins, John A.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Rittenhouse, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 90.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Stuffed Derivatives of Close-Packed Structures  Bodie E. Douglas
Examines a variety of stuffed silica crystal structures in terms of the close-packing of one set of atoms or ions (P sites) with other atoms or ions in tetrahedral (T) or octahedral (O) sites and filled or partially filled layers in the regular pattern, PTOT.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1846.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Materials Science |
Metals |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Infrared Examination of the Transformation of Barium Sulfate into Barium Carbonate. An Inorganic Infrared Qualitative and Quantitative Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
This experiment provides an interesting pedagogical exercise that not only demonstrates the value of infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of inorganic systems, but also visually illustrates a procedure used in classical wet chemical qualitative analysis for sample preparation.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 910.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids
Analysis of Iron in Lawn Fertilizer: A Sampling Study  Michael A. Jeannot
In this activity, students measure the percentage of iron in a commercial lawn fertilizer by simple sorting and weighing. The pooled class data is used to determine the percent relative standard deviation due to sampling error, and this is compared to a theoretical model based on sampling statistics.
Jeannot, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 243.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids
Use of Physicochemical Parameters To Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model  Xavier Domènech, José Antonio Ayllón, and José Peral
Describes the use of physicochemical data to estimate the fate of chemical pollutants in environmental systems through a series of labs in an environmental chemistry course.
Domènech, Xavier; Ayllón, José Antonio; Peral, José. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 237.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry
Filling in the Hexagonal Close-Packed Unit Cell  Robert C. Rittenhouse, Linda M. Soper, and Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse
The illustrations of the hcp unit cell that are used in textbooks at all levels and also in crystallography and solid-state reference works are incomplete, in that they fail to include fractions of middle layer atomic spheres with centers lying outside of the unit cell.
Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 175.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance  Neil M. Glagovich and Timothy D. Shine
An undergraduate organic laboratory designed to teach the use of IR and NMR spectra interpretation in the identification of an unknown substance has been developed. This laboratory requires the student to obtain the IR spectrum of an unknown substance and, from the interpretation of that spectrum, determine which of several possible functional groups is present in the molecule. Using this information and either the melting point or boiling point of the unknown, the student is able to determine a list of likely candidates (usually between eight and twelve suspects collated from a supplied table of possible compounds). The student will then draw the structures for all candidate compounds and, from those structures, predict the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra for each.
Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1382.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solids |
Liquids
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Thermodynamics of the Relationship between Lattice Energy and Lattice Enthalpy  H. Donald B. Jenkins
Incorporation of lattice potential energy within a BornFajansHaber thermochemical cycle based on enthalpy changes necessitates correction of the energy of the lattice to an enthalpy term; the lattice enthalpy is given for a lattice containing s ions of type i in the formula unit.
Jenkins, H. Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 950.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry
The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State  Brenda S. Kelly and Allen G. Splittgerber
Solid-state parameters such as radius ratios, packing efficiencies, and crystal densities may be calculated for various crystal structures from basic Euclidean geometry relating to the Pythagorean theorem of right triangles. Because simpler cases are often discussed in the standard inorganic chemistry texts, this article only presents calculations for closest-packed A-type lattices (one type of particle) and several compound AB lattices (A and B particles) including sodium chloride, cesium chloride, zinc blende (sphalerite), wurtzite, and fluorite.
Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allen G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 756.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
Self-Assembled Colloidal Crystals: Visualizing Atomic Crystal Chemistry Using Microscopic Analogues of Inorganic Solids  Neal M. Abrams and Raymond E. Schaak
Monodisperse spherical colloids spontaneously crystallize into close-packed crystals, in analogy to the simple crystal structures of many of the elements. Since colloids are orders of magnitude larger than atoms, students can directly observe crystal structure and behavior in a microscope using colloidal crystals. This laboratory exercise provides a modular series of materials science experiments appropriate for undergraduate chemistry and engineering majors. The individual modules include aspects of chemical synthesis (monodisperse SiO2 and polymer spheres), self-assembly (colloidal crystallization), and structural characterization through microscopy (optical and scanning electron microscopies) and optical spectroscopy (optical diffraction and UVvisible spectroscopy).
Abrams, Neal M.; Schaak, Raymond E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 450.
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
A Demonstration of Sample Segregation  Mark D. Fritz
Handling a solid mixture can segregate its particles by size. A simple, visually-compelling demonstration shows students how stirring or pouring can segregate a mixture and create a nonuniform sample. The demonstration uses colored beads and other inexpensive, readily-available materials. The demonstration has proven useful for illustrating the importance of sample handling for students studying analytical chemistry and environmental chemistry.
Fritz, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 255.
Solids |
Quantitative Analysis
Solvent-Free Synthesis of Chalcones  Daniel R. Palleros
The solvent-free synthesis of 20 chalcones was carried out by grinding the benzaldehyde (unsubstituted, 4-methyl, 4-methoxy, 3-chloro, or 4-chloro) and the acetophenone (unsubstituted, 4-methyl, 4-bromo, or 4-methoxy) in the presence of solid sodium hydroxide with a mortar and pestle. In general, the chalcones were obtained in high yields and high purity. Minor quantities of ketol and Michael addition product were detected by NMR spectroscopy. These side-products were easily removed by recrystallization.
Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1345.
Green Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Solids |
Laboratory Management
An Elementary Picture of Dielectric Spectroscopy in Solids: Physical Basis  Mario F. García-Sánchez, Jean-Claude M'Peko, A. Rabdel Ruiz-Salvador, Froilan Fernández-Gutierrez, Geonel Rodríguez-Gattorno, Adolfo Delgado, and Yuri Echevarría
The principles of DS of solids are discussed starting from simple concepts. The physical basis is presented, emphasizing the meaning of the magnitudes and phenomena involved, including the microscopic aspects of the chemical nature of solids. The applications, advantages, and limitations of DS are also discussed. Some examples are given that provide a practical overview of the main ideas as well as to show the usefulness of the technique.
García-Sánchez, Mario F.;M'Peko, Jean-Claude; Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Fernández-Gutierrez, Froilan; Rodríguez-Gattorno, Geonel; Delgado, Adolfo; Echevarría, Yuri. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1062.
Conductivity |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Student-Centered Learning
The Kinetics of Dissolution Revisited  Paula S. Antonel, Pablo A. Hoijemberg, Leandro M. Maiante, and M. Gabriela Lagorio
An experiment analyzing the kinetics of dissolution of a solid with cylindrical geometry in water is presented. The dissolution process is followed by measuring the solid mass and its size parameters (thickness and diameter) as a function of time. It is verified that the dissolution rate follows the Nernst model.
Antonel, Paula S.; Hoijemberg, Pablo A.; Maiante, Leandro M.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1042.
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Solids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Solvent-Free Oxidation of Alcohols in an Organic Laboratory  John J. Esteb, Michael W. Schelle, and Anne M. Wilson
Oxidation of alcohols using potassium permanganate and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate.
Esteb, John J.; Schelle, Michael W.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 907.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Solids
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
An Easy Determination of the Surface Chemical Properties of Simple and Natural Solids  Mélanie Davranche, Stella Lacour, François Bordas, and Jean-Claude Bollinger
Method for determining the surface acidity constants and pH of zero point charge for solid samples.
Davranche, Mélanie; Lacour, Stella; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 76.
Acids / Bases |
Geochemistry |
Solids |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Surface Science |
pH
Applications of the Sol–Gel Process Using Well-Tested Recipes  A. Celzard and J. F. Marêché
Several simple procedures for making sol-gels and exploring their applications.
Celzard, A.; Marêché, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 854.
Materials Science |
Synthesis |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
An In-Depth Look at the Madelung Constant for Cubic Crystal Systems  Robert P. Grosso Jr., Justin T. Fermann, and William J. Vining
A simple, clear, and visual method by which the Madelung constant can be taught to students.
Grosso, Robert P., Jr.; Fermann, Justin T.; Vining, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
X-ray Crystallography
A Chemical-Medical Mystery: Gold Jewelry and Black Marks on Skin  Barbara B. Kebbekus
Gold jewelry at times makes a black mark or smudge on skin. This may be caused by abrasive powders on the skin (e.g. zinc oxide) but the phenomenon may also be caused by other skin conditions, possibly the presence of chloride ion, acidity, or sulfur-containing amino acids.
Kebbekus, Barbara B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1298.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Hormones |
Metals |
Solids |
Applications of Chemistry
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
Undergraduate Lectures on Infrared Spectroscopy in the Solid State  E. A. Secco
This experimental exercise exposes students to the reduction in symmetry for a polyatomic species such as NO3- or SO42- in a crystalline lattice. The experiment illustrates how splitting of degenerate modes occurs and how infrared inactive modes become active.
Secco, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 373.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Solid State Resources CD-ROM: Abstract of Special Issue 12, 2nd Edition   George C. Lisensky , Joey M. Blackwell, and Arthur B. Ellis
The Solid State Resources CD-ROM for Mac OS and Windows compatible computers has been updated with a new HTML interface and video identical to that published in the General Chemistry Collection, 2nd Edition. This includes both new video and improved versions of some of the movies on the original Solid State Resources CD.
Lisensky, George C.; Blackwell, Joey M.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1351.
Materials Science |
Solids
An Experiment in the Sampling of Solids for Chemical Analysis  Robert D. Guy, Louis Ramaley, and Peter D. Wentzell
An experiment is described that is suitable for demonstrating the principles of sampling uncertainty in the chemical analysis of particulate materials. Although uncertainty due to the sampling of heterogeneous materials is a pervasive problem in the analysis of "real world" samples, there are very few experiments designed to introduce this topic into the undergraduate laboratory.
Guy, Robert D.; Ramaley, Louis; Wentzell, Peter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1028.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids
Covalent and Ionic Molecules: Why Are BeF2 and AlF3 High Melting Point Solids whereas BF3 and SiF4 Are Gases?  Ronald J. Gillespie
Calculated ionic charges show that BF3 and SiF4 are predominately ionic molecules yet in contrast to BeF2 and AlF3 they exist as gases at room temperature and form molecular solids rather than infinite three-dimensional "ionic" solids at low temperature. Whether or not ionic molecules form a three-dimensional infinite ionic lattice or a molecular solid depends more on relative atomic (ionic) sizes than on the nature of the bonding in the isolated molecule.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 923.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Gases |
Ionic Bonding
Solid State Structures (Abstract of Volume 5D, Number 2)  Ludwig A. Mayer
Solid State Structures is a collection of image files that allows the user to display, rotate, and examine individually a large collection of 3-D structure models.
Mayer, Ludwig A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1144.
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals |
Solids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A Window on the Solid State: Part I: Structures of Metals; Part II: Unit Cells of Metals; Part III: Structures of Ionic Solids; Part IV: Unit Cells of Ionic Solids (Abstract of Volume 5D, Number 2)  William R. Robinson and Joan F. Tejchma
A Window on the Solid State helps students understand and instructors present the structural features of solids. The package provides a tour of the structures commonly used to introduce features of the solid state.
Robinson, William R.; Tejchma, Joan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1143.
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals |
Solids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Easy Filling of Capillaries in an Inert Atmosphere  Francisco J. Arnáiz
The procedure described in this article offers a simpler way to charge capillaries or tubes in an inert atmosphere using inexpensive materials.
Arnaiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A102.
Microscale Lab |
Solids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Testing the Electrical Resistivity of Wax and Copper Composites: An Experiment for Simulating the Electrical Behavior of Metal-Filled Plastics  Gabriel Pinto
Testing the Electrical Resistivity of Wax and Copper Composites: An Experiment for Simulating the Electrical Behavior of Metal-Filled Plastics
Gabriel Pinto. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 683.
Materials Science |
Polymerization |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Use of the Disposable IR Card in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Harriet P. Moeur and Robert P. Pinnell
Infrared spectra of solid and high-boiling liquid compounds can now be observed using Disposable IR Cards. This article reports on their use in the Organic Chemistry classroom.
Moeur, Harriet P.; Pinnell, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 371.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solids
Thermal Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates: Microscopic Studies and Introductory Experiments to the Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions  Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K.
Description of solid-state reactions, particularly decompositions/dehydration, and sample studies of dehydration of several hydrates through the microscope; includes pictures and experimental procedure.
Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 251.
Kinetics |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
A Simple "Back of the Envelope" Method for Estimating the Densities and Molecular Volumes of Liquids and Solids  Girolami, Gregory S.
The method described for the estimation of densities and molecular volumes are surprisingly accurate and very simple.
Girolami, Gregory S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 962.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Solids
Solid State Structures for MacMolecule  Mayer, Ludwig A.
Provides an effective visualization of extended structure solids.
Mayer, Ludwig A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 421.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Transition Metal Oxides: Geometric and Electronic Structures: Introducing Solid State Topics in Inorganic Chemistry Courses  Munoz-Paez, Adela
Introduction to the study of transition metal oxides, including their geometric structures and most common crystalline structures, their electronic structures and a review of bond theories currently applied in the field.
Munoz-Paez, Adela J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 381.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
A Window on the Solid-State  Robinson, William R.
"Part I: Structures of Metals" introduces the four basic structural types found in metals. "Part II: Unit Cells of Metals" discusses how to use a unit cell to describe a two-dimensional structure.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 300.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Metals
The importance of understanding structure   Galasso, Frank
Solid state chemistry and its link with atomic structure is a topic that is still being neglected in students' education., despite the interesting scientific discoveries and developments that will likely be relevant in students' lives and possible careers.
Galasso, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 287.
Solid State Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solids |
Physical Properties
A Discussion of the Term "Polymorphism"  Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin
Authors propose an extended definition for the term "polymorphism", especially in low molecular weight compounds.
Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 101.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding
Why Low Melting Does Not Indicate Covalency in MX4 Compounds: Examining the Importance of Crystal Structure in the Behavior of Solids  Lingafelter, Edward C.
A summary of the importance of relative ionic sizes and coordination numbers in determining the behavior of solids from prior papers by Pauling and Kossel.
Lingafelter, Edward C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 98.
Solids |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A spontaneous exothermic reaction between two solids: A safe demonstration  Scott, Earle S.
Reaction between equal masses of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite.
Scott, Earle S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Conducting midshipmen - A classroom activity modeling extended bonding in solids  Lomax, Joseph F.
Using the electron-hopping model (analogous to people sitting in chairs) to explain electron movement and conductivity in insulators, semiconductors, and metals.
Lomax, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 794.
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Metals |
Semiconductors
Direct visualization of Bragg diffraction with a He-Ne laser and an ordered suspension of charged microspheres  Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N.
Bragg diffraction from colloidal crystals proves to be an excellent teaching tool. Only modest equipment and lab skill are needed to produce a diffraction pattern to provide students with an in-depth understanding of what ordered structure is and how it can be probed by diffraction techniques.
Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 97.
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Lasers |
Materials Science
Close packing - A dynamic demonstration  Knox, Kerro
Involves rice in a container that have been agitated into a close-packed solid state by a knife or spatula.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 700.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Determination of the density of crystalline solids in the undergraduate laboratory  Craig, Rhoda E. R.
Using the flotation method for determining the density of crystalline solids.
Craig, Rhoda E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 599.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Interstitial solid solutions: Cooperation of energy and geometry  Lindsay, C. G.
Reviews models of interstitial solid solutions, particularly in regard to their role in studying hydrogen in metals, and introduces the lattice-gas model and the method of geometric inequalities.
Lindsay, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 675.
Gases |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Geochemistry
An easily constructed dodecahedron model  Yamana, Shukichi
A model of a dodecahedron made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1058.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
An easily constructed model of a square antiprism  Yamana, Shukichi
A model of a square antiprism made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1056.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
An easily constructed trigonal prism model  Yamana, Shukichi
A model of a trigonal prism made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1055.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
An easily constructed cube model  Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto
A model of a cube made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1054.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Solids |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
Easily constructed model of twin octahedrons having a common line  Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto
A model of twin octahedrons made from a sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1053.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
The iron-iron carbide phase diagram: A practical guide to some descriptive solid state chemistry  Long, Gary J.; Leighty, H. P., Jr.
A discussion of the solid state chemistry of iron and steel in terms of the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.
Long, Gary J.; Leighty, H. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 948.
Solids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Dispensing low-melting solids: Freezing point depression  Hill, John W.
A solution for dispensing low-melting point solids.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 699.
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Teaching aids illustrating the concept of Miller Index  Kennard, C. H. L.; Bretherton, Les
Models made of wooden cubes are sectioned to illustrate representative planes.
Kennard, C. H. L.; Bretherton, Les J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 38.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
Freshman-level chemistry shapes the nuclear power industry  Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C.
Applying the modeling of a crystalline lattice to the changes occurring in a nuclear reactor.
Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 523.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Solid state labs: The bubble raft  McCormick, P. D.
Method for producing bubble rafts and experiments for using them to demonstrate the properties of crystals.
McCormick, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Unit cells  Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.
An easy way to construct of have students construct a unit cell in three dimensions.
Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 509.
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Construction of a tetrahedron packing model: A puzzle in structural chemistry  Schweikert, William W.
Proposes the assembly of a tetrahedrally shaped packing model as a game or puzzle for students.
Schweikert, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 501.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
Madelung constants and other lattice sums  Burrows, E. L.; Kettle, S. F. A.
Makes more widely known that fact that in the evaluation of lattice sums one is faced with a fundamental difficulty the solution to which is seldom stated.
Burrows, E. L.; Kettle, S. F. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 58.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
An inexpensive method to produce plastic models of solids  Salmon, J. F. S. J.; Polley, C. A.
Method for using moulage to produce plastic models of solids.
Salmon, J. F. S. J.; Polley, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 726.
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Solid State Chemistry
Models for simple, close-packed crystal structures  Mann, A. W.
This paper describes some simple crystallographic models made from styrofoam balls.
Mann, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 652.
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
More on the close-packing of atoms  Benedict, H. Courtney
A physical model illustrating the differences between 6-, 4-, and 3-fold axes of symmetry.
Benedict, H. Courtney J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 419.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Auto windows - Strong but self-destructing  Stookey, S. D.
Auto windowglass illustrates the principles of metastable equilibrium.
Stookey, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 131.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solids |
Equilibrium
Lecture demonstration of a phase transition in a solid  Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred
The solid-solid phase transition between two different allotropes of silver iodide.
Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 109.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Demonstration of close-packing phenomena  Birnbaum, Edward R.
Relies in layers of styrofoam balls and an overhead projector for illustrating close-packed structure.
Birnbaum, Edward R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 674.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A computer program for calculating the lattice energy of crystals by the Madelung formula  Brown, John P.
Availability of a Fortran IV program for calculating the lattice energy of crystals by the Madelung formula.
Brown, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 668.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Demonstration of 2-dimensional crystal lattice  Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A.
A laser passing through wire cloth produces a characteristic interference pattern.
Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 558.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Structures of the elements in the PTOT system  Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E.
Presents a simplified system for representing close-packed structures and applies it to crystalline structures of the elements.
Ho, Shih-Ming; Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 74.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An introduction to principles of the solid state. Extrinsic semiconductors  Weller, Paul F.
Includes a previous analogy is extended to cover n- and p-type semiconductors and discussions of the concepts of donors and acceptors, donor and acceptor activation energies and the corresponding charge carrier production at various temperatures, and the effects of the presence of both donors and acceptors.
Weller, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 831.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Semiconductors
Properties of solids and their atomic structures (Bowen, H. J. M.)  Juster, Norman J.

Juster, Norman J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A60.
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry
Crystal lattice energy and the Madelung constant  Quane, Denis
Clarifies the calculation of crystal lattice energy and defines the Madelung constant for various common crystal structures.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 396.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
One hundred and fifty years of isomorphism  Morrow, Scott I.
This article reviews the history of isomorphism and the discovery that crystals of the same compounds exhibit small differences in their corresponding interfacial angles.
Morrow, Scott I. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 580.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A three-dimensional model of dendritic structure  Olsen, Robert C.
A simple procedure for growing dendritic crystals in a gel that may serve as a model of dendritic structure.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 496.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
The structure of solid aluminum chloride  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Many general chemistry textbooks have been vague or mistaken with regards to the structure of solid aluminum chloride.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 495.
Solids
Fundamental principles of semiconductors  Gurnee, Edward F.
This paper develops a qualitative description of the electronic structure of crystalline solids, and uses the model obtained to describe the fundamental optical and electrical properties of those materials.
Gurnee, Edward F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 80.
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A bonding parameter. II, Rock salt and cesium chloride crystal structures  Elson, Jesse
It is the purpose of this study to compare the rock salt and cesium chloride structures of the alkali halogenides.
Elson, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 28.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Ionic Bonding
Moisture measurement  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews a wide variety of analytical methods and commercial devices for measuring moisture content in gases, liquids, and solids.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A377.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry
Crystal models  Olsen, Robert C.
This short note illustrates a model designed to demonstrate the number of particles in a crystal that can be assigned to a unit cell.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 728.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Metals |
Metallic Bonding
The nature of " ionic" solids: The coordinated polymeric model  Sanderson, R. T.
The author discusses and questions the validity of considering some solids as purely ionic and offers the coordinated polymeric model as a plausible alternative.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 516.
Solids |
Ionic Bonding
The teaching of crystal geometry in the introductory course  Livingston, R. L.
It is the purpose of this paper to outline an approach to the teaching of crystal structure at the elementary level that will prepare the student for more advanced work in this field or that could be used as the beginning in a more advanced course.
Livingston, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 376.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
A versatile continuous percolator-extractor  Ciereszko, Leon S.
An apparatus that may be used either for the continuous percolation of solids or for the continuous extraction of liquids is presented.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Solids |
Liquids
Crystals: Their Role in Nature and in Science (Bunn, Charles)  Templeton, David H.

Templeton, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A550.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Some models of close packing  Sime, Rodney J.
Presents models constructed from styrofoam balls and connected with toothpicks.
Sime, Rodney J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 61.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Standard ionic crystal structures  Gehman, William G.
Examines the topics of cubic and hexagonal closest packed atom lattices; interstice lattices; standard crystal structures of type MaXb; standard CCP and HCP crystal structures; and deviations from ideal closest packing.
Gehman, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 54.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Solid State Chemistry
Crystallization (Mullin, J. W.)  Honig, J. M.

Honig, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A62.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A rotating tubular reactor  Markowitz, Meyer M.; Boryta, Daniel A.
Presents a simple design for a rotating tubular reactor to achieve efficient interaction between a solid and a gas.
Markowitz, Meyer M.; Boryta, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 122.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Solids |
Gases
Flow of glass under its own weight  Dingledy, David
A common misconception of the nature of glass found in general chemistry texts is that ordinary glass will flow under its own weight at room temperatures.
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 84.
Solids
Paper-made crystal models  Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo
Three-dimensional models of a number of simple ionic crystals are constructed from a box and pieces of cellophane.
Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 580.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Inexpensive and convenient method for powdering solids for melting point determinations  Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G.
Recently a new mulling technique for preparing samples for infrared spectra was reported which makes use of ground glass plates.
Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Hollow lantern slides illustrating crystal structure  Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M.
The structure of simple crystals can be illustrated by enclosing a layer of bearing balls in a hollow lantern slide and projecting the shadow pattern.
Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 495.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Chemical geometryApplication to salts  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne
It is the purpose of this article to illustrate how one may delve rather deeply into some aspects of crystal structure that are of special interest chemically without becoming involved in the symbology and semantic complexities of conventional crystallography.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 578.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Permanent packing type crystal models  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Crystal models made of styrofoam balls are more durable if packed in clear plastic boxes.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 513.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Face-centered cube and cubical close-packing  Barnett, E. De Barry
Instructions for the construction of simple models designed to illustrate the face-centered cube and cubical close-packing.
Barnett, E. De Barry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 186.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author responds to criticism of his suggestions for naming classes of crystals.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 458.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Donohue, Jerry
Commentary of the terminology of crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 310.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author comments on definitions of crystal systems.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 259.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Textbook errors: Guest column. XII: The lubricating properties of graphite  Lavrakas, Vasilis
The presentation of the correct lamellar structure of graphite is generally followed in textbooks by an erroneous statement that the lubricating properties of graphite are due to the easy slippage between layers.
Lavrakas, Vasilis J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 240.
Solids |
Gases
Imperfections in crystals. I. Lattice vacancies and atoms in interstitial positions  Honig, J. M.
The aim of this paper is to present an elementary review of the subject of defects in crystalline solids, particularly Frenkel and Schottky defects.
Honig, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 224.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A new type of crystal model  Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C.
Describes the design and construction of a crystal model in which the positions of atoms are represented by colored lights that can be lit to illustrate various structures.
Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 220.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Some simple solid models  Campbell, J. A.
Describes the use of hard spheres to illustrate a variety of concepts with respect solids, including closest packing and the effects of temperature and alloying.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 210.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Letters to the editor  Lefever, Robert A.
Clarifies a photograph in an earlier article and points out the identification of the growth axis in a silicon crystal.
Lefever, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 101.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Construction of crystal models from styrofoam spheres  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert
Presents a method for constructing crystal models from styrofoam spheres using a specialized aluminum jig.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 99.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
Textbook errors: X. The classification of crystals  Mysels, Karol J.
The classification of crystals into several systems (e.g., cubic, tetragonal, orthorombic) is generally based in textbooks on a consideration of crystal axes, particularly their relative lengths and direction; this approach usually gives correct assignments but occasionally leads to an error.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 40.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A convenient method of determining vapor pressures  Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D.
This apparatus can be used with equal facility for solids and liquids.
Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 623.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Growing crystals: A survey of laboratory methods  Fehlner, Francis P.
The purpose of this article is to provide basic information and readily available references for anyone wishing to begin the production of crystals.
Fehlner, Francis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 449.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Recent history of the notion of a chemical species  Bulloff, Jack J.
Quantum and nuclear chemistry have challenged the doctrine that chemical elements are homogeneous entities while studies of the structure and stoichiometry of solids invite a change in our ideas of definite proportions in chemical combinations.
Bulloff, Jack J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 78.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Stoichiometry |
Solids