TIGER

Journal Articles: 1,000 results
Quantitative Analysis of Nail Polish Remover Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revisited  Markus M. Hoffmann, Joshua T. Caccamis, Mark P. Heitz, and Kenneth D. Schlecht
Substantial modifications intended for a second- or third-year laboratory course in analytical chemistry are presented for a previously described procedure using NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively determine analytes in commercial nail polish remover. The revised experiment introduces student collaboration to critically interpret a relatively large set of data.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Caccamis, Joshua T.; Heitz, Mark P.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1421.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
An Inexpensive Semiautomatic Pressurized Microfiltration Device  E. Rodríguez-Fernandez, M. A. Vicente, J. J. Criado, and J. L. Manzano
Using the device shown, the filtration of small volumes (= 10 mL) of liquid can be facilitated by replacing the vacuum or manual pressure on the piston with pressure exerted by a rubber band on the piston. The filtration is thus conducted in a semiautomatic way.
Rodríguez-Fernandez, E.; Vicente, M. A.; Criado, J. J.; Manzano, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1051.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Microscale Lab
Modification to Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis  William H. Miles
After we published the Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance,we encountered a problem with the catalyst, Amberlyst-15, used in the second step. A revised laboratory procedure has replaced the original supplement available at JCE Online.
Miles, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 917.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Streaming Waters: Challenges in Monitoring the Chemistry of Dynamic Environments  Joseph H. Aldstadt, III and Melissa A. Singer Pressman
Students can learn to build simple monitors that illustrate the challenges (and frustrations) and benefits (and drawbacks) of remote environmental monitoring.
Aldstadt, Joseph H., III; Singer Pressman, Melissa A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 181.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Variable Temperature Equipment for a Commercial Magnetic Susceptibility Balance  Albert Lötz
Variable temperature equipment for the magnetic susceptibility balance MSB-MK1 of Sherwood Scientific, Ltd., is described. Whereas the balance as sold commercially can be used only for room temperature measurements, the setup presented here extends the temperature range from 20C to 80C without a loss in performance.
Lötz, Albert. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 107.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures  Kwesi Amoa
This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes using moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation.
Amoa, Kwesi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1948.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Integrated Laboratories: Crossing Traditional Boundaries  Debra K. Dillner, Robert F. Ferrante, Jeffrey P. Fitzgerald, William B. Heuer, and Maria J. Schroeder
Describes a new, integrated laboratory curriculum recently developed at the U.S. Naval Academy in response to the 1999 ACS Committee on Professional Training guidelines that required inclusion of biochemistry and a stronger emphasis on student research.
Dillner, Debra K.; Ferrante, Robert F.; Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P.; Heuer, William B.; Schroeder, Maria J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1706.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way To Understand Colligative Properties  Mercedes Novo, Belén Reija, and Wajih Al-Soufi
Presents a laboratory experiment that illustrates the use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality and determine molecular weight.
Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belén; Al-Soufi, Wajih. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1673.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents  Suzanne K. Lunsford, Justyna Widera, and Hong Zhang
This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment that incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in the presence of common interferents.
Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1471.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products
A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  Edward G. Neeland
Presents a lab practical for second-year organic chemistry that tests lab skills and theory acquired from laboratory experiences and may serve as an effective end-of-term exam.
Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1453.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introducing Students to the Scientific Literature  Lee Roecker
Describes an exercise in a quantitative analysis course that uses the primary literature to provide students with practice in the interpretation of statistical data, the use of spreadsheets, critical evaluation of scientific evidence, and insight into the work of analytical chemists.
Roecker, Lee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1380.
Instrumental Methods |
Student / Career Counseling
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Describes a typical student experiment with the quartz-crystal microbalance used as a mass sensor during the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of copper.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1340.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Metals
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Presents the fundamentals of quartz-crystal microbalance techniques and instrumentation.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1334.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Quantitative Imaging in the Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching  Tanya Cumberbatch and Quentin S. Hanley
This article describes an experiment based on quantitative imaging in which students use the quenching of fluorescein dianion to measure rate constants.
Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1319.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  Amber Victoria Irish Hess
Thin-layer chromatography enhanced by digital photography is ideal for high school and college labs and can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis comparable to more expensive, high-performance TLC equipment. Using common photo-editing software, one can quickly produce multi-spectral scans, densitograms, and calibration curves, output previously limited to HPTLC.
Hess, Amber Victoria Irish. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 842.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems  Pekka Pyykkö
Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines in which evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer mechanism. The arguments presented here are simple enough to use as an illustration in a second-year chemical thermodynamics course.
Pyykkö, Pekka. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 447.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Mercury-Free Analysis of Lead in Drinking Water by Anodic Stripping Square Wave Voltammetry  Jeremy P. Wilburn, Kyle L. Brown, and David E. Cliffel
The analysis of drinking water for lead, which has well-known adverse health effects, provides an instructive example of the use of analytical chemistry to monitor a common hazard of everyday life. This article offers a mercury-free analytical method for the analysis of lead in drinking water using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.
Wilburn, Jeremy P.; Brown, Kyle L.; Cliffel, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 312.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid–Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project  Howard Drossman
Describes a three-part laboratory project that integrates a full chemical speciation analysis of Gatorade and Powerade, including base standardization, potentiometric or colorimetric titration, and ion chromatography.
Drossman, Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 124.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chromatography
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Incorporation of Microwave Synthesis into the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Alan R. Katritzky, Chunming Cai, Meghan D. Collins, Eric F. V. Scriven, Sandeep K. Singh, and E. Keller Barnhardt
Describes a simple way to effectively implement microwave synthesis into the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum.
Katritzky, Alan R.; Cai, Chunming; Collins, Meghan D.; Scriven, Eric F. V.;Singh, Sandeep K.; Barnhardt, E. Keller. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 634.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Use of Physicochemical Parameters To Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model  Xavier Domènech, José Antonio Ayllón, and José Peral
Describes the use of physicochemical data to estimate the fate of chemical pollutants in environmental systems through a series of labs in an environmental chemistry course.
Domènech, Xavier; Ayllón, José Antonio; Peral, José. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 237.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Content in Popular Carbonated Drinks  Jessie Rodgers and Marina Koether
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Rodgers, Jessie; Koether, Marina. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Low-Cost Lock-In Amplifier for the Laboratory  Sandip K. Sengupta, Jessica M. Farnham, and James E. Whitten
The construction of a simple, low-cost, stand-alone lock-in amplifier suitable for physical and analytical chemistry instructional laboratories is described. The instrument is useful for detecting and amplifying signals that are in-phase with a reference signal and is particularly important for optical experiments that employ a pulsed light source.
Sengupta, Sandip K.; Farnham, Jessica M.; Whitten, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1399.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy  David E. Alonso and Steven E. Warren
Second-year organic chemistry students analyze and compare the spectral data of three unknown ketones (2-heptanone, 3-heptanone, and 4-heptanone). Students acquire one-dimensional proton and carbon NMR data for each unknown and make signal assignments based on chemical shifts, integration values, and splitting patterns of signals. Difficulties are encountered during interpretation of NMR data for 2- and 3-heptanone. Acquiring and analyzing the two-dimensional NMR spectra of the heptanones resolve these problems.
Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1385.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
A Networked NMR Spectrometer: Configuring a Shared Instrument  David Alonso, G. William Mutch, Peter Wong, Steven Warren, Bal Barot, Jan Kosinski, and Mark Sinton
Andrews University, Lake Michigan College, and Southwestern Michigan College established an educational consortium in southwest lower Michigan. An FT-NMR spectrometer was installed at AU and networked with the community colleges. Students and faculty from LMC and SMC visit Andrews on a regular basis to receive training and operate the NMR. The instrument is accessible via the Internet for data acquisition, processing, and transfer. The spectrometer has helped the consortium schools improve the quality of chemistry education, exposed students in chemistry courses to the concepts and techniques of modern NMR spectroscopy, and strengthened the collaboration between the chemistry faculty of the three schools. This article describes the NMR network configuration and the methodology for NMR data acquisition and distribution.
Alonso, David; Mutch, G. William; Wong, Peter; Warren, Steven; Barot, Bal; Kosinski, Jan; Sinton, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1342.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
An Improved Preparation of 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine Reagent  Ben Ruekberg and Eric Rossoni
In the analysis of aldehydes and ketones (both for characterizing the functional group and identifying such compounds by the melting points of their derivatives), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent is often used. Of the several formulations of this reagent, the most popular uses sulfuric acid. The method involves making a paste of 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazine in concentrated sulfuric acid, dispersion of the paste in ethanol, addition of water, and the filtration of the reagent. This improvement uses milder conditions, which may obviate the need for the final filtration. Those responsible for preparation of stock reagent solutions for classes should note that this method facilitates scaling up the preparation.
Ruekberg, Ben; Rossoni, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1310.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Substituted Benzoic Acids. An Experiment for the Organic Synthesis Laboratory  Nancy S. Mills, John D. Spence, and Michelle M. Bushey
We have introduced an experiment into the organic chemistry sequence, in the synthesis laboratory, that utilizes capillary electrophoresis to evaluate the pKa shift on a series of student-prepared substituted benzoic acids. The pKa shift is examined in reference to the electrophoretic-migration behavior of benzoic acid and is a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the substituent. This strategy allows us to increase the exposure of students to modern methods of separation. We are using repeated exposure to increase students' knowledge of separation strategies and techniques.
Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1226.
Synthesis |
Electrophoresis |
Grignard Reagents |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Simplex Optimization of Headspace-Enrichment Conditions of Residual Petroleum Distillates Used by Arsonists  Molly M. Warnke, Angela E. Erickson, and Eugene T. Smith
A forensic project is described that is suitable for an undergraduate instrumental methods lab. Accelerants commonly used by arsonists are analyzed by static headspace enrichment followed by gas chromatography. The conditions used for headspace enrichment (e.g., time and temperature) are known to influence the distribution of hydrocarbons extracted from an arson sample. To minimize artifacts associated with headspace enrichment, simplex optimization was used to determine the optimal time and temperature for the various classes of common hydrocarbon accelerants.
Warnke, Molly M.; Erickson, Angela E.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1082.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Forensic Chemistry
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
A Convenient Method for Dispensing Organometallic Reagents  Thomas A. Newton
The construction of a simple apparatus for dispensing air-sensitive organometallic reagents is described.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 936.
Organometallics |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach, Second Edition (R. Martin Smith)  Bill Boggess
The interpretation of mass spectra represents arguably the most significant challenge to both newcomers and practitioners in the field of mass spectrometry (MS). For those of us who have ever struggled to use a mass spectrum to solve the structure of an organic compound, R. Martin Smith offers the second edition of Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach. Fortunately, the author manages to go well beyond the obvious and expected explanations of the common modes of fragmentation for ions generated during electron ionization (EI) by offering a rational approach to mass spectral problem solving. This ten-step approach, which represents the most important contribution of this text, appears in chapter 5 and is condensed into table 5.1.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 687.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments  Giuseppe Alibrandi, Santi D'Aliberti, Salvatore Coppolino, Antonino Villari, and Norberto Micali
This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data.
Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 442.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Chemometrics Module for an Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Course  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Phet Elkins, Segmia K. Tata, and Dustin Ryan Smith
A chemometrics module for the undergraduate instrumental analysis chemistry course was developed and implemented. The objective of this module is to provide the skills needed by students to design experiments, to learn calibration techniques for analyzing multicomponent systems, to extract chemical information from large data sets provided by modern instruments, and, overall, to provide a broader spectrum of analytical techniques especially for those students who aspire going to graduate schools or working in chemical industries.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Elkins, Phet; Tata, Segmia K.; Smith, Dustin Ryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 415.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry (Frank M. Dunnivant)  Marco A. De Jesús
Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry is a good reference for educators involved in the design of an introductory environmental or instrumental chemistry laboratory. The manual contains 28 laboratory exercises grouped in seven core areas encompassing fundamental laboratory techniques, analysis of air contaminants, aquatic chemistry, hazardous waste analysis, soil chemistry, natural waters analysis, and fate and transport modeling of environmental pollutants. The text comes with a CD-ROM that contains additional problems for the students and an electronic version of the supportive material. The CD also includes a series of interactive Shockwave simulations that models distribution coefficient of different acidbase systems and the fate and transport of a contaminant in a variety of environmental matrices.
De Jesús, Marco A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 382.
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere  John V. Seeley, Arthur W. Bull, Richard J. Fehir, Jr., Susan Cornwall, Gabriel A. Knudsen, and Stacy K. Seeley
This laboratory experiment applies several different fundamental concepts including oxidationreduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis. In addition, students are provided with unique experiences in constructing simple instrumentation and collecting environmental samples.
Seeley, John V.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.; Seeley, Stacy K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 282.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gases
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Writing-Intensive Multimedia Projects in the Instrumental Methods Course  Hal Van Ryswyk
A writing-intensive, team-based multimedia project has been incorporated into the instrumental methods course. The project serves two student populations: students in the course gain an enhanced understanding of an instrumental technique through extensive, focused writing, while first-time instrument users outside of the course gain useful documentation and high-quality point-of-use training.
Van Ryswyk, Hal. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 70.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Remote Instrumentation for the Teaching Laboratory  Jit Baran, Ron Currie, and Dietmar Kennepohl
Chemistry has traditionally been one of the more difficult subjects to teach at a distance owing mostly to challenges in delivering the laboratory component. It is now possible to control analytical instruments in real time and carry out computer-interfaced instrumental chemistry experiments remotely via an Internet connection.
Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1814.
Instrumental Methods
Initial Design and Development of an Integrated Laboratory Network: A New Approach for the Use of Instrumentation in the Undergraduate Curriculum  Devon A. Cancilla
This paper describes both the conceptual framework and initial development of Western Washington University's Integrated Laboratory Network (ILN). The ILN brings together scientific instrumentation, Internet-based classroom management systems (CMS), and other online resources to provide a new working model for the use and introduction of instrumentation within the undergraduate curriculum. Full implementation of the ILN will allow greater access to instruments and instrumental data and will provide a wide variety of novel teaching and learning opportunities.
Cancilla, Devon A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1809.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Students' Attitudes toward and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Instrumentation  Larry S. Miller, Mary B. Nakhleh, John J. Nash, and Jeanne A. Meyer
Data collected from field notes, surveys, and interviews are used to evaluate (i) the attitudes students have toward using instrumentation, (ii) how students relate the underlying chemical concepts to the instrumentation, and (iii) how working in a group impacts students' attitudes toward, and their conceptual understanding of, chemical instrumentation.
Miller, Larry S.; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1801.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Unifying Description of Modern Analytical Instrumentation within a Course on Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Gary D. Rayson
A unifying approach to the description and teaching of modern analytical instrumentation typically discussed in undergraduate courses in Instrumental Methods of Analysis has been developed and is described. The approach involves the description of all analytical instruments as comprising of five basic modules.
Rayson, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1767.
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories
Gravimetric Titrations: In Support of Weight Titration Techniques  Richard W. Ramette
I write in support of the recommendations of Stephen Hawkes on gravimetric titrations. Weight titration techniques are, in my opinion, by far the best way to bring volumetric analysis into the 20th (let alone 21st) century.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1715.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Gravimetric Titrations: Save Time, Expense, and Error by Using Weight Burets  Stephen J. Hawkes
Two papers have shown the superiority of a cheap plastic squeeze bottle used as a weight buret over an expensive volumetric buret. These papers were published at a time, now past, when precise weighing was inconvenient.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1715.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Use of a Tea Infuser To Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice  Carl P. Fictorie
A tea infuser is used as a container to hold low-density dry ice. When used with the classic demonstration where dry ice is used to acidify a solution in a graduated cylinder, the dry ice is suspended in the middle of the cylinder, allowing the solution in the upper half of the cylinder to change color while the lower half remains unchanged. Phase changes, acidbase chemistry, and diffusion phenomena are all illustrated.
Fictorie, Carl P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1473.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  Jonathan E. Thompson and Jason Ting
A simple, inexpensive, water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. The cuvette and associated flow system can easily be constructed from materials commonly found in an undergraduate chemistry laboratory. As a demonstration of the cuvette's utility, we used the cuvette for the determination of the activation energy for the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion. However, the cuvette may prove useful in a variety of applications in which a sample must be thermostated within a spectrophotometer.
Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1341.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy
The History of Ion Chromatography: The Engineering Perspective  Barton Evans
This article traces the history of the engineering development related to the several generations of ion chromatography instruments, columns, suppressers, and software. In so doing, several representative engineering challenges and their outcomes are discussed including: early directions (traveling without a road map, or "going where the applications are"), dealing with an extremely corrosive mobile phase (aka: the "eluent"), resolving the inherent incompatibilities of nonmetallic flow paths with the benefits of high-pressure, elevated temperature operation, managing the ever-evolving nature of the suppressor, coping with requirements for ultra high-end online systems, and providing extremely simple-to-use dedicated analyzer systems.
Evans, Barton. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1285.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development  Hamish Small
In the late 1950s, a small group of chemists at the Dow Chemical Company envisioned replacing these classical methods of inorganic analysis with but a single, universal chromatographic technique. They called their project "Inorganic Chromatography". This article describes how they developed this concept into a new technique, ready for commercial development into what we know today as "Ion Chromatography". In particular, the account will describe: how the Dow scientists adapted electrical conductance monitoring to chromatography, the introduction of the suppressor to chromatography, the invention of special stationary phases, and the evolution of strategies and principles that would shape and guide the practice of ion chromatography for many years to come.
Small, Hamish. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The 12th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Ion Chromatography  Adrian C. Michael
The objectives of the annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon are to explore the origins, development, and commercialization of scientific instrumentation of established and major significance. The topic of the twelfth Waters Symposium was ion chromatography; three of those papers are featured in this issue of the Journal.
Michael, Adrian C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Instrumental Methods
The Purification of Water by Zone Melting: A Phase Diagram Interpretation  Mohamed Jemal
Oughton, Xu, and Battino published a paper in this Journal on the application of zone melting to the purification of water from NaCl aqueous solutions. I would like to comment on this interesting paper by giving an interpretation of some of their results taking into account the binary phase diagram.
Jemal, Mohamed. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 952.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The Dog Ate My Homework: A Cooperative Learning Project for Instrumental Analysis  Leanna C. Giancarlo and Kelli M. Slunt
This paper describes a project-based laboratory experiment in which students determine the composition of an unknown metal knob that was ingested and recovered from a large puppy.
Giancarlo, Leanna C.; Slunt, Kelli M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 868.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals
Liquid-Crystal Displays: Fabrication and Measurement of a Twisted Nematic Liquid-Crystal Cell  Eric R. Waclawik, Michael J. Ford, Penny S. Hale, Joe G. Shapter, and Nico H. Voelcker
The relationship between molecular shape, molecular order, and macroscopic properties, such as optical birefringence, phase transitions, and electricallycontrolled birefringence, as demonstrated by the electrooptic effect, are investigated.
Waclawik, Eric R.; Ford, Michael J.; Hale, Penny S.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H. . J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 854.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science
Chem 111: A General Education Course in Organic Structure Determination  Stuart C. Clough, René P. F. Kanters, and Emma W. Goldman
A course in organic structure determination has proven to be effective in addressing the general education science requirement for liberal arts and business majors who have only a basic high school chemistry background.
Clough, Stuart C.; Kanters, René P. F.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 834.
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Boiling Point versus Mass  Michael Laing
I am very pleased that Ronald Rich has written making these comments, because he is pre-eminent in this field, beginning with his early book, Periodic Correlations.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Point versus Mass   Ronald L. Rich
Laing gave a useful examination of the boiling points of small molecules versus molecular mass. However, a molecule escaping from a liquid is not closely analogous to a satellite breaking free from the earths gravitational field with the requirement of a minimum escape velocity, such that the required kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the satellite at that escape velocity.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Liquids |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers. Can We Afford Affordances?  Roy W. Clark
"Affordances" must be an educationese term that is delightfully meaningful to the authors, and it is my hope that in future papers these authors might define their terms when writing for mere chemists.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 486.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Learning Theories |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Constructivism
Automated Flow-Injection Instrument for Chemiluminescence Detection Using a Low-Cost Photodiode Detector: An Interdisciplinary Project in Chemical Instrumentation, Graphical Programming, Computer Interfacing, and Analytical Chemistry  A. Economou, D. Papargyris, and I. Stratis
This work is concerned with the design, construction, automatic control, and optimization of a flow injection analysis (FIA) instrument with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The project proceeds in three stages: the construction of the detector, the construction and control of the flow system, and the chemical measurements.
Economou, A.; Papargyris, D.; Stratis, I. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 406.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determination of Pb in Biological Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. An Exercise in Common Interferences and Fundamental Practices in Trace Element Determination  Thomas M. Spudich, Jennifer K. Herrmann, Ronald Fietkau, Grant A. Edwards, and David L. McCurdy
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) for the determination of trace levels of Pb in bovine muscle or liver samples. The major emphasis of the experiment is to explore common interferences, first by investigating the impact of molecular spectral absorption interferences on a real-world sample, then demonstrating the susceptibility of GFAAS to chemicalphysical matrix interferences.
Spudich, Thomas M.; Herrmann, Jennifer K.; Fietkau, Ronald; Edwards, Grant A.; McCurdy, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 262.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Questioning an Ultrasonic Lab Setup  Francisco J. Arnáiz
The intermediate referred to as an oxyallyl cation is not a cation but a zwitterion, and the mentioned by-product, CuI2 (crucial to explain the need of excess copper referred to in the text, since in fact CuI is formed) is nonexistent.
Arnáiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 193.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Microscale Lab
Questioning an Ultrasonic Lab Setup  Francisco J. Arnáiz
The intermediate referred to as an oxyallyl cation is not a cation but a zwitterion, and the mentioned by-product, CuI2 (crucial to explain the need of excess copper referred to in the text, since in fact CuI is formed) is nonexistent.
Arnáiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 193.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Microscale Lab
Including Non-Traditional Instrumentation in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Courses  J. David Jenkins, Jessica N. Orvis, C. Jimmy Smith, Citabria Manley, and Jeanette K. Rice
In this work, we report on the successful incorporation of a direct mercury analyzer into the environmental science laboratory for both non-majors and majors.
Jenkins, J. David; Orvis, Jessica N.; Smith, C. Jimmy; Manley, Citabria; Rice, Jeanette K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 22.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Emission Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Scott R. Goode and Lori A. Metz
Simple lab experiments using an inexpensive, solid-state computerized spectrometer can help to introduce students to analytical emission spectroscopy. A series of experiments that employ an Ocean Optics spectrometer, a Windows PC, and a fiber optic pickup are described.
Goode, Scott R.; Metz, Lori A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1455.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   David S. Hage
No evidence to suggest that the lack of nitrites is due to their oxidation.
Hage, David S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   Gregorio Cruz
Lack of nitrites could be due to their oxidation to nitrates.
Cruz, Gregorio. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   Gregorio Cruz
Lack of nitrites could be due to their oxidation to nitrates.
Cruz, Gregorio. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Tensile Strength Measurements on Biopolymer Films  Eugene S. Stevens and Mark D. Poliks
Measuring the tensile strength of biopolymer films using a simple student apparatus; results are compared with data obtained from industry-standard equipment.
Stevens, Eugene S.; Poliks, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 810.
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Industrial Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science |
Proteins / Peptides
Improved Hittorf Apparatus  Kan Jinquing
Reply to concerns over suggestions for Hittorf apparatus.
Jinquing, Kan. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 742.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Improved Hittorf Apparatus  Morris Bader
Summary of problems with Hittorf apparatus outlined in earlier issue.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 742.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Improved Hittorf Apparatus  Morris Bader
Summary of problems with Hittorf apparatus outlined in earlier issue.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 742.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  Paul J. Ogren, Ian Henry, Steven E. S. Fletcher, and Ian Kelly
A programmable imaging system for thin-layer and kinetics measurements; examples of applications include well plate analysis, TLC quantitative analysis of acetaminophen and aspirin, analysis of electrophoresis bands, and kinetics of toluidine blue reduction by sulfite.
Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 699.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers  Eric G. Malina and Mary B. Nakhleh
Investigation of how upper-division college students interact with laboratory instruments to identify the characteristics that influence students' construction of scientific understanding.
Malina, Eric G.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 691.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories
Low-Cost Temperature Control from 160 K to Ambient Temperature Using Liquid Nitrogen Evaporation  Gustavo S. Faraudo and Daniel E. Weibel
Apparatus to control temperature between 110 and 283 K without the need to precool the evaporated gas from a liquid reservoir.
Faraudo, Gustavo S.; Weibel, Daniel E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 676.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Techniques in Organic Chemistry: Miniscale, Standard Taper Microscale, and Williamson Microscale (Jerry R. Mohrig, Christina Noring Hammond, Paul F. Schatz, and Terence C. Morrill)  Richard M. Pagni
Supplementary text organized like most organic chemistry lab manuals, but without the experiments.
Pagni, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 388.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Instrumental Methods |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Two Laboratory Activities for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course  Ara S. Kooser, Judith L. Jenkins, and Lawrence E. Welch
Procedures involving an examination and comparison of spectral transitions originating from atomic versus ionic species through atomic emission spectroscopy, and a determination of the temperature produced buy the inductively coupled plasma (ICP).
Kooser, Ara S.; Jenkins, Judith L.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 86.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Measurement of Trace Metals in Tobacco and Cigarette Ash by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy  W. Wang and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
An experiment in which inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is used to quantify zinc, iron, and chromium present in cigarette tobacco, the cigarette filter, and the ash from a burning cigarette.
Wang, W; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 83.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The Water Project: A Multi-Week Laboratory Project for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry  Randy J. Arnold
A project-based laboratory that challenges students to develop their analytical reasoning skills and instrumental techniques by investigating the composition of drinking water; includes results of student surveys.
Arnold, Randy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 58.
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
An Environmental Focus Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography  Arthur Salido, Cynthia Atterholt, J. Roger Bacon, and David J. Butcher
Efforts by the chemistry department at Western Carolina University to incorporate an environmental focus in its curriculum and research programs; NSF project to integrate inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and ion chromatography instruments into the curriculum.
Salido, Arthur; Atterholt, Cynthia; Bacon, J. Roger; Butcher, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 22.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Undergraduate Research
Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Signal Processing, and Spectral Information in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory  Jonathan P. Blitz and Douglas G. Klarup
Laboratory for an instrumental analysis course that shows how signal-to-noise ration can be increased for FTIR spectrometers by choice of conditions and data manipulation.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Klarup, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1358.
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Elemental Analysis of Wisdom Teeth by Atomic Spectroscopy Using Standard Additions. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Exercise  Venda J. Porter, Patricia M. Sanft, Jennifer C. Dempich, Dana D. Dettmer, Angela E. Erickson, Nicole A. Dubauskie, Susan T. Myster, Emory H. Matts, and Eugene T. Smith
Procedure to familiarize students with inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and other atomic absorption techniques and to develop an understanding of the advantages and limitations of these methods.
Porter, Venda J.; Sanft, Patricia M.; Dempich, Jennifer C.; Dettmer, Dana D.; Erickson, Angela E.; Dubauskie, Nicole A.; Myster, Susan T.; Matts, Emory H.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1114.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Another Hazard  Marcio C. S. de Mattos and David E. Nicodem
Minimizing risks to distilling ether.
de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Another Hazard  Jean B. Umland
Risks to distilling ether.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions  Addison Ault
Risks to distilling ether.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Education: Environmental Studies  Marina C. Koether, Donald McGarey, Mark Patterson, and Daniel J. Williams
Project to develop an environmental chemistry laboratory course and an environmental science capstone course; includes summary of equipment and activities involved in the lab course.
Koether, Marina C.; McGarey, Donald; Patterson, Mark; Williams, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 934.
Instrumental Methods
Exploring the Diffraction Grating Using a He-Ne Laser and a CD-ROM  Joel Tellinghuisen
Demonstrating the grating equation using a compact disc.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 703.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Influence of Modern NMR Spectroscopy on Undergraduate Organic, Inorganic, and Physical Chemistry at Florida State University  Joseph B. Vaughn, Jr.
Survey of student attitudes toward having state-of-the-art NMR spectra available.
Vaughn, Joseph B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 306.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy
Microscale Determination of Vitamin C by Weight Titrimetry  Gaston A. East and Erica C. Nascimento
Electroanalytical method for the microscale determination of vitamin C using a nontraditional oxidimetric titrant.
East, Gaston A.; Nascimento, Erica C. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 100.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Raman Spectroscopy with a Fiber-Optic Probe and Multichannel Detection  Thomas J. Vickers, Jeanne Pecha, and Charles K. Mann
Exercise emphasizing instrumental methods of chemical analysis of solids and liquids relying on Raman spectroscopy.
Vickers, Thomas J.; Pecha, Jeanne; Mann, Charles K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1674.
Instrumental Methods |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
The Lead Project. An Environmental Instrumental Analysis Case Study  Vincent T. Breslin and Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy
An environmental instrumental analysis course that examines lead contamination in paint, soil, and drinking water of suburban residential houses.
Breslin, Vincent T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1647.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Applied Electronics: Construction of a Simple Spectrophotometer  Melissa A. Thal and Michael J. Samide
A simple spectrophotometer intended for use as a capstone circuit for an electronics laboratory exercise.
Thal, Melissa A.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1510.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Beer's Law Measurements Using Non-monochromatic Light Sources--A Computer Simulation  George C.-Y. Chan and WingTat Chan
Using a spreadsheet program to simulate the spectral profile of the transmitted radiation and the apparent absorbance for different combinations of bandwidth and peak profiles.
Chan, George C.-Y.; Chan, WingTat. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1285.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content  Jennifer L. Zabzdyr and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1225.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of Ethanol in Alcohol Samples Using a Modular Raman Spectrometer  Caryn L. Sanford, Brent A. Mantooth, and Bradley T. Jones
An inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer that overcomes the cost and complexity of traditional equipment; application to measuring ethanol content of a variety of aqueous solutions.
Sanford, Caryn L.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1221.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy
The Influence of Modern Instrumentation on the Analytical and General Chemistry Curriculum at Bates College  Thomas J. Wenzel
Incorporation of modern instrumentation into analytical and general chemistry curricula.
Wenzel, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1164.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Distinguishing Calcium Carbonate from Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate by Instrumental Methods. A Set of Laboratory Experiments for Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  Eugenio Garribba, Giovanni Micera, Liliana Strinna-Erre, and Giovanna Stara
Distinguishing calcium carbonate from calcium sulfate dihydrate through chemical analysis, thermal analysis and decomposition, IR spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and EDXRF spectroscopy.
Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Strinna-Erre, Liliana; Stara, Giovanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1090.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Instruments and Experimentation in the History of Chemistry
edited by Frederic L. Holmes and Trevor H. Levere
  Jeffrey Kovac
Collection of 14 essays on the history of experimentation and its accompanying instrumentation in chemistry.
Kovac, Jeffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1027.
Instrumental Methods
The Use of Disposable IR Cards for Quantitative Analysis Using an Internal Standard  Ramee Indralingam and Angelito I. Nepomuceno
Lab that is useful as a teaching tool to illustrate the use of internal standards and calibration curves and the principle of Beer's law.
Indralingam, Ramee; Nepomuceno, Angelito I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
Teaching the Fundamentals of Pulsed NMR Spectroscopy in an Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Gary A. Lorigan, Robert E. Minto, and Wei Zhang
An undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment that utilizes a commercially available bench-top pulsed NMR spectrometer; students assemble the components of an NMR spectrometer, program a variety of pulse sequences, and collect T1 and T2 relaxation data.
Lorigan, Gary A.; Minto, Robert E.; Zhang, Wei. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 956.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Flood Prevention by Recirculating Condenser Cooling Water  Fraser F. Fleming and Pravin S. Iyer
A self-circulating system that uses convection to cool a reflux condenser.
Fleming, Fraser F.; Iyer, Pravin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 946.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Water / Water Chemistry
Reduction of Calcium Concentrations by the Brita® Water Filtration System: A Practical Experiment in Titrimetry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy  Kimberly G. Olsen and Lisa J. Ulicny
Classic EDTA titration experiment that focusses the function of common a household item.
Olsen, Kimberly G.; Ulicny, Lisa J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 941.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modular Spectrometers in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Paul Bernazzani and Francine Paquin
Effect of integrating two Ocean Optics S2000 series spectroscopic instruments, based on a 2048-element linear CCD-array, into an undergraduate laboratory.
Bernazzani, Paul; Paquin, Francine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 796.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Build a Simple Polarimeter  Frank E. Stary and Norman Woldow
Details of the construction of a durable, inexpensive portable polarimeter with a self-contained 585-nm light source are given, combining the best features of several polarimeters; may easily be scaled up in size for increased sensitivity.
Stary, Frank E.; Woldow, Norman. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 644.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stereochemistry
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Safe and Efficient Flash Chromatography Equipment for the Research/Teaching Lab  Fritiof Pontén and Ulf Ellervik
A new method for performing flash chromatography is presented in which the solvent reservoir is at the side of the column, in a separate bottle, connected with a Teflon tube to an adapter for standard flash chromatography columns.
Pontén, Fritiof; Ellervik, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 363.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Using a Diode Laser Pointer to Count Drops and Automate Titration Systems  Paul Ogren, Steve Nelson, and Ian Henry
A diode laser pointer is used to construct a simple system for recording drops falling from a buret. The drop signal is recorded together with one or more measurement signals by a LabVIEW-based programmable interfacing system. A standard buret is converted to a Mariotte buret to provide a constant drop-addition rate.
Ogren, Paul; Nelson, Steve; Henry, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 353.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Surface Tension Determination through Capillary Rise and Laser Diffraction Patterns  Teresita Munguia and Charles A. Smith
In this physical chemistry experiment the surface tension of several solvents is determined by measuring the height of the capillary rise in a capillary tube; the radius of the tubing is calculated through measurements taken from the diffraction pattern produced when a laser of known wavelength is passed through a short piece of the capillary tubing.
Munguia, Teresita; Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 343.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Surface Science
A Computer-Controlled Bipolar Pulse Conductivity Apparatus  N. Papadopoulos and M. Limniou
A laboratory apparatus for ion conductivity measurements is described. This apparatus is controlled by a personal computer.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Limniou, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 245.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A Short History of the Chemical Shift  Samuel G. Levine
The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element will all undergo resonance at the same frequency regardless of their environment.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 133.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Analytical Instrumentation--Performance Characteristics and Quality by Graham Currell  Jack K. Steehler
This book provides guidance to analytical practitioners regarding the use of instrument performance criteria when making purchase decisions and when pursuing solutions to real-life instrumentation problems.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 34.
Instrumental Methods
Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab  Margaret A. Hill
Three laboratory exercises in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.
Hill, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 26.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Ultramicro-Boiling-Point Determination--A Modification  Henry Brouwer
The determination of microscale boiling points in a melting-point tube may be simplified by replacing the micro-bell bubbler with an ultrathin capillary tube bubbler.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1480.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Evaporation Kinetics in Short-Chain Alcohols by Optical Interference  Ian M. Rosbrugh, S. Y. Nishimura, and A. M. Nishimura
The evaporation rates of volatile organic liquids may be determined through the observation of optical interference of spatially coincident light that is reflected from the top (air-liquid) and bottom (liquid-surface) of a liquid drop on a glass surface. As an example of what is possible with this technique, the evaporation for a series of short-chain alcohols and acetone is investigated.
Rosbrugh, Ian M.; Nishimura, S. Y.; Nishimura, Allan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1047.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
An Inexpensive Gradient Maker for the Biochemistry Laboratory  William H. Flurkey
A gradient maker for use in the biochemistry laboratory was constructed out of plastic graduated cylinders or other easily obtained plastic items. Assembly of the gradient makers requires little time or expense. Details on construction and operation are given.
Flurkey, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1041.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides
Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Joel A. Olson, Karen J. Nordell, Marla A. Chesnik, Clark R. Landis, and Arthur B. Ellis, M. S. Rzchowski, S. Michael Condren, and George C. Lisensky
Several demonstrations of resonance phenomena associated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. Complete instructions for the construction of the demonstrations, which can be used on an overhead projector, are included.
Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Landis, Clark R.; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 882.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Glass Doesn't Flow and Doesn't Crystallize and It Isn't a Liquid  Stephen J. Hawkes
It is widely believed that glass flows in historic time and it is often asserted that glass is a liquid. The evidence of archeology, geology, and viscosity and of research on glass structure and on conservation of antique glass is examined and the conclusion in the title is reached. These fallacies should not be taught.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 846.
Geochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
Instrumental Analysis Lecture and Laboratory: A Survey  James E. Girard and Constance T. Diamant
Which topics should be covered in instrumental analysis lecture and which instrumental techniques should be used in the instrumental laboratory? We surveyed a randomly chosen group of analytical chemistry faculty. It appears that there is a consensus about which experimental techniques the instrumental course should offer to undergraduates.
Girard, James E.; Diamant, Constance T. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 646.
Instrumental Methods
Dry-Ice Bath Based on Ethylene Glycol Mixtures  Do W. Lee and Craig M. Jensen
Bath mixtures of ethanol and ethylene glycol in dry ice produce sustainable constant temperatures over the range from -12 to -78 C, is less toxic than previously reported mixtures of ortho- and meta-xylene, does not intractably solidify as will dry ice slurries of xylenes, and is less costly than xylene mixtures.
Lee, Do W.; Jensen, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 629.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Inexpensive Convenient Press for KBr and CsI Pellets in Infrared Studies  Chris Kalberg and Paul J. Ogren
Directions are provided for the fabrication of an inexpensive IR salt pellet press that may be used easily and quickly by beginning chemistry students.
Kalberg, Chris; Ogren, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 391.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Laboratory-Constructed Automatic Titrator  Kurt L. Headrick, Terry K. Davies, and Aaron N. Haegele
The construction of a simple automatic titrator is described. The buret is replaced with a metering pump to provide a constant flow of titrant. The output from the pH meter is sent to a recorder via a laboratory- constructed differentiator, allowing the results to be plotted as potential versus time, first or second derivative
Headrick, Kurt L.; Davies, Terry K.; Haegele, Aaron N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 389.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Rapid, Simple Quantitation in Thin-Layer Chromatography Using a Flatbed Scanner  Mitchell E. Johnson
Simply scanning a visibly stained TLC plate into a computer substitutes for much more expensive plate readers. With common image analysis software, "elution" profiles can be obtained. The resulting "chromatograms" can be analyzed in the same manner as other chromatograms.
Johnson, Mitchell E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 368.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Determination of the Scoville Heat Value for Hot Sauces and Chilies: An HPLC Experiment  James D. Batchelor and Bradley T. Jones
The student will isolate the capsainoids from commercial food products (chilies and sauces) using a simple extraction technique. The identity and concentration of the capsainoids are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations are then used to determine the pungency (Scoville heat value) of the foods.
Batchelor, James D.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 266.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry
An Inexpensive Commercially Available Analog-to-Digital Converter  Gary W. Breton
The use of an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter for interfacing gas chromatographs to computers in a teaching laboratory environment is described. Raw data may be read, processed, and printed from software supplied with the converter to afford chromatograms of acceptable quality.
Breton, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 262.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
A Low-Cost Device for Automatic Photometric Titrations  Fábio R. P. Rocha and Boaventura F. Reis
Construction of a simple, low-cost (about $150 U.S.) automatic photometric titrator employing a light-emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor. The electronic circuit can be assembled by the students themselves. The device was employed to implement a common procedure in chemical labs, making feasible the introduction of concepts related to electronics in undergraduate chemistry courses.
Rocha, Fbio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 258.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calculator-Based Instrumentation: The Design of a Digital Interface Based on I2C Technology  A. B. Hickman, W. G. Delinger, and Robin S. Helburn
In this work, we describe the interfacing of a digital temperature sensor to a Texas Instruments TI-85 calculator to make a portable instrument. The design of the interface is based on an integrated circuit that uses the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) protocol.
Hickman, A. B.; Delinger, W. G.; Helburn, Robin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 255.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reply to Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Response to challenges in graphing the triple point of water and correction to original article.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Inflection at the Triple Point  Myers, R. Thomas
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Letters  
Challenges in graphing the triple point of water.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Development of Innovative Laboratory Experiments with UV-Visible Spectrophotometer   Peter Abeta Iyere
A brief description of the instrument acquired with National Science Foundation funds (Cary 300 BIO UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, model EL98013047 equipped with diffuse reflectance and temperature control accessories) precedes highlights of some of the experiments being developed at Tennessee State University.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 153.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Understanding NMR Multiplet Structure with WinDNMR  N. Bampos and A. Vidal-Ferran
Employing interactive, user-friendly software packages (such as WinDNMR) on a conventional personal computer to investigate the effect of changing the constituent coupling constants on the appearance of a multiplet. As an example, a multiplet representing a proton coupled to three neighboring environments (four-spin system) is treated in detail.
Bampos, N.; Vidal-Ferran, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 130.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode  Florinel Gabriel Banica
A device producing reproducible hanging mercury drops at the end of a glass capillary is described. Mercury flow through the capillary is controlled by means of a closing needle actuated by an electromagnetic relay. The timing circuit is very simple and consists only of resistors and capacitors.
Banica, Florinel Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 98.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Easy-to-Make Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode  Gaston A. East and M. A. del Valle
In this contribution we describe the construction of a silver-silver chloride reference electrode that can be readily assembled in any teaching laboratory and that fulfills most of the requirements expected for a device of this kind.
East, Gaston A.; del Valle, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Student-Determined Values for the Calculation of Chemical Shifts of Methylene Protons in Different Chemical Environments  Gary W. Breton
A laboratory experiment in which students themselves determine values for the calculation of chemical shifts of methylene protons in a variety of chemical environments. Although these values come from single determinations of representative compounds from several different classes, the alpha-parameter values obtained are in close agreement with literature data.
Breton, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy
Analysis of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Fuels Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Tal M. Nahir
The analysis of diesel fuel using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. The experiment is especially appropriate for courses in instrumental analysis and environmental chemistry. Results from the injections of small amounts of liquid samples include total-ion- and single-ion-mode chromatograms as well as mass spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives.
Nahir, Tal M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1695.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Constructing Environmental Impact Statements. An Organizational Focus for Teaching Analytical Environmental Chemistry  Susan M. Libes
Preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is the organizational focus for an undergraduate lab course in environmental chemistry. Students work collaboratively through the semester to prepare an EIS following National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines. This involves several stages of activity including a scoping process, field sampling, and laboratory analyses, modeling of the results to predict impacts, and report writing.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1649.
Instrumental Methods |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Learning Quality Assurance/Quality Control Using U.S. EPA Techniques. An Undergraduate Course for Environmental Chemistry Majors  Susan M. Libes
In the environmental realm, quality control (QC) includes activities associated with sampling, sample preservation and storage, method validation, and analysis involving solids, liquids, and gases. Students should be led to discover the need for QC by first performing analyses with little guidance. This is followed by a class discussion in which they critique their data.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1642.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Inexpensive Variable Pathlength Cells for Discovery-Based Investigation of the Beer-Lambert Law  Mitscele, Jonathan
Glass spacers used to reduce pathlengths.
Mitscele, Jonathan J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1624.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)  reviewed by Nathan W. Bower
This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students.
Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1489.
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Supplementary Offset Device for Data Acquisition Systems  Thomas Kappes and Peter C. Hauser
The device described in this article offers in a simple way the possibility of extending the offset range and can be combined with any data acquisition system. The signal offset is obtained by adding a manually adjustable voltage to the raw signal.
Kappes, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1429.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
CO2 - Potentiometric Determination and Electrode Construction, a Hands-on Approach  Santiago Kocmur, Eduardo Cortón, Liliana Haim, Guillermo Locascio, and Lydia Galagosky
Hands-on activity in which the principles of gaseous equilibria and electrochemical potentials are applied to the construction of a carbon dioxide detector. The device is constructed using a combination pH electrode and a minimal amount of inexpensive, normally available laboratory materials.
Kocmur, Santiago; Cortn, Eduardo; Haim, Liliana; Locascio, Guillermo; Galagosky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1253.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
The Development of a Microscale Continuous Hot Solvent Extractor  Steve S. Wesolowski, Thomas Mulcahy, Christina M. Zafoni, and Wayne E. Wesolowski
To minimize the waste solvent produced, we have developed a microscale continuous hot solvent extractor that effectively extracts 100-500-mg samples using about 4 mL of solvent.
Wesolowski, Steve S.; Mulcahy, Thomas; Zafoni, Christina M.; Wesolowski, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1116.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An Apparatus for Temperature Displays  George Papageorgiou and John Xenos
In this article, a new simple and low-cost apparatus is introduced that provides the possibility to display temperature measurements in any lecture hall. The apparatus provides analog displays. Its construction requires only simple and inexpensive materials.
Papageorgiou, George; Xenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1094.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Microscale Vacuum Distillation Apparatus for Simple Separations  Ulf Ellervik and Hans Grundberg
To improve microscale distillation in a basic organic chemistry course, a simple and highly efficient vacuum distillation apparatus was designed.
Ellervik, Ulf; Grundberg, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 986.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A More Dramatic Container to Crush by Atmospheric Pressure  Robert D. Meyers and Gordon T. Yee
The familiar demonstration of collapsing a can by filling it with water vapor and then sealing it and allowing it to cool is improved by performing it with a 20-L steel solvent drum instead.
Meyers, Robert D.; Yee, Gordon T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 933.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Optimizing Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Sequential Simplex Optimization  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students adjust the level of four variables to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the flame atomic absorption determination of calcium. They observe that three of the four variables, flame observation height, burner horizontal position, and fuel-to-air ratio, affect S/N. The fourth variable, volume of water in a graduated cylinder, has no effect on S/N.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 834.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Correction to The Bobbing Bird  Gesser, Hyman D.
Problem with demonstration if humidity is high and correction for this.
Gesser, Hyman D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 757.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Introducing a Practice-Oriented Approach in the Physical Chemistry Instructional Laboratory  David E. Budil, Lutfur R. Khundkar, Ihsan A. Shehadi, and Mary Jo Ondrechen
There remains a tendency to follow the traditional philosophy that physical principles are to be illustrated experimentally rather than applied in problem solving, often with complex apparatus that distracts students from the point of the experiment.
Budil, David E.; Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Shehadi, Ihsan A.; Ondrechen, Mary Jo. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 601.
Instrumental Methods
A GC Instrument Simulator  D. Bruce Armitage
This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory.
Armitage, D. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 287.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC  Thomas A. Betts
The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method.
Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 240.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC
Microscale Synthesis and 1H NMR Analysis of Tetraphenylporphyrins  RaeAnne E. Falvo, Larry M. Mink, and Diane F. Marsh
The synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrin, H2[TPP], and para-substituted tetraphenylporphyrins, H2[(p-X)4TPP], where X = CN, CH3, and OCH3, is easily accomplished using microscale glassware. The compounds are synthesized from inexpensive starting reagents.
Falvo, RaeAnne E.; Mink, Larry M.; Marsh, Diane F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 237.
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
There Is No Perceptible Inflection at the Triple Point  Stephen J. Hawkes
At the triple point, phase diagrams have no discontinuity that is observable on any practical scale.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 226.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Melting Point Range and Phase Diagrams- Confusing Laboratory Textbook Descriptions  Kenn E. Harding
This paper proposes use of a modified phase diagram as a better tool for students to understand the relationship of observed melting point behavior and a physically correct phase diagram.
Harding, Kenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 224.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Incorporation of GC-MS into an Environmental Science Curriculum  Audrey E. McGowin and George G. Hess
Incorporating modern analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS into an interdisciplinary environmental science program presents many challenges. The most daunting challenge is the variety of disciplines from which students come and their limited understanding of chemistry and chemical analysis.
McGowin, Audrey E.; Hess, George G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 23.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
The Physics Teacher  Volker B. E. Thomsen
Selected articles with a chemistry emphasis.
Thomsen, Volker B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 18.
Spectroscopy |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Beer's Law: The Real Hazards (the author replies)  Muyskens, Mark
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, one should consider both stray light effects and chemical effects.
Muyskens, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Beer's Law: The Real Hazards  Logan, S.R.
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, stray light effects should not be ignored.
Logan, S.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, stray light effects should not be ignored.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Practical Origami in the Microscale Organic Lab  Daryl L. Ostercamp
The construction of a small paper boxlet, ideally suited for handling and drying small amounts of crystals, is presented. Flat horizontal "handles" present in the boxlet allow one to record pertinent data.
Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1456.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
A 19F NMR Study of Enzyme Activity  Keith E. Peterman, Kevin Lentz, and Jeffery Duncan
This basic enzyme activity laboratory experiment demonstrates how 19F NMR can be used in biochemical studies and presents the advantages of 19F NMR over 1H NMR for studies of this nature. This is a viable laboratory experiment for junior/senior-level courses in instrumental analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, or spectroscopy.
Peterman, Keith E.; Lentz, Kevin; Duncan, Jeffery. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1283.
Instrumental Methods |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A Simple Electrochemical Approach to Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics  K. J. Drok, I. M. Ritchie, and G. P. Power
The system studied is the dissolution of a known amount of copper in a solution of iron(III). The reaction time is determined by measuring the potential of the copper, which has been electrodeposited on an inert electrode, as a function of time
Drok, K. J.; Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1145.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
A Solid-State Water Flow Fault Safety Switch for the Chemical Laboratory  Jonas Gruber, Rosamaria Wu Chia Li, and Isaac Gruber
A low cost solid-state water flow fault switch with a thermal sensing device is described that cuts the electric power of the heating element, normally employed in distillation and reflux devices, whenever their cooling water streams are impaired. This to prevent any possible escape of distillate vapours which may be toxic or flammable.
Gruber, Jonas; Li, Rosamaria Wu Chia; Gruber, Isaac. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1132.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
Availability of capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrumentation allows students to have hands-on experience with this modern separation tool. They gain more than operational knowledge, however. Inherent in the instructional process is an emphasis on the relation of the chemistry of the sample to the fundamental mechanism of electrophoresis and the demonstration of how CE complements other methods for similar measurements.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1079.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Design and Operation of a Portable Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer for the Undergraduate Curriculum  Michael Henchman and Colin Steel
We describe the design and construction of a teaching mass spectrometer from components that are available commercially. The instrument is transportable, robust, and inexpensive. It yields a mass spectrum 3 minutes after being switched on and is designed to be used by undergraduates and maintained by faculty without special instrumental skills.
Henchman, Michael; Steel, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1042.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry
Laboratory Made Electrochemical Sensors for Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry  Teresa Goscinska
A novel method of adsorptive stripping voltammetry with a medium exchange preconcentration for the analytical detection of ferrocene in a small sample is presented. A laboratory prepared carbon paste electrode or a clay modified carbon paste electrode (referred to as a sensor) is used as a working electrode.
Goscinska, Teresa. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1038.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
An Experiment in the Sampling of Solids for Chemical Analysis  Robert D. Guy, Louis Ramaley, and Peter D. Wentzell
An experiment is described that is suitable for demonstrating the principles of sampling uncertainty in the chemical analysis of particulate materials. Although uncertainty due to the sampling of heterogeneous materials is a pervasive problem in the analysis of "real world" samples, there are very few experiments designed to introduce this topic into the undergraduate laboratory.
Guy, Robert D.; Ramaley, Louis; Wentzell, Peter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1028.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids
The Thermometer as a Simple Instrument  George F. Atkinson
The liquid-in-glass thermometer is used as a simple example of designing a measurement instrument which requires no previous knowledge of topics like electricity or optics.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 849.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A Standardized Approach to Collecting and Calculating Noise Amplitude Spectra  Norman N. Sesi, Mathew W. Borer, Timothy K. Starn, and Gary M. Hieftje
A standardized approach to acquire, calculate, and display noise spectra is proposed. The method is based on normalizing the noise amplitude spectrum to the average dc level of the input signal. This normalization procedure should allow noise spectra, obtained in different laboratories or from different sources, to be compared both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Sesi, Norman N.; Borer, Mathew W.; Starn, Timothy K.; Hieftje, Gary M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 788.
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Teaching Computer Concepts to Undergraduate Chemists  Ronald S. Haines
A curriculum for introducing chemistry students to the use of computer hardware and software in chemistry is described. The aim of the curriculum is to give students confidence when dealing with computers by emphasizing underlying concepts which are common to many computer applications.
Haines, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 785.
Learning Theories |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modified Carbon Electrodes for Microscale Electrochemistry  Enrico Mocellin and Teresa Goscinska
This paper tries to communicate the surface chemistry nature of electrochemistry, while conveying the future possibilities and application of the subject in such a way that the students may gain some insight and venture to explore the modern methodology and its future directions.
Mocellin, Enrico; Goscinska, Teresa. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 771.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis
Claisen's Flask and Its Evolution  Bruno Lunelli
The current note presents two types of semimicro distilling flask, plus a vapor condenser, all exploiting a centrifugal field, (together with an order-of-magnitude calculation of the field's strength).
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 638.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Low-Cost Auto-Stop Hydraulic Press for Making KBr Disc  Ping-Kay Hon
A hydraulic press fitted with an adjustable torque wrench, together with a stand made of iron bars will form an auto-stop hydraulic press for making KBr disc in IR studies. Total material cost is about $100.
Hon, Ping-Kay. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 629.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis  Valerie L. McDevitt, Alejandra Rodriguez, and Kathryn R. Williams
Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello Yellow; caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography; and the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis.
McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 625.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Overhead Projector Voltmeter Aids  Michael R. Hall and Rubin Battino
This paper describes two simple inexpensive devices that allow use of an overhead projector voltmeter to accurately read voltages and temperatures in the range 0-30C.
Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy  Aaron Aponick, Emedio Marchozzi, Cynthia R. Johnston, and Carl T. Wigal
This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.
Aaron Aponick, Emedio Marchozzi, Cynthia R. Johnston, and Carl T. Wigal. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 465.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Kinetics-Based Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of MnO4- and Cr2O72-: A Modern Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Siddharth Pandey, Mary E. R. McHale, Ann-Sofi M. Horton, Sandra A. Padilla, Ashantè L. Trufant, Noé U. De La Sancha, Ernesto Vela, and William E. Acree, Jr.
An indirect kinetics-based spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of permanganate and dichromate ion concentrations in an unknown. The method is based upon differences in reaction times between pyrogallol red and the two analytes.
Siddharth Pandey, Mary E. R. McHale, Ann-Sofi M. Horton, Sandra A. Padilla, Ashantè L. Trufant, Noé U. De La Sancha, Ernesto Vela, and William E. Acree, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 450.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Notes on Converting to Microscale  Antonio Herrera and John Almy
Small glassware is used rather than conventional microscale kits. The equipment and four microscale experiments that emphasize microscale techniques are described.
Herrera , Antonio; Almy, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 83.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Educational NMR Software  Peter Lundberg
A description of a compilation of computer programs (EduNMRSoft) suitable for teaching NMR at an introductory to advanced level is presented. Each program is categorized and described by function, hardware requirements, availability, author, and references in the list.
Lundberg, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1489.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Investigation of Atropisomerism in ortho-Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrins: An Experimental Module Involving Synthesis, Chromatography, and NMR Spectroscopy  Ruth Freitag Beeston, Shannon E. Stitzel , and Mitchell A. Rhea
It is shown that as the number of cofacial methyl neighbors for a particular methyl group decreases, the chemical shift of the methyl protons increases. This experiment leads to a greater understanding of chromatography and NMR spectroscopy in addition to introducing students to porphyrin synthesis and the concepts of atropisomerism and statistical distributions.
Beeston, Ruth Freitag; Stitzel, Shannon E.; Rhea, Mitchell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1468.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard  David W. Clarke
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol.
Clarke, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Instrumentation and Applications  David C. Muddiman, Ray Bakhtiar, Steven A. Hofstadler, and Richard D. Smith
This article introduces educators and researchers to the theory, principles, instrumentation, and some applications of MALDI-MS. Reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers are described in detail, since TOF is the most common mass analyzer for ions produced by MALDI.
Muddiman, David C.; Bakhtiar, Ray; Hofstadler, Steven A.; Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1288.
Mass Spectrometry |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Simple and Inexpensive 8-Bit Analog to Digital Converter for the PCs Parallel Port  Orfeo Zerbinati
A simple and inexpensive 8-bit analog to digital (ADC) converter based on the ADC0804 integrated circuit, for replacing stripchart recorders by measuring analog voltages through the Centronics port (printer or parallel output) of an IBM-compatible personal computer, is proposed.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1241.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Floating Siphon - an Effective "Homemade" Device for High Dilution Experiments  Alexander Kolchinski
A simple device, which can be used in place of a syringe pump, has been suggested for high dilution experiments.
Kolchinski, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1190.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Exercise To Illustrate the Importance of Sample Preparation in Chemical Analysis  Jeffrey G. Dunn, David Philips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
A brief description of the equipment and methods necessary for sample preparation, but concentrates more on the data obtained by students and the conclusions that may be drawn from such data. This exercise may be used by class instructors when introducing students to the pitfalls in sampling and the power of statistics.
Dunn, Jeffrey G.; Philips, David; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1188.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics
The Remarkable Resilience of Beer's Law  Mark A. Muyskens and Eric T. Sevy
Described is a case where Beer's law holds to a remarkable degree. Linear absorbance over three orders of magnitude is shown for both pyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine absorption of 266-nm laser light in a 3-m gas cell. This case provides a counter-example for a discussion of deviations from Beer's law.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Sevy, Eric T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1138.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Identification of Volatile Flavor Components by Headspace Analysis: A Quick and Easy Experiment for Introducing GC/MS  Richard Kjonaas, Jean L. Soller, and Leslee A. McCoy
By placing a piece of chewing gum (Wrigley's) or a crushed piece of hard candy (LifeSavers or Runts) into a vial, followed by GC/MS analysis of a five microliter sample of the headspace, students are able to identify several of the volatile flavoring components which are present.
Kjonaas, Richard; Soller, Jean L.; McCoy, Leslee A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1104.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
IR Spectroscopy  William C. Hoyt and Jonathan Mitschele
Using a NaCl plate for IR spectroscopy.
Hoyt, William C. and Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1024.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows  Keiichi Ohno, Hiroatsu Matsuura, Haruhiko Tanaka
An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions.
Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 961.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Hydrogen Bonding
Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block  Charles G. Shevlin, Ward Coppersmith, Christopher Fish, Stanley Vlock, William Vellema
A simple constant temperature heat block was constructed from readily available materials. The configuration of the heating block can be constructed to meet the needs of any laboratory.
Shevlin, Charles G.; Coppersmith, Ward; Fish, Christopher; Vlock, Stanley; Vellema, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Modern Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment: Quantitative Determination of Cr (III) and Co (II) Using a Spectroscopic H-Point Standard Addition Method  Siddarth Pandey, Joyce R. Powell, Mary E. R. McHale, William E. Acree, Jr.
Advantages associated with the HPSAM include elimination of sample matrix effects, reduction of both constant and systematic errors, and a decrease in the number of absorbance measurements that must be made. The method is applicable to determine an analyte concentration in the presence of an interfering impurity. if the identity of the impurity is known, its concentration can also be determined.
Pandey, Siddarth ; Powell, Joyce R. ; McHale, Mary E. R. ; Acree, Jr., William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 848.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
The Onium Compounds  Nicolay V. Tsarevsky, Vera Slaveykova, Stefan Manev, Dobri Lazarov
The onium salts are of significant interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis, while the application of different onium salts is immense.
Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazaroz, Dobri. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 734.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Experiments of Modern Chemistry: Simultaneous Recording of Multiple Cooling Curves  Ronald A. Bailey, Sudhen B. Desai, Norbert F. Hepfinger, Henry B. Hollinger, Peter S. Locke, Kenneth J. Miller, James J. Deacutis, Donald R. VanSteele
An apparatus for simultaneous recording of six heating/cooling curves of metallic mixtures is described. Data are recorded using computer data acquisition and temperature-time data displayed and printed out for evaluation.
Bailey, Ronald A.; Desai, Sudhen B.; Hepfinger, Norbert F.; Hollinger, Henry B.; Locke, Peter S.; Miller, Kenneth J.; Deacutis, James J.; VanSteele, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 732.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstration of Characteristics of Basic Components of a Spectrophotometer  Juwadee Shiowatana
Introductory experiments were designed to demonstrate the characteristics of basic components of a spectrophotometer using an IL AA/AE spectrophotometer. Emissive properties of various types of radiation source; resolving power of wavelength selectors and response of photodetectors were investigated through simple experiments.
Shiowatana, Juwadee. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 730.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
An Innovative Design of a Small Reactor  P. A. Thomas
Design of a small-volume glass reactor which affords effective gas bubbling simultaneously with mechanical stirring is described. Innovative modification and incorporation of an ordinary hypodermic glass syringe in the design make the fabrication very simple and inexpensive.
Thomas, P. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 440.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Easily Built Low-Cost Apparatus To Measure Polymer Conductivity  Jonas Gruber, Henrique de Santana, Isaac Gruber, Wilson Gazotti, Jr.
A low-cost two-point probe apparatus to measure polymer conductivity intended for teaching purposes is described. Full mechanical details of the probe, as well as electronic schematic diagrams are given.
Gruber, Jonas; de Santana, Henrique; Gruber, Isaac; Gazotti, Wilson Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 418.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science
Screening and Sequential Experimentation: Simulations and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiments  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students are introduced to screening and sequential experimentation using simulations and experimentation. The work begins with spreadsheet simulations and practice with the experimental design software. Students learn how to use the graphical output, normal quantile plots, to recognize the specific factors that affect the result of an experiment. In the laboratory, students make a preliminary investigation of the effect of six variables (flame observation height, flame stoichiometry, acetic acid, lamp current, wavelength, and slit width) on the atomic absorption signal for silver.
Stolzberg, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Electrochemical Measurements in the Undergraduate Curriculum  John F. Wheeler, Sandra K. Wheeler, and Laura L. Wright
Application of two voltammetric workstations, a low-current amplifier for microelectrode use, and two amperometric detectors in an undergraduate curriculum and research programs.
Wheeler, John F.; Wheeler, Sandra K.; Wright, Laura L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 72.
Electrochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Synthesis and Use of Reverse-Phase Silica Gel for HPLC in Undergraduate Chemistry  Fernando Ortega, Ernesto Velez, and Ratnasamy Somanathan
Commercially available silica gel was derivatized with n-octadecyldimethylchlorosilane to produce inexpensive HPLC reverse-phase stationary support, which was used in separation experiments.
Ortega, Fernando; Velez, Ernesto; Somanathan, Ratnassamy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A26.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Integration of National Instruments' LabVIEW Software into the Chemistry Curriculum  Steven M. Drew
The overall aim of this continuing project has been to provide students with user-friendly analytical tools that will improve their ability to quickly perform chemical analyses, in turn leaving more laboratory time for experimental design and open-ended investigation. We have found that LabVIEW can be used as a central laboratory software system that can be customized by the instructor to fit specific experimental needs and programmed by students with minimal training.
Drew, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1107.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Teaching Analytical Instrument Design with LabVIEW  Rudy Gostowski
This curriculum was devised to provide hands-on experience with the theory and design of modern instruments. A background in electronics is considered fundamental to this goal. This course extensively utilizes LabVIEW to economically provide basic electronic instrumentation and to serve in data acquisition and manipulation for a student design project.
Gostowski, Rudy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1103.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Polymer Mechanical Properties via a New Laboratory Tensile Tester   T. Carter Gilmer, Matthew Williams,
A laboratory tensile testing device has been developed, which allows quick and inexpensive measurements of tensile properties of polymeric materials in a uni-axial mode. The device is mostly for instructive purposes and is not necessarily precise enough to collect research mechanical property data.
Gilmer, T. Carter; Williams, Matthew. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1062.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Development of a Low-Cost Four-Color LED Photometer  Jay R. Hamilton, Jeffrey S. White, Mary B. Nakhleh
This photometer resembles a Spectronic 20 in that it detects absorbance at selected wavelengths of visible light. However, the photometer retains the advantages of a dual-beam system. The cost is reduced by the elimination of all optical components, which are often the most expensive portion of spectrophotometers.
Hamilton, Jay R.; White, Jeffrey S.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1052.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
An Improved Container for Solutions of Yellow Phosphorous  Stephen W. Wright
This short article suggests the use of the Sure/Pac cylinder system as an alternative to glass stoppered bottles for the storage of solutions of yellow phosphorous in carbon dioxide.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 818.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Making an Inexpensive Tesla Coil from a Car Coil  Michael R. Hall and Rubin Battino
Directions are given for making an inexpensive tesla coil from a car coil, along with the suggested uses for the tesla coil.
Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 817.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple NMR Imaging  Per-Ola Quist
Recently we modernized an NMR course for undergraduate chemists. The aim of the new course is to introduce them to the most common applications of NMR.
Quist, Per-Ola. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 751.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
An Integrated Curriculum for First- and Second-Year Chemistry Courses  T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick
Key features of this innovation are the integration of organic and inorganic chemical concepts throughout the first two years of the curriculum, the incorporation of modern instrumentation into lecture and laboratory beginning the first semester, and the matching of topic development to student ability throughout the two-year sequence.
T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 638.
Instrumental Methods
Examination of a Reaction Mechanism by Polarimetry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Michael D. Mosher, Chad O. Kelly, and Melvyn W. Mosher
The experiment has been shown to be successful with chiral mandelic acid and POCl3 and with chiral lactic acid and HBr. The substitution mechanisms of these reactions proceed with 1% and 38% SN2 character respectively.
Mosher, Michael D.; Kelly, Chad O.; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 567.
Instrumental Methods |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography
NMR Determination of Internal Rotation Rates and Rotational Energy Barriers: A Physical Chemistry Lab Project  Kevin F. Morris and Luther E. Erickson
This experiment will expose students to a variety of NMR techniques, such as saturation transfer, inversion-recovery, and line shape analysis. It will also demonstrate that NMR is an extremely useful tool to chemists, with very relevant applications in physical chemistry.
Morris, Kevin F.; Erickson, Luther E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 471.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Are They Really Sloppy?: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance in the Laboratory  Katalin Kovács-Hadady and István Fábián
The performance of the students in the analytical laboratory was tested in a potentiometric determination of fluoride ion in anti-caries dental tablets. The analytical results determined by freshman students and experienced personnel were compared.
Kovács-Hadady, Katalin; Fábián, István. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 461.
Potentiometry |
Instrumental Methods
Soxhlet Apparatus and Chromatography Columns Combined  D. W. Sullins, T. T. Denton, and E. J. Eisenbraun
Two designs of glass apparatus for use either as Soxhlet apparatus or as chromatography columns are described. One utilizes a quartz barrel which permits UV detection of eluting bands on alumina or silica packing.
Sullins, D. W.; Denton, T. T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 380.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
Luminescence Decay and Flash Photolysis Experiments Using an Inexpensive, Laser-Based Apparatus  Benjamin A. DeGraff and David A. Horner
A low cost, easily assembled apparatus has been developed that allows a number of the most exciting laser-based experiments to be performed for less than eight thousand dollars. Also, presented are a number of experiments which can be done using the apparatus and suggestions for a number of additional ones.
DeGraff, Benjamin A.; Horner, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 279.
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fluorometric Determination of Aluminum: A Quantitative Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory  Jim Peterson
There appear to be very few laboratory procedures published describing the quantitative determination of inorganic species by fluorometric methods that are suitable for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course. This article describes a quantitative experiment that employs fluorometry to determine aluminum.
Peterson, Jim. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 262.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Multichannel DTA Apparatus for the Measurement of Phase Diagrams  A. Lötz
An inexpensive five-channel DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) apparatus for educational use is described in detail.
Lotz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 195.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis
A Solenoid-Operated Gas or Liquid Saver  Michael N. Quigley
A previous note in this Journal described the installation of a water reservoir that greatly facilitates the unattended operation of atomic absorption, emission, and plasma spectrophotometers. A further refinement is detailed here, that relates to the closure of gas valves supplying plasma spectrophotometers in particular, although chromatographs can be similarly modified.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 194.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
An Easy-to-Build Rotational Viscometer with Digital Readout  Turgay Seckin and Suphi M. Kormaly
Low-cost rotational viscometer with digital readout that was well-suited for measuring viscosity was constructed with two dc motors, a rotor, a measuring cup, and milivolt recorder. This rotational viscometer can be used for quick, unsophisticated tests and comparative measurement.
Seckin, Turgay; Kormaly, Suphi M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 193.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A Paper Vernier Scale for Various Laboratory Equipments  B. S. Lark
Fabrication and use of a paper vernier scale for a buret is described in this article. Use of this vernier scale makes the reading of the level lying between the graduation marks up to 0.01 mL and thus increases the efficiency of the use of a buret and other similar stem calibrated instruments.
Lark, B. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 177.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive Exemplars for the Wave Model of Electronic Structure and Light  Ed Vitz, Robert Binning, and James W. Long
The classic wave model can be used to understand the behavior of electrons constrained to the vicinity of a nucleus. In this article inexpensive examples of the wave model are described.
Vitz, Ed; Binning, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 171.
Photochemistry |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Selective and Quantitative Catalytic Hydrogenation: A Safe, Inexpensive Experiment for Large Classes  John A. Landgrebe
A catalytic hydrogenation experiment suitable for large classes.
Landgrebe, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A220.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry  
Listing of the 1995 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE).
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A214.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Economical Replacement for Nitrogen in Solvent Removal in Microscale Organic Laboratories   Ruekberg, Ben.
A simple way to remove solvents from reaction mixtures that are not readily oxidized.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A200.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Design of a Simple and Stand-alone RS-232c Interface  Maleki, Norooz; Haghighi, Behzad
Plans for a simple and stand-alone RS-232c interface for digitizing analogue data.
Maleki, Norooz; Haghighi, Behzad J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A78.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Visualizing p-v-T and p-x-T Relationships using Geomview  David, Carl W.
Using Geomview software to produce and explore three-dimensional p-v-T and p-x-T diagrams.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A78.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Protecting Gas Chromatographic Syringes  Ben Ruekberg
Suggestion for protecting gas chromatographic syringes.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1141.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Management
More Plates in One Chromatographic Tank  Jamil Anwar
Suggested modifications to chromatographic tanks to accommodate more plates per tank.
Anwar, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1136.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Ternary Phase Diagram for a Less Hazardous System  Barbara A. Udale and John D. Wells
Using a n-propanol-n-heptane-water system to generate data for construction of a ternary phase diagram.
Udale, Barbara A.; Wells, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1106.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Solutions / Solvents
Cooling-Trough Condenser for Sublimation Tubes  E. J. Eisenbraun and J. M. Lucas
Plans for a versatile cooling trough for large, test-tube shaped, sublimation tubes.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Lucas, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1056.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Useful Plastic Items Available   Marie Sherman
Items discarded by hospitals that can be used in chemistry laboratories.
Sherman, Marie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1028.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
LIMSport VII. Semiconductor Gas Sensors as GC Detectors and "Breathalyzers"  Ed Vitz and Helen Chan
178. Construction and use of a semiconductor gas sensor/computer interface in which data is collected and analyzed in a spreadsheet program.
Vitz, Ed; Chan, Helen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 920.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Solid State Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry
Teflon Tape as a Sample Support for IR Spectroscopy  Keith A. Oberg and Daniel R. Palleros
Replacing IR spectra windows with Teflon tape; includes sample spectra run with NaCl plates and Teflon tape.
Oberg, Keith A.; Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 857.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction and Testing of a Variable Temperature Potentiometry Cell for Student Use   Lee Kresge, Kenneth E. Hyde, and Donald A. Palmer
Construction, testing, and application of a variable temperature potentiometry cell to determine the Nernst slope over a wide temperature range; sample data and analysis included.
Kresge, Lee; Hyde, Kenneth E.; Palmer, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 756.
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Simple and Inexpensive Device for Slow, Controlled Addition of a Solution to a Reaction Mixture   Peter Osvath
A simple and inexpensive device for slow, controlled addition of a solution to a reaction mixture.
Osvath, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 658.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Computer-Generated Ternary Phase Diagram   Combs, Leon L.; Lynn, Gregory W.
175. Bits and pieces, 54. Procedure for generating ternary phase diagrams (triangle coordinate graphs) using spreadsheet software.
Combs, Leon L.; Lynn, Gregory W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 608.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Rapid IR Sampling Methods for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Using a Diffuse Reflectance Accessory  Scamehorn, Richard
Obtaining IR data for small solid samples using a diffuse reflectance accessory.
Scamehorn, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 566.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Binary-Solution Critical Opalescence: Mole Fraction versus Temperature Phase Diagram  Stenland, Chris; Pettitt, B. Montgomery
Physical chemistry laboratory to investigate the thermally controlled critical demixing of binary fluid mixtures; includes experimental setup, sample data, and analysis.
Stenland, Chris; Pettitt, B. Montgomery J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 560.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Diode-Array Spectroscopy for Educational Applications  Schafer, Wieland; Klunker, Jurgen
Details of diode-array spectroscopy; includes assembly and use information.
Schafer, Wieland; Klunker, Jurgen J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 537.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introduction of Modern Instrumentation in the First Two Years of Chemistry: The Iowa Chemistry Curriculum Network (IACCN)  Greenbowe, Thomas J.
Project to incorporate three modular instructional resources on modern instrumentation into the first two years of college chemistry.
Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 534.
Instrumental Methods
Large-Scale Sublimation and Evaporative-Distillation Using an Improved Apparatus  Eisenbraun, E. J.; Cagle, M. D.; Lucas, J. M.; Denton, T. T.
Apparatus for improving large-scale sublimation and evaporative-distillation.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Cagle, M. D.; Lucas, J. M.; Denton, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Simple Infrared Cell for Gases  Mabbott, Gary A.
Design of a simple infrared cell for gases (specifically nitrogen oxides).
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 471.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
An Apparatus To Serve as a Substitute for Three-Neck Flasks  Eisenbraun, E. J.; Denton, T. T.
Design for an apparatus to serve as a substitute for three-neck flasks.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Denton, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 459.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Compromise Method for Dispensing Some Strong Acids for Qualitative Analysis Classes.  Ruekberg, Ben.
Apparatus and procedure for dispensing strong acids to students.
Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 450.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry  Smith, Gregory D.; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T.
Description of a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction for lab work or demonstrations; includes sample data.
Smith, Gregory D.; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 438.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Modular Raman Spectroscopy System Using a Helium-Neon Laser That Is Also Suited for Emission Spectrophotometry Experiments  Fitzwater, David A.; Thomasson, Kathryn A.; Glinski, Robert J.
Construction and use of a laser, Raman/emission spectroscopy system.
Fitzwater, David A.; Thomasson, Kathryn A.; Glinski, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 187.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Lasers
Put the Body to Them!  Perkins, Robert R.
Examples of chemistry demonstrations involving student participation, including quantized states and systems, boiling point trends, intermolecular vs. intramolecular changes, polar/nonpolar molecules, enantiomers and diastereomers, and chromatography.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 151.
Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Qualitative and Instrumental Analysis of Environmentally Significant Elements (Chasteen, Thomas G.)  Bath, Donald
A supplementary lab text.
Bath, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy  Raymond, Kenneth W.; Corkill, Jeffrey A.
Diffuse reflectance offers a quick and easy-to-use alternative to the preparation of KBr pellets and Nujol mulls for the infrared spectra of solid samples; includes a comparison of spectra from both techniques.
Raymond, Kenneth W.; Corkill, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A204.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Simple But Accurate Pipet for Use in Microscale Organic Labs  Swanson, Gerald C.
Constructing simple and accurate micropipets from 1 mL serological pipets.
Swanson, Gerald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A202.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers: A Combined TGA/FTIR Experiment  Williams, Kathryn R.
Enhancement of an earlier procedure by equipping an FTIR with an Attenuated Total Reflectance accessory and by combining the infrared results with Thermogravimetric Analysis data.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A195.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Macrostyle Microscale Equipment  Casanova, Joseph; Coyne, Gary S.
Microscale glassware that is designed to operate like full-scale equipment.
Casanova, Joseph; Coyne, Gary S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A148.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Learning Name Reactions and Name Apparatuses Through Crossword Puzzles  Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L.
These computer generated crossword puzzles consist of 38 organic name reactions and 13 name apparatuses frequently encountered at the undergraduate level.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Solving Nonlinear Simultaneous Equations by the Method of Successive Substitution: Applications to Equations of State  Eberhart, J. G.
Several student programming exercises based on the use of various equations of state to predict a variety of fluid properties are described.
Eberhart, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1038.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A New, Jacketed Stirrer Bearing/Spacer  Goehring, Keith E.
This bearing/spacer has proven to be very effective in preventing solvent vapors from contacting the grease in the bearing, thus preventing possible contamination of the reaction mixture and/or stirring shaft seizing.
Goehring, Keith E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1000.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Alternative to Separatory Funnels for Chemical Extractions  Bye, Ragnar
A novel magnetic bar-stirred extraction method using conventional Erlenmeyer flasks.
Bye, Ragnar J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 806.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An Economical and Efficient Photochemical Box  Arney, B. E., Jr.; Banta, M. C.; Prouty, Patrick
Plans and construction of a UV light box for use in photochemical reactions.
Arney, B. E., Jr.; Banta, M. C.; Prouty, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 797.
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modified Hershberg Stirrer  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T. T.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Variations on the design and construction of the Hershberg stirrer.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T. T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 718.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rubber Elasticity: A Simple Method for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties  Byrne, John P.
A modified triple-beam balance that uses an optical lever to detect small changes in the length of a stretched rubber band.
Byrne, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 531.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Low-Cost Fermentor  Hopkins, Andrew S.
How to construct a low-cost bioreactor to grow 1-2 L of cells.
Hopkins, Andrew S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 529.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology
Non-Flame Heat on a Budget  Teague, Harold J.
Powering eight sand baths per lab bench to provide non-flame heat.
Teague, Harold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 435.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: II: Introductory Spectroscopy  Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger
A simple atomic flame spectrometer and a solution spectrophotometer that are easily constructed yet provide accurate and reliable results.
Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 353.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nickel-Titanium Memory Metal: A "Smart" Material Exhibiting a Solid-State Phase Change and Superelasticity  Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C.
Several simple experiments that illustrate the shape-memory, mechanical, and acoustical properties of Nitinol.
Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 334.
Solid State Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
A Reaction Chamber for the Thermite Reaction  Foseid, Thomas L.
Reaction chamber for the thermite reaction for purchase.
Foseid, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 327.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: Part 1. Ion-Selective Electrodes  Ramaley, Louis; Wedge, Paula J.; Crain, Sheila M.
Constructing, applying, and analyzing the results of Na+ selective electrodes.
Ramaley, Louis; Wedge, Paula J.; Crain, Sheila M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 164.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
pH
A Constant-Temperature, Multiport Reaction Vessel  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T. T.; Firsan, Sharbil J.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Schematic for apparatus for carrying out a series of reactions at precisely the same temperature.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T. T.; Firsan, Sharbil J.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 159.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
FT NMR in the Instrumental Analysis Course: A Curriculum and a Laboratory  Fuson, Michael M.
Discussion of NMR in the context of instrumental analysis should focus on the nature of the FT NMR experiment; a procedure to support this discussion is provided.
Fuson, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 126.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The stereochemistry of commercial 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone: An application of capillary gas chromatography   Garner, Charles M.
One example of how capillary gas chromatography can be employed in undergraduate organic laboratories.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A310.
Gas Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Applications of autosampling GC-MS in an introductory organic chemistry laboratory   Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.
Incorporation of an automated GC-MS has allowed students to have access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in a cost-effective and pedagogically sound manner.
Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A290.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
An experiment using time-based detection in flow injection analysis   Carroll, Mary K.; Tyson, Julian F.
This experiment can be adopted to work with any number of reactions that result in a product that absorbs light of the LED wavelength significantly.
Carroll, Mary K.; Tyson, Julian F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A210.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Synthesis of metal halides   Grube, Karl; Leffler, Amos J.
Procedure for micro preparation of metal halides.
Grube, Karl; Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A204.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab
Converting to a microscale laboratory with improvised equipment   Crouch, R. David; Nelson, Todd D.; Kinter, Chris M.
To avoid the expenses normally involved in converting experiments over to the microscale, these authors suggest some "improvised" microscale equipment.
Crouch, R. David; Nelson, Todd D.; Kinter, Chris M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A203.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction of a Micropycnometer for Determination of Density and Specific Gravity of Liquids and Solutions   Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M.
A procedure used to drastically minimize volume of liquid for disposal that includes development of other, valuable lab techniques.
Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A36.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple and cost-effective technique for the transfer of air-sensitive solutions  Smith Vosejpka, Laura J.
A technique that is a modification of the double-tipped needle technique for transferring air-sensitive liquids and solutions.
Smith Vosejpka, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Phase diagrams for aqueous systems  Treptow, Richard S.
Review of basic principles involving a phase diagram for an aqueous system and subsequent discussion of how diagrams for specific systems can be used both in the laboratory and for practical applications.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 616.
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An inexpensive, yet strong, way to assemble aluminum rod lattices  Brisbois, Ronald G.
An inexpensive yet strong way to assemble aluminum rod lattices to help with setting up reactions or apparatus.
Brisbois, Ronald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 506.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Practical adaptor for heating mantles  Marin-Puga, Gustavo; Svoronos, Paris
Since most current undergraduate organic labs use both micro and macro scale experiments, the availability of different size heating mantles become necessary. This article suggests a way around the potential problems, especially among third world countries where heating mantles are expensive.
Marin-Puga, Gustavo; Svoronos, Paris J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
A combination steam and cold plate  Eisenbraun, E. J.; Lucas, J. M.
An apparatus constructed to serve as a variable-temperature plate for use during magnetically stirred evaporation of solvents, dissolution of solids, and cooling solutions to induce crystallization.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Lucas, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 416.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple and flexible flask supports for weighings  Rothchild, Robert
Simple and flexible round-bottom flask supports can facilitate weighings or additions of reagents to flasks.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 409.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An experiment in manual multiple headspace extraction for gas chromatography: An undergraduate laboratory experiment using simple equipment  Welch, William C.; Greco, Thomas G.
An experiment developed to give the undergraduate analytical student experience in headspace gas chromatography and gas-liquid extraction in the absence of sophisticated extraction and sample injection equipment.
Welch, William C.; Greco, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Estimating the corrosion rate of mild steel in sulfuric acid by a hydrogen evolution method  Basman, A. R.; Chorley, G. B.; Adeloju, S. B.
Corrosion prevention is an important concept in chemistry and key in the progress of modern civilization. This paper describes a laboratory activity to aid in the understanding of the concept.
Basman, A. R.; Chorley, G. B.; Adeloju, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 258.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Microwave Drying of Precipitates for Gravimetric Analysis  Thompson, Robert Q.; Ghadiali, Mufaddal
Microwaves save time and energy in drying precipitates.
Thompson, Robert Q.; Ghadiali, Mufaddal J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 170.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Easy Filling of a Buret for a Number of Titrations  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, Khalid
A description of an inexpensive apparatus that could help with numerous titrations.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, Khalid J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 169.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Air-Free Distillation and Multifraction Sealing Apparatus  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T. T.; Lucas, J. M.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
An apparatus designed to enable vacuum distillation of organic compounds with rigorous exclusion of air until the distilled material is permanently sealed in glass ampoules.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T. T.; Lucas, J. M.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 168.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Discussion of the Term "Polymorphism"  Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin
Authors propose an extended definition for the term "polymorphism", especially in low molecular weight compounds.
Reinke, Helmut; Dehne, Heinz; Hans, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 101.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding
Cutting filter paper for microscale use  Englund, Charles R.
Using a cork borer to cut filter paper for microscale use.
Englund, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A314.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab
Microscale filtration  Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D.
Alternative to Craig tubes or filtered Pasteur pipets.
Duarte, Frederick F.; McCoy, Layton L.; Popp, Frank D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A314.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple and inexpensive gas trap or gas inlet for microscale work  Jacob, Linda A.
A simple and inexpensive device can be constructed from an Eppendorf ultramicropipet instead of a syringe needle.
Jacob, Linda A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A313.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Instrumental analysis courses: Part II. The choice and use of instrumentation  Jones, Bradley T.
Survey of what spechtrochemical analysis techniques are used in 95 chemistry departments.
Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A268.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Instrumental analysis courses: Part I. The current experimental practice  Harris, Harold H.; O'Brien, James J.
Survey of what instrumental techniques have been included in instrumental analysis courses from 32 chemistry departments.
Harris, Harold H.; O'Brien, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A266.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 4th Edition (Skoog, D. A.; Leary, J. J.).  Bower, Nathan W.
Presentation of instrumental methods for introductory students.
Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A224.
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive parallel interface to a digital pH meter   McMahon, John J.; Braca, Paul R.
The authors have designed an experiment in which the students build their own parallel interface "card" from inexpensive components.
McMahon, John J.; Braca, Paul R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A156.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH
Controlling a stepper motor: Using the IBM PC communication port   Chau, F. T.; Tam, K. Y.
To simplify the system for applications involving only one or two stepper motors, the serial communication port of an IBM PC may used instead of the parallel interface card.
Chau, F. T.; Tam, K. Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A154.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
HPLC method development with the photodiode array detector: A laboratory experiment   Remcho, Vincent T.; McNair, Harold M.; Rasmussen, Henrik T.
The experiment described here demonstrates the utility of a Photodiode Array detector (PDA) and serves as an introduction to retention theory in reversed-phase HPLC.
Remcho, Vincent T.; McNair, Harold M.; Rasmussen, Henrik T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A117.
HPLC |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The microscale organic laboratory: A very simple method of filtration and recrystallization   Laporterie, A.
The following inexpensive system can be used to perform filtration, washing and crystallization without the loss of product in an organic lab.
Laporterie, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A42.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Crystals / Crystallography
NMR tube cleaner  Denton, T. T.; Eisenbraun, E.
An inexpensive, rugged, and easily constructed alternative to all-glass, NMR-tube cleaners.
Denton, T. T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1036.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An idea to save time and money with recording IR spectrophotometers  Silverman, L. Phillip; Akee, Rhone; Fitzhugh, Anthony L.
Recommended procedure for avoiding off-scale IR traces with recording IR spectrophotometers.
Silverman, L. Phillip; Akee, Rhone; Fitzhugh, Anthony L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1030.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A reaction-solution calorimeter for the undergraduate laboratory  Diogo, H. P.; Minas da Piedade, M. E.; Moura Ramos, J. J.; Simoni, J. A.; Martinho Simoes, J. A.
It is believed that the reaction-solution calorimeter described here is a good compromise between cost and accuracy, and is particularly suited to a physical chemistry laboratory course.
Diogo, H. P.; Minas da Piedade, M. E.; Moura Ramos, J. J.; Simoni, J. A.; Martinho Simoes, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 940.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reactions accelerated by microwave radiation in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Bari, Shamsher S.; Bose, Ajay K.; Chaudhary, Ashok G.; Manhas, Maghar S.; Raju, Vegesna S.; Robb, Ernest W.
The authors have found that with the proper choice of reaction solvent, accelerated reactions can be carried out safely with ordinary glassware in commercial microwave ovens.
Bari, Shamsher S.; Bose, Ajay K.; Chaudhary, Ashok G.; Manhas, Maghar S.; Raju, Vegesna S.; Robb, Ernest W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 938.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
1H NMR analysis of mixtures using internal standards: A quantitative experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory  Peterson, Jim
Procedure to illustrate the general principles of quantitative NMR methodology.
Peterson, Jim J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 843.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Atomic emission spectrometry with helium plasmas: An emerging approach for nonmetal determinations  Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W.
Capabilities of helium microwave-induced plasmas for the determination of nonmetals.
Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 757.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
A simple, continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor for the demonstration and investigation of oscillating reactions  Merino, J. M.
Description and use of a simple, continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor for the demonstration and investigation of oscillating reactions.
Merino, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 754.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Filtration of very fine particles from an air-sensitive reaction mixture.  Tessier, Claire A.
A filtration device to separate fine particles from air-sensitive mixtures.
Tessier, Claire A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 684.
Separation Science |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Illustration of the principles of fluorimetry: An apparatus and experiments specially designed for the teaching laboratory.  Bigger, Stephen W.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Mellak, Geoffrey A.; Verity, Bruce.
An apparatus designed to be constructed cheaply that allows students to become familiar with the components of a fluorimeter and its operation.
Bigger, Stephen W.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Mellak, Geoffrey A.; Verity, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 675.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
C60 and C70 made simply.  Craig, Norman C.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Johnson, Adam R.
Procedure and apparatus for synthesizing C60 and C70.
Craig, Norman C.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Johnson, Adam R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 664.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
Simple generation of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene).  Iacoe, David A.; Potter, William T.; Teeters, Dale.
A simple means for the production of fullerene-enhanced graphitic soot using equipment commonly found in most undergraduate chemistry and physics laboratories.
Iacoe, David A.; Potter, William T.; Teeters, Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 663.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes
Modelling a thermostated water bath with a spreadsheet  Sundheim, Benson R.
140. Using a computer model and spreadsheet to analyze the role of relevant parameters (heater, cooling coils, stirrer, sensors, and other objects) on a water bath.
Sundheim, Benson R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 650.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple modification of a domestic microwave oven for improved temperature control.  Pagnotta, Marco; Nolan, Anna; Kim, Leona
Simple modifications to a domestic microwave oven that allows reasonable temperature control and stability.
Pagnotta, Marco; Nolan, Anna; Kim, Leona J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 599.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An easily assembled setup for stirring multiple reactions.  Chan, Wing Hong; Cai, Pei Xiang.
A simple and inexpensive setup for stirring more than one flask at a time.
Chan, Wing Hong; Cai, Pei Xiang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 598.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A secure system for student use of IR solution cells.  Levine, Samuel G.
Procedure for alleviating problems with student prepared IR solution cells.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 567.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Voltammetric behavior of a ferrocene derivative: A comparison using surface-confined and diffusion-controlled species.  Gomez, Marielle E.; Kaifer, Angel E.
Description of cyclic voltammetry and an experiment that examines the voltammetric behavior of a ferrocene derivative in aqueous solution (diffusion-controlled) and inside an anionic polyelectrolyte film (diffusion-controlled).
Gomez, Marielle E.; Kaifer, Angel E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 502.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Spreadsheet exercises for instrumental analysis  Prais, Michael G.
138. Five spreadsheet assignments used in a course on instrument analysis to familiarize students with personal computers and the numerical analysis of data.
Prais, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 488.
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
A simple generator for common gases at atmospheric pressure  Elsworth, John F.
The current high cost of either a Kipps generator for producing hydrogen sulfide in the undergraduate laboratory, or of the bottled gas, led the writer to construct a simple, economical and efficient generator for use in a laboratory fitted with an efficient fume hood.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 419.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  Chen, Chien T.
This article reviews our current understanding and then specifies the requirements for research that will improve our ability to detect hydrocarbons and predict their fate in the subsurface environment.
Chen, Chien T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 357.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the critical temperature of a high-temperature superconductor  Green, David B.; Douphner, Dijon; Hutchinson, Bennett
This note describes a simple, inexpensive method of measuring the temperature at which the Meissner effect exists in a disk of YBa2Cu3O7.
Green, David B.; Douphner, Dijon; Hutchinson, Bennett J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 343.
Superconductivity |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Refrigerated dropping funnel and reflux condenser  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
This one-piece apparatus has proved useful in controlling the temperature of a reagent during addition to a refluxing reaction mixture.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Avoiding capillary blockage of AA and AE spectrophotometers  Quigley, Michael N.
Using a piece of filter paper is a preventative measure that saves on equipment.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 324.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
HPLC: A Practical Technique for Future Chemists  
HPLC has been particularly helpful in separating the large molecules dealt with in biochemistry, and, therefore, it is essential that future chemists know how to use this technique routinely.
J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 260.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods
An Ace reducing adapter for screw vials.  Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce.
Using this device, solvents contained in vials can be evaporated quickly without problems.
Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Raman spectroscopy for the undergraduate physical and analytical laboratories  Galloway, Douglas B.; Ciolkowski, Edward L.; Dallinger, Richard F.
The goals of this paper are to describe the assembly of a simple Raman spectrometer that uses a nitrogen laser and other commonly available or easily purchasable components and to discuss the ways that this instrument can be used to enhance the educational experience in undergraduate physical and analytical chemistry laboratories.
Galloway, Douglas B.; Ciolkowski, Edward L.; Dallinger, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 79.
Raman Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experimental study of monochromators in UV-vis and IR spectrophotometers  Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J.
This is a laboratory exercise where students strip down a UV-vis spectrophotometer and an IR spectrophotometer.
Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 77.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Integrating research instrumentation with the general chemistry curriculum. Part I: Mass spectrometry  Eichstadt, Karen E.
A three-part exercise entitled "A Glimpse of Mass Spectrometry" was designed for students enrolled in the third quarter of a one-year, nonmajor course that surveyed organic and biological chemistry.
Eichstadt, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 48.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses
The use and utility of phase science  Laughlin, Robert G.
Phase diagrams describe the phase behavior, for a particular system of mixtures spanning a particular range of system variables. One must know how to read and interpret phase diagrams in order to extract and use the information they contain.
Laughlin, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 26.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
A semipreparative gas chromatography collection tube adapter  Lee, Sang-Ho; Hulce, Martin
A semipreparative gas chromatography collection tube adapter.
Lee, Sang-Ho; Hulce, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A142.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Construction of a low-cost solution cell for infrared analysis  Winston, Anthony
Solution techniques for IR analysis may be more practical than KBr pellets.
Winston, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A124.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
An evaluation of drop counting as a volume measurement   Ealy, James; Pickering, Miles
Drop counting as a volume measurement has gained popularity, especially in high school laboratories. These authors investigate the technique.
Ealy, James; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A120.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
A simple sublimation apparatus   Brouwer, Henry
A simple sublimation apparatus for use in organic chemistry.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A62.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Inert atmosphere techniques for the microscale laboratory   Newton, Thomas A.
A system developed to introduce students to working under inert atmosphere.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A60.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab
The Pittsburgh conference on analytical chemistry and applied spectroscopy: An educational experience  Settle, Frank A., Jr.
During the conference, there are many opportunities for students and educators to increase their knowledge of all areas of analytical chemistry and to see how chemistry is applied in many areas of society.
Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A37.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conferences |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Professional Development
Undergraduate organic and polymer lab experiments that exemplify structure determination by NMR  Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C.
Where in the curriculum is the best place to teach experimental NMR methods that are so essential to chemists and chemistry? These authors are of the opinion that NMR must be given more than a cursory introduction involving a single experiment, and present a series of experiments.
Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 685.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
A simple method for producing efficient concentric tube distillation columns  Smith, Sherrel
The typically used columns packed with glass beads have several disadvantages. This paper offers a solution that proves to be a better teaching aid.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 616.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Experiments in synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the undergraduate instrumental chemistry course  Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C.
These experiments can be used to compare the detection limits afforded by UV/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy for a given analysis and to show that the latter method is capable of of greater selectivity.
Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 433.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Proton-carbon chemical shift correlations  Macomber, Roger S.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between H-1 chemical shifts and C-13 chemical shifts in some detail.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 284.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Acid rain experiment and construction of a simple turbidity meter  Betterton, Eric A.
Construction of a simple turbidity meter in order to furnish more atmospheric chemistry experiments in the freshman and sophomore level chemistry lab.
Betterton, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 254.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Green Chemistry
Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR, & CMR (Clough, Fred W.)  Byrd, James E.
Set of programs designed to help students analyze and interpret infrared, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra.
Byrd, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A194.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A computer-aided optical melting point device  Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond
The device should improve the precision of these determinations by eliminating human judgement from the process.
Masterov, Michael; Pierre-Louis, Bredy; Chuang, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A75.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A home-built spectrofluorometer  Hadley, Fred J.; Mahloudji, Ali
Combining two Beckman DU spectrophotometers to produce a modest spectrofluorometer.
Hadley, Fred J.; Mahloudji, Ali J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 806.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel by multivariate linear regression  Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey
The use of multivariate linear regression in order to reduce the number of absorbance measurements and provide a means for evaluating the precision of the results of the simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel in solution by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 797.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Apparatus for two-probe conductivity measurements on compressed powders  Wudl, Fred; Bryce, Martin R.
A simple two-probe apparatus used to measure the room-temperature d.c. conductivity of solids in the form of compressed pellets.
Wudl, Fred; Bryce, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 717.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Physical Properties
A simple adjustable timer  Hon, Ping-Kay
A simple and low-cost electromechanical timer with a resolution range of 0.05 to 0.87 s/count.
Hon, Ping-Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 716.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A reusable apparatus for the convenient determination of the molecular weight of air- or moisture-sensitive compounds  Zoellner, Robert W.
Construction and application of an apparatus for the determination of the apparent molecular weight of air- or moisture sensitive compounds employing Singer's method of isothermal distillation.
Zoellner, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 714.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A sonar detector for gas chromatographs  Yarnitzky, Chaim N.
Construction of a sonar detector that operates on measuring the velocity of sound in the analyzed gas.
Yarnitzky, Chaim N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 712.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Organic laboratory experiments: A simplified method for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs  Smith, Sherrel
How short pieces of Teflon tubing may be used for gas chromatograph collection tubes.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 615.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The use of Dristan Nasal Spray as the unknown for simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a mixture  Williams, Kathryn R.; Cole, Steven R.; Boyette, Stacey E; Schulman, Stephen G.
The simultaneous determination of a mixture of two chromophores is a popular experiment in the instrumental analysis laboratory.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Cole, Steven R.; Boyette, Stacey E; Schulman, Stephen G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 535.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Simple, inexpensive glass reactors for high-temperature aqueous kinetics experiments  Jeffers, Peter M.
The authors have devised methods to make, fill, and seal gas bulbs that have been subsequently heated to 200 degrees Celcius for kinetics studies of hydrolysis reactions.
Jeffers, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 522.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
A convenient method for preparing chromatography columns  Wright, Stephen W.; Wright, Ann S.
The authors have found that the usual design of flash chromatography pressure regulators allows them to be used as very convenient aids for the rapid filling of columns for Silica Gel chromatography.
Wright, Stephen W.; Wright, Ann S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 517.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recovering silica gel using a Soxlet extractor  Mittelstadt, Friedrich G.; Franco, Cesar V.
In order to keep the cost of the isolation procedures as inexpensive as possible, the Silica Gel used in the process was recovered by means of a Soxlet extractor.
Mittelstadt, Friedrich G.; Franco, Cesar V. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 511.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments with "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.

Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 510.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An inexpensive device for collection of samples of water for dissolved oxygen determination without air contact   Favaretto, Lelio
This communication describes a simple and inexpensive device that permits the collection of water samples and fixation of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method.
Favaretto, Lelio J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 509.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Distillation and the Macintosh: PT Nomograph, an "in-lab" utility  Simon, R.; Senecal, T.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. This program duplicates the generic pressure-temperature nomograph, found in a variety of sources, for the detection of the boiling point of a liquid under reduced pressure.
Simon, R.; Senecal, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 505.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
A discourse on the drinking bird  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The aims of this article are to describe the operation of the drinking bird in quantitative terms, and to show the similarities between heat engines and the bird.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 457.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Phase diagrams for ternary liquid systems  Stead, Rebecca J.; Stead, Keith
A very simple adaptation to the original Clarke procedure allows this experiment to stand alone without the calibration curve.
Stead, Rebecca J.; Stead, Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 385.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
An inexpensive device for the measurements of particle size distribution  Dalas, Evangelos; Koutsoukos, Petros G.
This simple low cost device is suitable for obtaining a good idea of the particle size distribution of a powder or a crystalline preparation.
Dalas, Evangelos; Koutsoukos, Petros G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 356.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Colloids
A useful method for obtaining crystals from viscous oils  Qian, Chengyi
The method of slowly evaporating solvents was tried in the present study with oily reaction residues, which did not crystallize on standing for some time.
Qian, Chengyi J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 355.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Laboratory experiments on phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions of neutral molecules  Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K.
In order to illustrate the application of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC), the preparation of benzophenone oxime was attempted under different conditions.
Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 273.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
"Melting points are uncorrected": True or false?  Tiers, George V. D.
The classical capillary melting-point determination providing a simple measurement of an unpredictable characteristic property of solid organic compounds, together with a good indication of purity, has been of central importance to the development of organic chemistry.
Tiers, George V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 258.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An inexpensive alternative to commercial variable transformers   Ogle, Craig A.; Barnes, Craig E.
An inexpensive suitable alternative to a commercial variable transformer is described.
Ogle, Craig A.; Barnes, Craig E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 240.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A modular apparatus for demonstrating gas chromatography using serial coupling of a thermal conductivity and flame ionizaton detector  Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea
The authors constructed a simple gas chromatograph for demonstrating the separation of gas mixtures at room temperature; therefore, heating or thermostating of the column is unnecessary.
Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 181.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple and economical 1000 Hz signal generator  Graham, Douglas A.; Mammano, N. J.
A circuit tailored to the author's requirements of fixed frequency and very low harmonic content has been devised and used successfully in their student laboratory.
Graham, Douglas A.; Mammano, N. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 164.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Design of a microscale sublimator   Winston, Anthony
Sublimation is particularly useful when unfavorable solubility properties may lead to high losses of material during crystallization.
Winston, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 162.
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A eutectic mixture with medicinal applications   Hudson, Reggie L.; Osburn, Vicki Perez; Brashear, Robert
The authors have found that the menthol-phenol eutectic has some important advantages for classroom use.
Hudson, Reggie L.; Osburn, Vicki Perez; Brashear, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 156.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The direct relation between altitude and boiling point  Earl, Boyd L.
Since the physical parameter whose variation is responsible for the change in boiling point due to altitude is atmospheric pressure, one must make the connection between boiling point and altitude via the pressure, which is directly connected to both.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 45.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
On-the-job evaluation of education in analytical chemistry  Harwood, John J.
Results of a survey in which analytical laboratory supervisors were asked to list the three instrumental and three "wet" chemical or physical analyses most commonly performed in his or her laboratory.
Harwood, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A268.
Instrumental Methods
The Fourier transform in chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear magnetic resonance: Introduction  King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
Provides a fundamental understanding and appreciation of FT-NMR.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A213.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Computer-interfaced digital counter-analogue data acquisition system and demonstration of signal-to-noise enhancement methods  Xu, Qing; Demas, J. N.; Grubb, Marvin
A PC interface for a digital freqeuncy-period-counter-ratio meter and an analogue interface based on a voltage-to-freqeuncy converter.
Xu, Qing; Demas, J. N.; Grubb, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A199.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Seventh Edition (Dean, John A.; Merritt, Lynne L., Jr.; Settle, Frank A., Jr.; Willard, Hobart H.)  Young, Vaneica
Compared with the sixth edition, the seventh edition has five fewer chapters.
Young, Vaneica J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A46.
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive Schoninger flask  Sowa, John R.
Design and application of an inexpensive Schoninger flask.
Sowa, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 974.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
Dropper hangers that can be easily constructed by students  Singh, Saranjit; Singh, Amarjit
Dropper hangers that can be easily constructed by students.
Singh, Saranjit; Singh, Amarjit J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 967.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Polyethylene film used as windows in infrared analysis of solid, liquid, or gaseous samples  Andrade, Wilson
Using polyethylene film as windows in the infrared analysis of solid, liquid, or gaseous samples.
Andrade, Wilson J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 865.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A comparison of optical detectors for the visible and ultraviolet  Grossman, William E. L.
A comparison of the operating mechanisms and characteristics of photomultiplier tubes, silicon photodiode arrays, and charge transfer devices.
Grossman, William E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 697.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Semiconductors
A clinical digital thermometer for calorimetry  Hon, Ping-Kay
Modifying an inexpensive clinical thermometer for making thermochemical measurements.
Hon, Ping-Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 695.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive sample holder for storage and introduction of air-sensitive organometallic compounds into a mass spectrometer with inert-atmosphere blanketing  Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J.
A simple sample holder that provides a rigorous inert gas blanketing of air-sensitive samples without the need for elaborate inert atmosphere enclosures on the spectrometer inlet.
Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Organometallics |
Mass Spectrometry
Low-cost, low-tech spectrophotometer flow cell apparatus  Brady, John F.
Design for a low-cost, low-tech spectrophotometer flow cell apparatus.
Brady, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 604.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calibration of air displacement pipets  Ferroni, Edward L.; Letang, Katherine M.
An experiment regarding the calibration of air displacement pipets.
Ferroni, Edward L.; Letang, Katherine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 596.
Calibration |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A versatile compact reference electrode  Kusuda, Kousuke
Construction of a compact saturated calomel electrode.
Kusuda, Kousuke J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 531.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
The catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate by in situ hydrogen generation  Plummer, Ben
Modification of the catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate into methyl stearate.
Plummer, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 518.
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Another View of the Visible Spectrum  Hanrahan, E.S.
Chalk can be used with a Spectronic 20 to view the visible spectrum.
Hanrahan, E.S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determination of the pK of an indicator by thermal lens spectroscopy: A laser experiment for instrumental analysis laboratory  Erskine, Steven R.; Bobbitt, Donald R.
The exercises described in this article demonstrate how the enhanced limit of detection can be use to evaluate weakly absorbing solutions not readily accessible by conventional absorbance methods.
Erskine, Steven R.; Bobbitt, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 354.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers
Shine some light on entropy of mixing  Brady, K. T.
The apparatus described is relatively easy to construct and is quite useful in providing a visual demonstration of the concept of entropy of mixing and diffusion.
Brady, K. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 339.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Availability of video tape to clarify the method of standard abbreviations  Williams, Kathryn R.
The method of standard addition is recognized as an important calibration technique in instrumental analysis.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 247.
Calibration |
Addition Reactions |
Instrumental Methods
Phase equilibrium and G minimum: Displacements of the equilibrium under external parameters  Deumie, M.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Boulil, K.; Boulil, B.
The object of this paper is to treat the displacement of a phase equilibrium with respect to changes in pressure, temperature, amount of solute, and amount of an inert gas, in the framework of the Perona approach.
Deumie, M.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Boulil, K.; Boulil, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 232.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Zero-cost polystyrene film for IR spectroscopy  Fain, D.
The transparency section of many envelopes used for correspondence consists of a polystyrene film suitable for IR spectroscopy.
Fain, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 171.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive and easily constructed device for quantitative conductivity experiments   Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin
The low cost and easily replaced electrodes make this system practical for use in a general chemistry lab, while its accuracy and wide applicability permit its use in physical or quantitative chemistry experiments.
Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 168.
Quantitative Analysis |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recycling polyester tennis ball containers  Greenberg, Fred H.
Abandoned polyester tennis ball containers that accumulate on campus tennis courts may be used in the undergraduate laboratory as dispensing or storage receptacles for a variety of items.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 167.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Robust micro-lab sand baths  Ruekberg, Ben
The Comet Individual Egg Poacher can be used instead of crystallizing dishes which break easily in a sand bath.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 89.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A microscale immersion well for photochemical reactions  Penn, John H.; Orr, Richard D.
In this document, the authors report the development of a microscale photochemical immersion well that incorporates all of the traditional advantages of microscale glassware, as well as offers significant developments for the pedagogy of organic photochemsitry.
Penn, John H.; Orr, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 86.
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Miniware for galvanic cell experiments  Craig, Norman C.; Ackermann, Martin N.; Renfrow, William B.
The authors use a simple miniware design of a galvanic cell that is less expensive and time consuming.
Craig, Norman C.; Ackermann, Martin N.; Renfrow, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 85.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An inexpensive controller for the organic chemistry laboratory  Kirkpatrick, Neil; Bayless, Philip; Conklin, Alfred R., Jr.
An inexpensive controller for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Kirkpatrick, Neil; Bayless, Philip; Conklin, Alfred R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1110.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A step-by-step picture of pulsed (time domain) NMR  Schwartz, Leslie J.
The goal of this paper is to describe a pulsed NMR experiment that is as simple and pictorial as possible, but that stops short of dangerous generalizations and oversimplifications that can lead to contradictions.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 752.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Preparation of glass columns for visual demonstration of reversed-phase liquid chromatography  Sander, Lane C.
Basic principles of reverse-phase liquid chromatography can be easily demonstrated by use of transparent chromatographic columns and colored solutes.
Sander, Lane C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
Quantitative Chemical Analysis (Manahan, Stanley E.)  Guthrie, Frank A.
Quantitative analysis text.
Guthrie, Frank A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A328.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Fourier transforms for chemists. Part 3. Fourier transforms in data treatment  Glasser, L.
Mathematical properties and manipulations of Fourier transforms.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A306.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Part III. Applications  Perkins, W. D.
Applications of FT-IR spectroscopy to aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, photoacoustic spectroscopy, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope.
Perkins, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A296.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of geologic materials Part 2. Applications  Anzelmo, John A.; Lindsay, James R.
Interferences due to matrix effects; analysis of geologic materials; sample preparation; trace element analysis; and optimizing geologic sample analysis.
Anzelmo, John A.; Lindsay, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A200.
Spectroscopy |
Geochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The History and Preservation of Chemical Instrumentation (Stock, John T.; Orna, Mary Virginia)  Kauffman, George B.
18 papers presented on the title subject presented at the 190th meeting of the American Chemical Society in Chicago in September of 1985.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A27.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A colorimetric titration experiment with laser excitation and computer-interfaced endpoint detection  Mehta, Manish A.; Dallinger, Richard F.
88. Students experience the use and handling of laser beams, the construction of a simple and inexpensive photodetector, and the use of a commercially available computer interface system all within the framework of the familiar titration curve.
Mehta, Manish A.; Dallinger, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1019.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Laboratory applications of the vortex tube  Bruno, Thomas J.
A brief explanation of the function of the vortex tube and some heating and cooling applications for the chemistry laboratory.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 987.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
Inexpensive low-frequency IR windows using Tupperware seals and polyethylene coffee can lids  Dew, Vinita C.
Using disks cut from coffee can lids and Tupperware tumbler seals as low-frequency IR windows.
Dew, Vinita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 975.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Versatile and inexpensive screw-cap vessels for medium pressure reactions and processes run under an inert atmosphere  Begtrup, Mikael
For small scale reactions at medium pressure inexpensive and ready-to-make screw-cap closed reaction vessels are much easier to handle than autoclaves or sealed glass tubes.
Begtrup, Mikael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 974.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introduction to the interpretation of electron spin resonance spectra of organic radicals  Bunce, Nigel J.
Principles and applications of electron spin resonance; this article is addressed directly to undergraduates rather than their instructors.
Bunce, Nigel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 907.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A new microcell technique for NMR analysis  Yu, Sophia J.
Eliminating expensive microcells and replacing them with disposable units.
Yu, Sophia J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 812.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A low-cost laboratory experiment using a nephelo-turbidity meter  Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal
Principle of the nephelo-turbidity meter, description of the apparatus, and application to the kinetic study of the decomposition of sodium thiosulfate by mineral acid.
Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 729.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
A modified adapter for liquid transfer  Bunce, Richard A.; Adkins, M. Wayne
A Pyrex and Teflon apparatus for liquid transfer using an aspirator vacuum.
Bunce, Richard A.; Adkins, M. Wayne J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 728.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A controller of level of liquids  Alzabet, H. R.; Barbero, J. A.
A device that is capable of controlling liquid level and can be used with any conducting liquid.
Alzabet, H. R.; Barbero, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 727.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Anodic polarography of cyanide in foodstuffs  Farrell, T. J.; Lauh, R. J.; Wadsworth, E. P., Jr.
Determining the amount of cyanide present in foodstuffs through anodic polarography.
Farrell, T. J.; Lauh, R. J.; Wadsworth, E. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 635.
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
One simple solution to erratic instrument behavior  Huitink, Geraldine M.
Eliminating erratic needle movement on pH meters and Spec 20 spectrophotometers by eliminating rubber soled shoes and the static electricity they generate.
Huitink, Geraldine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 530.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
A simple, low-cost programmer for a temperature controller  Alzabet, H. R.; Barbero, J. A.
Modifying a proportional temperature controller to produce a programmable instrument.
Alzabet, H. R.; Barbero, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 380.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus for measuring dynamic surface tension  Srisankar, E. V.; Shah, J. P.; Narayan, K. S.
Design, construction, and use of a simple device to measure the rate of surface tension lowering or dynamic surface tension.
Srisankar, E. V.; Shah, J. P.; Narayan, K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 378.
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple device for the preparation of feed gas air mixtures of very low gas concentrations  Ramaswamy, V.
Device to overcome the need to use sophisticated controllers to regulate the flow of gas from high pressure cylinders when delivering ppm concentrations.
Ramaswamy, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 375.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Laboratory steam distillation using electrically generated superheated steam  Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design and use of a superheated steam generator.
Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A selective electroantennography cell for testing the activity of pheromones  Rozas, Roberto; Perez, Dagor
Design, construction, and use of a elective electroantennography cell for testing the activity of pheromones.
Rozas, Roberto; Perez, Dagor J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 356.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products
A safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2  Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin
Design, construction, and use of a safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2.
Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
An apparatus for sample degassing and sealing  Nicodem, David E.; Marchiori, Roberto
Device that allows the preparation and sealing of low-cost test tubes by inexperienced students.
Nicodem, David E.; Marchiori, Roberto J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 282.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Photochemistry
Bargain electrophoresis  Madiera, Vitor M. C.; Pires, Euclides M. V.
A report on building a good grade electrophoresis setup that costs only about $4 or $5.
Madiera, Vitor M. C.; Pires, Euclides M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Efficient distillation in the microscale laboratory  Lawler, Ronald G.; Parker, Kathlyn A.
Simple distillation of a small quantity of liquid reaction product is a technique without strong precedent; the authors describe their solution to this problem.
Lawler, Ronald G.; Parker, Kathlyn A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1012.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An introductory quantitative GC experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory  Leber, Phyllis. A.
GC instrumentation is complicated enough that students need introductory exposure to the technique before embarking on its applications. The authors accomplish this by developing an introductory GC experiment that allows students to explore the scope and limits of the technique.
Leber, Phyllis. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 550.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive pressure filter for the organic chemistry laboratory  Mowery, Dwight F.
A suggestions to fix the common problems associated with the problems of filtering hot solutions.
Mowery, Dwight F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 509.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Illustration of plane-polarized light  Elakovich, Stella D.
A simple illustration of the effect of polarizing lenses.
Elakovich, Stella D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 268.
Stereochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Information management systems in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory. Part II: Applications of LIMS  Merrer, Robert J.
A Laboratory Information Management System is applied to two instrumental analysis experiments .
Merrer, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A173.
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation and the total analytical process  Pleva, Michael A.; Settle, Frank A., Jr.
Emphasizing the total analytical process by considering the goal of the analysis, isolation of the system on which the analysis is to be performed, physical and chemical manipulations of the sample to produce the analyte, measurement of the analyte, and evaluation of the results, in addition to instrumental techniques.
Pleva, Michael A.; Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A85.
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation and analytical methodology in forensic science  Gaensslen, R. E.; Kubic, Thomas A.; Desio, Peter J.; Lee, Henry C.
Types of evidence and analytical / instrumental methods involved in forensic science. From one of two symposia on forensic chemistry, one held at the ACS meeting in Seattle, 1983, and the second held at the 8th BCCE, Storrs CT, 1984.
Gaensslen, R. E.; Kubic, Thomas A.; Desio, Peter J.; Lee, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1058.
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The esterification of trifluoroacetic acid: An NMR kinetics experiment  Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C.
Procedure to determine pseudo-first-order rate constants for the esterification of trifluoroacetic acid.
Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 911.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods
A problem in calibrating a spectrophotometer  Johnson, James G.
Standardization checks should be carried out under exactly the same conditions as used for daily work with the instrument.
Johnson, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 885.
Calibration |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments in software data handling  Thompson, Robert Q.
64. An instrumental analysis experiment that facilitates the study of data-handling software and its methods, including sampling, boxcar averaging, smoothing, ensemble averaging, and digital filtering.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 866.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy
Graphical representation on logarithmic triangular coordinates  Rigbi, Zvi
Using triangular coordinates that allow negative values
Rigbi, Zvi J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 855.
Chemometrics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstrations of signal-to-noise enhancement: Digital filtering  Glasser, L.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Two demonstration programs for the Apple II involving signal-to-noise enhancement.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 691.
Instrumental Methods
A two-liter pipet for bomb calorimetry  Stout, Roland P.
A 2-L volumetric flask modified to deliver a constant volume of water at a constant temperature.
Stout, Roland P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 634.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Silicone rubber as a sleeve mounting for a high-speed shaft bearing  Hall, H.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Stabilizing a stirring shaft during high-speed stirring.
Hall, H.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple low-cost device for temperature control in nonisothermic chemical kinetics in solution  Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M.
Design and operation of a temperature controller capable of reproducing a desired temperature / time heating curve.
Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 613.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Voltammetry as a model for teaching chemical instrumentation  Gunasingham, H.; Ang, K. P.
The technique of voltammetry, evolution of instrumentation for voltammetry, and the use of computers in voltammetry.
Gunasingham, H.; Ang, K. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 610.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
An inexpensive shield for vacuum distillations  Loehle, W. David
Utilizes sheet acrylic bent to the right shape.
Loehle, W. David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 570.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A flexible, pressure equalizing sidearm  Lee, Albert W. M.
Construction of a flexible, pressure equalizing sidearm.
Lee, Albert W. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 548.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Signal-to-noise improvement: An instrumental analysis experiment  Vassos, B. H.; Lopez, E.
Circuit diagrams for a laboratory-made peak simulator, noise generator, and filtration device.
Vassos, B. H.; Lopez, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive mercury vapor lamp  Sands, Richard D.
Using a street lamp from a local hardware store.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 526.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gas chromatographic determination of fatty acid compositions  Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia
An experiment that includes a derivatization step and uses readily available reagents.
Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 449.
Gas Chromatography |
Lipids |
Instrumental Methods |
Fatty Acids
An efficient and inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography column  Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography columns can be constructed from old distillation columns.
Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An experiment to examine the phosphate interference in the flame emission analysis of calcium  Jackman, Donald C.
A procedure that considers flame emission technique, calibration plots, interferences, indirect flame emission analysis, and techniques for removing interferences.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 161.
Instrumental Methods
Electronic instrumentation at the liberal arts college  Keedy, Curtis R.; Abele, John C.
Outline of a two-term course combining the offerings in electronic instrumentation in the chemistry and physics departments.
Keedy, Curtis R.; Abele, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 144.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The design of a computer-controlled flow-injection analyzer: An undergraduate experiment  McClintock, Sam A.; Weber, James R.; Purdy, William C.
57. Bits and pieces, 22. Students construct a simple solid-state photometer and uses it as a detector in a flow-injection or continuous-flow analyzer.
McClintock, Sam A.; Weber, James R.; Purdy, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 65.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded (Robinson, James W.)  Mark, Harry B., Jr.
Textbook for instrumental methods of analysis.
Mark, Harry B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A141.
Instrumental Methods
Choosing the right instrument: The modular approach. Part II  Strobel, Howard A.
How well can instrument specification be related to the behavior of modules? How often is a specification fixed by a single module?
Strobel, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A89.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Choosing the right instrument: The modular approach. Part I.  Strobel, Howard A.
Considering instruments as systems rather than individually.
Strobel, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A53.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Quantitative analysis of a mixture by NMR spectroscopy  Wallace, Tim
Adding a measured quantity of an inert, easily removed reference compound with a simple NMR signal that does not overlap with the mixture's signal can provide the basis for an instructive experiment.
Wallace, Tim J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1074.
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A device for direct potentiometric measurements of samples with very large electrical resistance  Oman, S.
An improvised combination of single electrodes for pH measurements of samples with very large electrical resistance, such as cosmetics and pharmaceutical emulsions and creams.
Oman, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1029.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry
Colorimetric titration experiment for the undergraduate laboratory  Lopez, Edwin; Vassos, Basil H.
The design and application of a colorimetric titration instrument that is rugged, free from ambient light interference, and inexpensive.
Lopez, Edwin; Vassos, Basil H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1025.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An easy method for salvaging thermal conductivity detectors  Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter
Exchanging resistors in a gas chromatograph.
Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 813.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
A small electronic device for studying chemical kinetics  Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.
Studying rates of reactions with a small electronic device and an oscilloscope overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium.
Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 808.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
An inexpensive check valve of oil bubblers  Reingold, I. David; Lindeman, Theodore G.
A check valve for oil bubblers that protects nitrogen manifolds from oil backing up due to reduced pressure in the line.
Reingold, I. David; Lindeman, Theodore G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 739.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive, commercial-type, reference electrode  Randle, T. H.; Kelly, P. J.
Describes the construction of a simple, commercial-type electrode that is compact, not orientation sensitive, and requires the minimum of expensive materials (mercury and platinum).
Randle, T. H.; Kelly, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 721.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A simple device for flash chromatography  Feigenbaum, A.
Device that eliminates the problems introduced by the requirement to use compressed air with flash chromatography.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 649.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Comparison of gravity filtering rates of regular, fluted, and helicoid-ribbed funnels  Fulton, Brent A.; Meloan, Clifton E.
Results of tests comparing filtering rates of regular, fluted, and helicoid-ribbed funnels.
Fulton, Brent A.; Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 554.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive pipet-delivery device  Monti, Diego
An inexpensive pipet-delivery device for delivering corrosive products or solvents.
Monti, Diego J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A functional steam bath at a fantastic bargain  Albury, Steven H.; Garrett, James M.
A simple steam bath attached to a steam line.
Albury, Steven H.; Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 470.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An electronic thermometer using a precision temperature sensor  Chan, Eric K. D.; Ng, Wing-yan
Components and circuit diagram for an electronic thermometer.
Chan, Eric K. D.; Ng, Wing-yan J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 386.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modification of a microwave oven for laboratory use  Andrews, Judith; Atkinson, George F.
Modifying a microwave oven to protect it against energy buildup when samples are dried by using a small water ballast.
Andrews, Judith; Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 177.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentiometric titrations using pencil and graphite sensors  Selig, Walter S.
Methods for using pencil and graphite sensors for many types of potentiometric titrations.
Selig, Walter S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 80.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Performance characterization of an instrument  Salin, Eric D.
Experiment that introduces students to detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, and linear dynamic range using flame atomic emission.
Salin, Eric D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 70.
Instrumental Methods |
Calibration |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Two readily-constructed instruments for the teaching laboratory  Isaacs, Neil S.
The authors report designs for a colorimeter and for a polarimeter; both of which may be constructed readily with average workshop facilities and whose performance is superior to many commercial instruments commonly in use in teaching laboratories.
Isaacs, Neil S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 607.
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
A modification of the copper catalysis demonstration apparatus  Olsen, Edwin S.; Ashmore, R. E.
A modification to an earlier device for illustrating the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds over a copper catalyst.
Olsen, Edwin S.; Ashmore, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Data generation in the classroom  Blanco, Luis H.
A pendulum device for generating data for statistical analysis.
Blanco, Luis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1028.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Another economical reflux/distillation apparatus (the author replies)  Marabella, C. P.
The author replies to earlier comments.
Marabella, C. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 988.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Another economical reflux/distillation apparatus  Woolf, A. A.
A more efficient reflux/distillation apparatus.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 988.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The iron-iron carbide phase diagram: A practical guide to some descriptive solid state chemistry  Long, Gary J.; Leighty, H. P., Jr.
A discussion of the solid state chemistry of iron and steel in terms of the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.
Long, Gary J.; Leighty, H. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 948.
Solids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Transport of caffeine through Millipore filter  Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John
Examines the permeation of caffeine through a prepared diffusion cell.
Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 876.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Membranes
Undergraduate infrared spectroscopy experiments  MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.
A set of experiments that provide experience in deuteration and derivatization procedures as applied to infrared spectroscopy.
MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 799.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes
Preventing solid distillate accumulation during steam distillation  Sands, Richard D.
Device for preventing the accumulation of solid distillate without interupting steam distillation.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 796.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Dispensing low-melting solids: Freezing point depression  Hill, John W.
A solution for dispensing low-melting point solids.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 699.
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Sensitive electroanalysis using solid electrodes  Wang, Joseph
Hydrodynamic modulation voltammetry (HMV) is a very sensitive solid electrode technique that may be easily adapted and demonstrated in most instrumental analysis laboratories.
Wang, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 691.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
An analytical chemistry experiment in simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Fe(III) and Cu(II) with hexacyanoruthenate(II) reagent  Mehra, M. C.; Rioux, J.
This method is based on selective interaction of the complex formed between Fe(III) and Cu(II) and potassium hexacyanoruthenate(II) in acid solution; this technique can easily be extended toward the analysis of these species in environmental samples.
Mehra, M. C.; Rioux, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 688.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
A convenient melting/freezing point depression apparatus  Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald
Incorporates an easily read digital thermometer.
Singman, Charles; Sophianopoulos, Judy; Johnson, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 682.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Simulation of chemical instrumentation. I: Computer-graphics emulation of chemical instrumentation: Absorption spectrophotometers  Gilbert, D. D.; Mounts, T. T., II; Frost, A. A.
31.
Gilbert, D. D.; Mounts, T. T., II; Frost, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 661.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A versatile separating flask  Cartwright, M.
Including a Teflon tap on the side arm of a previously described flask.
Cartwright, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 587.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient device for the control of reduced pressures  Blankenship, C.
A glass capillary tube can be used to replace a needle valve.
Blankenship, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 433.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Determination of pyrite in coal and lignite by thermomagnetic analysis  Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W.
Uses an earlier described Faraday balance to determine the pyrite content of coal and lignite.
Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 424.
Magnetic Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products
Low-cost programmed oven temperature controller  Clubine, Gerald D.
Circuit diagarms for a programmed oven temperature controller.
Clubine, Gerald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 338.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple conductivity water cut-off switch  Neto, F. R. Aquino; Carvalhaes, S. F.; Cardoso, J. N.
Deactivates a heating system in response to a drop in water supply.
Neto, F. R. Aquino; Carvalhaes, S. F.; Cardoso, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 259.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive liquid chromatography apparatus for undergraduate teaching  McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L.
Description of a low-pressure liquid chromatography pump, slurry filler, stainless steel columns, and injector system suited to an undergraduate laboratory or routine analysis.
McCamish, Malcolm; Cannell, G. R.; Bretherton, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 249.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modular approach to instrumental analysis  Deming, Richard L.; Van Willis, W.; Janota, Harvey F.
An instrumental analysis course is divided into six, 3.5-4 week modules.
Deming, Richard L.; Van Willis, W.; Janota, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 203.
Instrumental Methods
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Specific gravity pipets  Cabrera, Sergio H.; Concha, Guido A.
Modifying volumetric pipets to determine specific gravity.
Cabrera, Sergio H.; Concha, Guido A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 162.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Two safety improvements for a standard experiment on the boiling point-composition diagram of a binary system  Michiels, Bro. Leo P.; Barile, Raymond C.; de la Fuente, German F.
Replacing the benzene / ethanol system with the less toxic cyclohexane / 2-propanol system and using a hetaing mantle.
Michiels, Bro. Leo P.; Barile, Raymond C.; de la Fuente, German F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 157.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Calculator program for analysis of a complex by Job's method  House, J. E., Jr.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. Program permits users to measure an appropriate property of a complex as a function of composition of the solutions and determine the composition of the complex according to Job's method.
House, J. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 132.
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
A simple method for sample application in chromatography  Lo, J. M.
A simple applicator made of a rubber bulb and glass capillary tube.
Lo, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 66.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Instrumental analysis laboratory experiments  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.
Offer of an instrumental analysis laboratory manual to those interested.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Instrumental Methods
Boiling points and small volumes: An apparatus and a method  Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D.
The authors describe a convenient apparatus that can be used with thousands of students to perform qualitative analysis of organic substances using boiling points.
Leonard, Jack E.; Behelfer, Gary; Mohrmann, Leonard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1029.
Qualitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Project Select (the author replies)  Settle, Frank A., Jr.
Addresses concerns regarding bias toward comparison of instrument specifications.
Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A171.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Project Select  Aquilina, Ellen P.; Malone, James P.
Concerns regarding bias toward comparison of instrument specifications.
Aquilina, Ellen P.; Malone, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A171.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
CII. Automated anodic stripping voltammetry  Stock, John T.
Circuitry and use of a computer-controlled, anodic stripping analyzer.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A125.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction and evaluation of a solid-state iodide selective electrode: A chemical instrumentation laboratory experiment  Papastathopoulos, D. S.; Karayannis, M. I.
The experiment is based on the construction of a crystalline homogeneous membrane electrode (solid-state type) employing an AgI/Ag2S coprecipitate pellet-sensing membrane.
Papastathopoulos, D. S.; Karayannis, M. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 904.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Constant current source for student use in voltammetric titrations  Muha, G. M.; Pepis, E. N.
A simple constant current source for student use in voltammetric titrations with a rotating platinum or dual polarized microelectrodes.
Muha, G. M.; Pepis, E. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Constant current source for student use in voltammetric titrations  Muha, G. M.; Pepis, E. N.
A simple constant current source for student use in voltammetric titrations with a rotating platinum or dual polarized microelectrodes.
Muha, G. M.; Pepis, E. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry
An extra function for the manual temperature compensation control on pH meters  Eilbeck, W. John
The manual temperature compensation control on pH meters changes the RT/F slope.
Eilbeck, W. John J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 834.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Filter-pipets  Concha, Guido A.
Fitting a fritted, glass filter cup on the end of a volumetric pipet.
Concha, Guido A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 677.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Measuring the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation  Driscoll, Jerry A.
Uses toluene, methylcyclohexane, or piperidine to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Coated-wire ion selective electrodes and their application to the teaching laboratory  Martin, Charles R.; Freiser, Henry
Describes the procedure for construction of a nitrate coated-wire ion selective electrodes and suggests experiments for the evaluation of electrode response and illustration of typical analytical applications of ion selective electrodes.
Martin, Charles R.; Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 512.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
Improvements in rotary evaporation equipment  Goff, Harold M.; Phillippi, Martin A.
A condenser flask for use with rotary evaporators that markedly improves their efficiency and utility.
Goff, Harold M.; Phillippi, Martin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 511.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Comparison of pipets: A laboratory experiment  May, Leopold
Students are required to report the accuracy and precision of various pipets.
May, Leopold J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 483.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive digital thermometer  Gaus, Paul L.; Yut, Greg
Design for a digital thermometer using a thermistor and a digital multimeter.
Gaus, Paul L.; Yut, Greg J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 477.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A variable reference beam attenuator for infrared spectrophotometers  Garin, David L.; Windsor, Ted
An iris diaphragm used to adjust the reference beam in an IR spectrophotometer.
Garin, David L.; Windsor, Ted J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 463.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Paramagnetism and color of liquid oxygen: A lecture demonstration  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Demonstrates the blue color of liquid oxygen and its ability to be held between the poles of a magnet.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 373.
Magnetic Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Toward reduced laboratory glassware breakage  Rothchild, Robert
Increasing the life of glass syringes by adding rubber bumpers made of heavy-walled tubing.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 315.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
A simple and convenient ion-selective electrode for instructional use  Schwartz, Leslie J.; Grant, Edward R.
A particularly simple and quick method for students to make ion-selective membranes for use in ion-selective electrodes.
Schwartz, Leslie J.; Grant, Edward R. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 311.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive pipet delivery device  Knevel, Adelbert M.
Placing a perforated micro test tube in a pipet bulb to facilitate its operation.
Knevel, Adelbert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple system to illustrate mass spectrometry principles  Finet, Daniel
A simple didactic system that enables one to simulate the different operations of a mass spectrometer and the necessary conditions for ionic refocusing.
Finet, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 232.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Efficient use of the Kofler Heizbank melting point apparatus  Brown, W. H.
Using of the Kofler Hotbench as a micro drying oven.
Brown, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 231.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Gas chromatographic determination of methyl salicylate in rubbing alcohol: An experiment employing standard addition  Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis
Provides an exercise in standard addition as applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of the methyl salicylate in wintergreen rubbing alcohol.
Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 230.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
A substitute for mercury electrode contacts  Bradford, John L.
Substituting steel wool or copper turnings for mercury as electrode contacts.
Bradford, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 159.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
An improved microbulb vacuum distillation apparatus  Saplay, Kishore M.
Improved version of an earlier modified Kugelrohr.
Saplay, Kishore M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 124.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
XCIX. A device for demonstrating microprocessor interfacing  Schilling, J. W.
In designing interfaces between a microprocessor or minicomputer and an external device, it is important to "breadboard" a prototype unit first.
Schilling, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, A104.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Two HPLC experiments for instrumental analysis laboratory  Byrd, James E.
The determination of aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine in commercial APC tablets; and the determination of saccharin, sodium benzoate, and caffeine in diet cola drinks.
Byrd, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 809.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods
Mixed stationary liquid phases for gas-liquid chromatography  Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.
Using window diagrams to quantitate the selectivity of a column of liquid phase.
Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 623.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Solar energy storage: A demonstration experiment  Kimmel, Howard S.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T.
A demonstration of a phase transition that can be used for heat storage.
Kimmel, Howard S.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 615.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Lecture demonstration of vanishing meniscus in vapor liquid transition  Duus, H. C.
Shows how the interface between vapor and liquid propane vanishes.
Duus, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 614.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Inexpensive Gouy balances  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.
Uses a triple beam balance.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 550.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties
Hg vapor lamp from streetlight  Mattson, Bruce M.
Design of a simple photolysis apparatus equipped with a Hg vapor UV lamp.
Mattson, Bruce M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 542.
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A fraction collector for students  Fisher, Tom L.
The only special component required is a 0.25 revolution/hour synchronous motor.
Fisher, Tom L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determination of iodide in milk with an ion selective electrode  O'Reilly, James E.
Uses the method of standard additions.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 279.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
Removal of an assumption in deriving the phase change formula ?T = Km  Schubert, Frederic E.
Part of the uncertainty involved in using the title formula arises from mathematical approximations made in its derivation.
Schubert, Frederic E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 259.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Data manipulation and handling  Binkley, David; Dessy, Raymond
Examines the type of analog signals that are commonly sampled in the laboratory to better understand the importance of data sampling rate and the problems associated with noise.
Binkley, David; Dessy, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 148.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Convenient laboratory storage of glassware for organic chemistry  Beatty, James W.; Scott, Earle S.; Scamehorn, Richard G.
Using clips in pegboard to hold and organize organic chemistry laboratory glassware.
Beatty, James W.; Scott, Earle S.; Scamehorn, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 134.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The standardization of pH meters: A comparison of procedures for different types of instruments  Lund, Walter
Discusses the various approaches to the standardization of pH meters and the limitations of the various procedures.
Lund, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 129.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Calibration |
Acids / Bases
Use of a copper(II) reagent impurity as a teaching aid for instrumental analysis  Herman, Richard G.
The characterization and identification of the impurity found in copper(II) nitrate trihydrate serves as an excellent teaching aid in emphasizing the need for good laboratory technique and in introducing certain instrumental methods.
Herman, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 126.
Instrumental Methods
The analytical textbook situation: Can a textbook present analytical chemistry as it really is?  Williams, T. R.; Bromund, R. H.
A new generation of introductory and instrumental methods classes should be written to reflect changes in the discipline. Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Williams, T. R.; Bromund, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 98.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
Analytical chemistry at a community college: A balance of wet chemical methods and instrumental analysis  Hayes, Janan M.
Description of an analytical chemistry course at a community college (American River College). Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Hayes, Janan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 96.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
Analytical chemistry in an integrated laboratory sequence  Dolbow, Kyle E.
Description of a totally integrated, four semester, analytical chemistry program at MIT. Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Dolbow, Kyle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 96.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
A microcomputer-controlled transient recorder: A simple and instructive experiment in interfacing  Barrett, Tom; Lunney, David; Salt, Alger D.; Walter, Marc
An experiment to introduce computer interfacing into the laboratory.
Barrett, Tom; Lunney, David; Salt, Alger D.; Walter, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A simple compensating-type Gouy tube  Davis, William J.
A simpler and cheaper device than that described in the referenced article.
Davis, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 55.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
XCVIII. Experiments involving thermal methods of analysis for undergraduate chemistry laboratories [part one]  Earnest, Charles M.
Due to the increasing number of applications of thermoanalytical techniques in the modern world, and the corresponding dearth of academic activity in teaching these techniques, some experiments which may be incorporated into undergraduate teaching laboratory are offered here.
Earnest, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, A331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Economical and safe laboratory heat control  Rothchild, Robert
Providing controllable heat sources in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory has traditionally been difficult. The author offers a more economical and potentially safer means of heat control.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 501.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Pure rotational Raman spectroscopy: A dry-lab experiment  Hoskins, L. Claron
Permits the student to analyze the pure rotational Raman spectra of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and determine the bond distances.
Hoskins, L. Claron J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 642.
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Automatic potentiometric titrations  Pinkham, Chester A.; Field, Brownlee
Use of a constant flow buret to perform automated potentiometric titrations.
Pinkham, Chester A.; Field, Brownlee J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 577.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Versatile pen-holder for chart recorders  Nieschlag, Henry J.
Using a small binder clip as a versatile pen-holder for chart recorders.
Nieschlag, Henry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Device for easy demonstration of optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion  Kinney, John B.; Skinner, James F.
Describes a portable device that can be used for the simultaneous demonstration of both optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion for individual students and for a class with an overhead projector.
Kinney, John B.; Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 494.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The construction of a reciprocating shaker  Brisbin, Thomas D.; Allen, Herbert E.
The design and construction of a reciprocating shaker for chemical and biological application.
Brisbin, Thomas D.; Allen, Herbert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 395.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple and inexpensive steam generator for essential oils extraction  Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W.
This apparatus aids in essential oil extraction.
Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 652.
Natural Products |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A sample preparation technique for column chromatography  Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J.
The authors have found a simple and effective method of sample preparation for use in column chromatography which resembles the application of a sample to a thin layer chromatography plate, where the solid sample in solution is absorbed by the solid phase as the solvent evaporates.
Beller, Nicholas R.; Hilleary, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 498.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Photooxidation of methionine. An integrated organic-analytical-biochemistry laboratory experiment  Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H.
The experiments presented here familiarize the student with the organic reactions necessary to prepare the starting material; introduces the use of glass beads for immobilizing a catalyst; demonstrates the use of light and methylene blue as oxidizers; requires the implementation of an important analytical technique, thin layer chromatography; provides the student with a good example of the reactivity of one amino acid, methionine.
Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 395.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Catalysis
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A student operated animated infrared spectroscopy teaching model  Hartman, Karel
To help students understand the background of infrared spectroscopy better, a teaching model of spectroscopy can be built.
Hartman, Karel J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 111.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
LXXXII. Home-built equipment in the teaching laboratory  Stock, John T.
Considers modular equipment for measuring electrolytic conductance and electronic coulometry.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A165.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Tygon stirring bars  Gribble, Gordon W.; Kutzenco, Philip D.
Tygon stirring bars should not be used with organic solvents.
Gribble, Gordon W.; Kutzenco, Philip D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 820.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A novel communications-skills-based approach to the instrumental laboratory  Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E.
Describes the approach used in a course designed to stress the importance of good writing style in laboratory reports.
Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 801.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Square cuvet holder for the Spectronic 20  Aronson, John N.
Design of a holder for square, Spec 20 cuvets.
Aronson, John N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 800.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Chemical analysis of the environment: A course for non-chemistry majors  Stepenuck, Stephen J.
Describes an analytical course that includes the essentials of quantitative analysis and instrumental methods.
Stepenuck, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 795.
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
A unique approach to teaching spectrophotometric procedures  Reeves, Roy R.; Hutson, Myron D.; Williams, Howard P.
Substituting commercial food dyes for metal complexes reduces preparation time, tedious record keeping, and allows for a greater variation of unknowns to be issued.
Reeves, Roy R.; Hutson, Myron D.; Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 659.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Dyes / Pigments
Ion-exchange resins - A simple apparatus  Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo
A modified procedure and apparatus for speeding up the use of ion-exchange resins.
Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A timesharing computer program for a general chemistry laboratory  Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A.
Determining the heat of vaporization of a volatile substance from experimental data using timesharing techniques.
Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 529.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An inexpensive dry box for undergraduate use  Bunce, N. J.
Design of an inexpensive dry box for undergraduate use.
Bunce, N. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 474.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A time-share based simulator to teach the use of digital computers  Seelig, Paul F.; Blount, Henry N.
A course to acquaint students with the laboratory based digital computer as a chemical tool.
Seelig, Paul F.; Blount, Henry N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 469.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An experiment illustrating countercurrent chromatography with simple apparatus  Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L.
Illustrates countercurrent chromatography with a simple apparatus and an experiment involving the separation of the indicators Phenol Red and Bromcresol Purple.
Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 258.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Phase changes of hexachloroethane  Shavitz, Richard
A demonstration of the sublimation of hexachloroethane.
Shavitz, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 231.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A Vidicon detection system for teaching absorption spectroscopy  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Describes the conversion of a television system into an absorption spectrograph that can be used as a live demonstration.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 218.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
An inexpensive low pressure reactor  Masler, W. F.; Burnett, R. E.; Morrison, J. D.; Chaney, P. A.; Wheeler, C. M.
Plans and parts for a low pressure reactor used in a hydrogenation experiment.
Masler, W. F.; Burnett, R. E.; Morrison, J. D.; Chaney, P. A.; Wheeler, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 202.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The mercury-water system. A deviation from Raoult's Law  Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R.
Mercury covered with a layer of water will continue to vaporize and escape as if the water were not even there.
Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 117.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A simple method for reducing the breakage of glass columns in gas chromatography  Becker, M. Alice; Naftchi, N. Eric
A simple device that circumvents the breakage problem yet gives the column flexibility without loss of inertness.
Becker, M. Alice; Naftchi, N. Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 115.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography
Preparative reduction of benzil: Use of a polarographic analyzer and simple current booster  Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J.
The authors report a simple laboratory experiment which demonstrates some of the preparative and mechanistic electrochemistry of ketones in acid solution. The also describe a simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparative scale electrochemistry.
Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reference electrodes  Caton, Roy D., Jr.
Examines reference electrodes, including both aqueous and nonaqueous reference electrodes.
Caton, Roy D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A571.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Anodic stripping voltammetry  Ellis, William D.
Considers the theory, techniques, applications, and instrumentation of anodic stripping voltammetry.
Ellis, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A131.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
An improved design for soap-bubble flowmeters  LaHue, Miles D.; Heck, Ronald J.; Dombi, Geza; Axelrod, Herman D.
An improved design reduces or eliminates most of the inherent problems encountered in using large diameter soap-bubble flowmeters.
LaHue, Miles D.; Heck, Ronald J.; Dombi, Geza; Axelrod, Herman D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 867.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
The construction of inexpensive robust containers for low temperature baths  Freeland, B. H.
Using cut, concentrated acid bottles as robust containers for low temperature baths.
Freeland, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 845.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemical instrumentation in the two-year community college  Trujillo, Anthony P.
Results of a questionnaire on the availability and use of a variety of instruments in two-year community colleges.
Trujillo, Anthony P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 784.
Instrumental Methods
A simple and inexpensive ring oven  Herrera, Nicolas M.; Laux, Carolyn D.
This simple ring oven relies on a light bulb as its heat source.
Herrera, Nicolas M.; Laux, Carolyn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 756.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive improvement of single pan balances  McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise
Reducing the abuse of single pan, automatic balances by attaching plastic stops on either side of the operating lever.
McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 710.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Wavelength and spatial distribution of the light from a monochromator  Bruzzone, Liliana; Roselli, Martin E.
A simplified procedure of measurement and calculation for students without a solid background in optics.
Bruzzone, Liliana; Roselli, Martin E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 701.
Instrumental Methods
Precision spectrophotometry using modular instruments. A method for undergraduate courses  Piepmeier, Edward H.
This paper discusses the stable, single beam, visible spectrophotometers and the techniques that are used to obtain measurements with a relative concentration precision of <0.5%.
Piepmeier, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 640.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Lyophilization apparatus  Lunelli, Bruno
A method based on an easily constructed apparatus that allows laboratory-scale lyophilizations to be carried out.
Lunelli, Bruno J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Recrystallization: unexpected behavior. An undergraduate organic demonstration or experiment  Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S.
A simple method for providing a demonstration of an exception to the rule that solubility increases with temperature.
Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 567.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Simple procedures for ir spectra of solids in the 20-120C range  Bowman, Max I.; Larson, Wilbur S.; Dougherty, Thomas E.
A procedure that has definite advantages over the KBr pellet method for routine student use in the laboratory.
Bowman, Max I.; Larson, Wilbur S.; Dougherty, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 517.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
A temperature-regulated cell holder for the Beckman DK-2A spectrophotometer  Templeton, J. Charles
Design for a a temperature-regulated cell holder for the Beckman DK-2A spectrophotometer.
Templeton, J. Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 483.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Computer-controlled colorimetry  Pater, F. G.; Perone, S. P.
In order to illustrate more fully the capabilities of the computer for experimental control, a computer-controlled colorimeter has been conceived, where the computer can select the wavelength of light passing through the sample as well as execute data acquisition and data processing functions.
Pater, F. G.; Perone, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
A simple split-field polarimeter  Kapauan, A. F.
A simple split-field polarimeter can be constructed easily for a few dollars from readily available materials.
Kapauan, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 376.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A spectrophotometer cell stopper for syringe transfer  Toma, Henrique E.; Malin, John M.
A Teflon stopper that reduces the difficulties in making spectrophotometric measurements of air-sensitive reagents.
Toma, Henrique E.; Malin, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Lecture demonstration of a phase transition in a solid  Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred
The solid-solid phase transition between two different allotropes of silver iodide.
Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 109.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
An inexpensive conductivity monitor for column operation  Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E.
Circuit diagrams for a column chromatography conductivity monitor.
Ford, A.; Meloan, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 85.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Thermal analysis techniques: Part II. Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (continued)  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines commercial differential thermal analysis instrumentation.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A671.
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermal analysis techniques: Part II. Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry  Wendlandt, W. W.
Introduces differential thermal analysis and differential thermal analysis instrumentation.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A624.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermal analysis techniques: Part I. Thermobalances (continued)  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines commercial thermobalances, including four types of simultaneous TG-DTA instruments.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A623.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gravimetric Analysis
Thermal analysis techniques - Part I. Thermobalances  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines thermal analysis techniques, thermogravimetry, and a variety of commercial thermobalances.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A571.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gravimetric Analysis
Principles of instrumental analysis (Skoog, Douglas A.)  Beilby, Alvin L.

Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A362.
Instrumental Methods
Laboratory integrators  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews nonelectrical, electrochemical, electrical analog, and digital methods of integration.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: A Volume of Reprints from the Journal of Chemical Education (Ewing, Galen W.)  Lucchesi, C. A.

Lucchesi, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A317.
Instrumental Methods
A simple electronic integrator with digital read-out  Lindstrom, M.; Sundholm, G.
Presents a circuit diagram for a coulometer / current integrator.
Lindstrom, M.; Sundholm, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 847.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
X-ray fluorescence determination of lead in gasoline  Bills, J. M.; Brier, K. S.; Danko, L. G.; Kristine, F. J.; Turco, S. J.; Zimmerman, K. S.; Divelbiss, P. M.; Tackett, S. L.
The X-ray fluorescence determination of lead in gasoline is simple, straightforward, and reliable, and the analysis is rapid, since no sample treatment is required.
Bills, J. M.; Brier, K. S.; Danko, L. G.; Kristine, F. J.; Turco, S. J.; Zimmerman, K. S.; Divelbiss, P. M.; Tackett, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 715.
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive shaking water bath  Dewhurst, F.; Green, K. L.
Producing a satisfactory shaking water bath for test tubes and small flasks using a vibratory mixer
Dewhurst, F.; Green, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 701.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Comparison of analytical methods  Beilby, Alvin L.
One important aspect of the education in analytical chemistry of chemists and others using analytical methods should be the continued emphasis on the comparison of analytical methods so students can learn to chose intelligently the proper analytical methods for the solution of chemical problems.
Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 679.
Instrumental Methods
Thermal, flow, and coolant level switch  Davies, T. K.; Hodapp, H.
Design for a switch that can be used for most coolant flow and over-heating problems.
Davies, T. K.; Hodapp, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 443.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A laboratory steam generator and steam distillation apparatus  Eisenbraun, E. J.; Hall, H.; Adkins, M. W.
Design for a laboratory steam generator and steam distillation apparatus.
Eisenbraun, E. J.; Hall, H.; Adkins, M. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 441.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Effects of stray light in spectroscopy  Cook, R. B.; Jankow, R.
Defines stray light and examines its effects on band shapes, accuracy, and Beer's law plots and their linearity.
Cook, R. B.; Jankow, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 405.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A semiautomatic moving boundary apparatus  Yager, Billy J.; Smith, Patricia Y.
Presents a moving boundary apparatus that records the movement of the boundary past pairs of microelectrodes by the change in conductance.
Yager, Billy J.; Smith, Patricia Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 363.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A simple pressure applicator device for column chromatography  Chen, S. C.
Diagrams a simple pressure applicator for column chromatography.
Chen, S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 318.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
Measurement or interpretation?  Atkinson, George F.
Questions the trend of moving away from teaching students how to make valid experimental measurements.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 226.
Instrumental Methods
Increased utilization of electronic apparatus  Twigg, Martyn V.
It is possible to utilize more fully an electronic instrument by connecting it to several probes via a simple switch unit.
Twigg, Martyn V. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 191.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
A simple apparatus for teaching the principles of chromatography  Kellomaki, Aarre
A device that follows the elution of electrolytes through liquid column chromatography by continuously measuring the conductivity of the effluent.
Kellomaki, Aarre J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 139.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Controlled evaporation with an extended hotplate top  Atkinson, George F.; Curtis, K. E.
A device that enables the evaporation of sample solutions to a small volume with a greatly reduced risk of baking them dry.
Atkinson, George F.; Curtis, K. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An easily constructed aerosol sprayer  Patsiga, Robert A.
A simple plan for producing aerosol sprays of chemical solutions.
Patsiga, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 20.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Constant temperature air bath  Yager, Billy J.; Smith, Patricia Y.
A constant temperature air bath is constructed from two polystyrene packing cases.
Yager, Billy J.; Smith, Patricia Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 839.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Three  Low, M. J. D.
Examines far-IR spectrometers.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A349.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Two  Low, M. J. D.
Surveys available commercial IR and UV spectrometers.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A255.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Instrumental methods of chemical analysis (Ewing, Galen)  Safford, H. W.

Safford, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A128.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Emission spectroscopy using a photoresistor as a light detector  McMeekin, Samuel G.; Toby, Frina S.; Toby, Sidney
Describes a simple, robust yet sensitive light detector system that relies on a cadmium sulfoselenide photoresistor.
McMeekin, Samuel G.; Toby, Frina S.; Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 832.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Evaporative cooling condenser  Goldberg, Stanley I.; Bailey, William D.
Design for a condenser that operates on the principle of evaporative cooling through the use of compressed air and is constructed from ordinary laboratory condensers.
Goldberg, Stanley I.; Bailey, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 783.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Assembly of a differential thermal analysis apparatus  Scism, Allen J.
Describes the construction of an apparatus used to show thermal changes in samples due to phase changes and loss of waters of hydration.
Scism, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 772.
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Use of felt-tipped pens with recorders  Ringen, John C.
Using a felt-tipped pen with recorders eliminates problems with pens that rely on ink reservoirs.
Ringen, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 716.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a 3-component mixture: An experiment for instrumental analysis  Hargis, L. G.; Harker, G. G., III; Huntington, J. L., Jr.; Gruber, T. A.
The experiment described herein is fashioned from a published report describing an approach to the analysis of 3-component mixtures of the isomeric cresols.
Hargis, L. G.; Harker, G. G., III; Huntington, J. L., Jr.; Gruber, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 712.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
A tunable amplifier for an audio-frequency Wheatstone Bridge  DeSieno, Robert P.; Du, John
Presents a circuit that provides an inexpensive high-gain amplifier that can be tuned sharply at several frequencies.
DeSieno, Robert P.; Du, John J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 635.
Instrumental Methods
A thermocouple reference bath with long term stability  Braunstein, Jerry; Ray, Ridley
Placing a Dewar in an ice chest filled with ice is found to maintain a nearly constant reference, ice-water mixture temperature within the Dewar for six months.
Braunstein, Jerry; Ray, Ridley J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 611.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reference beam attenuator for ir spectrophotometer  Helsen, Jef
Design for a simple reference beam attenuator for an ir spectrophotometer.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 576.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modification of paper electrophoresis equipment to accommodate polyacetate strips  Simmons, W. B.; Fendley, T. W.; Melius, P.
The paper electrophoresis migration chamber Model E-800-2B made by Research Specialties Company has been adapted to accept cellulose polyacetate strips.
Simmons, W. B.; Fendley, T. W.; Melius, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 562.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rapidly assembled, linear AC conductance or resistance recorder  Olsen, Eugene D.; Martin, Robert J.; Ahnell, Joseph E.
This paper describes an ac resistance or conductance breadboard-type instrument that can be built in less than an hour by a beginning electronics student.
Olsen, Eugene D.; Martin, Robert J.; Ahnell, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
An operational, amplifier-controlled chemical coulometer for determining n-values  Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Lovecchio, Frank V.; Minot, Melvyn C.; Macero, Daniel J.
By placing a chemical coulometer in the feedback loop of an operational amplifier, instead of a capacitor as is commonly done, a novel approach is realized for the determination of analytical concentration.
Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Lovecchio, Frank V.; Minot, Melvyn C.; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 483.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
An inexpensive resistometer for student laboratory use  Klatt, L. N.; Coleman, D. M.; Domalakes, R. J.; Van Atta, R. E.
The relatively simple resistometer described in this article may be constructed from inexpensive components by students with little previous knowledge of electrical instrumentation.
Klatt, L. N.; Coleman, D. M.; Domalakes, R. J.; Van Atta, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 403.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation in organic chemistry  Vlassis, C. G.; Cupillari, Thomas G.
Describes an experience in which sophomore organic chemistry students learn largely independently to use instrumentation.
Vlassis, C. G.; Cupillari, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 400.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
A simple, versatile weighing tube for reactive liquids  Smith, Wayrie L.
Provides a design for a simple, versatile weighing tube for reactive liquids.
Smith, Wayrie L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
A calcium chloride solution, dry-ice, low temperature bath  Bryan, Wilbam P.; Byrne, Robert H.
Investigates the characteristics of a calcium chloride solution, dry-ice, low temperature bath.
Bryan, Wilbam P.; Byrne, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 361.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Vacuum glassware safety (the author replies)  Krause, Josef G.
Cautions regarding the use of vacuum procedures and apparatus.
Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 323.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Vacuum glassware safety  Rubinstein, Harry
Cautions regarding the use of vacuum procedures and apparatus.
Rubinstein, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 323.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ultrathermostat suitable in the range between room temperature and 100C  Meszaros, Lajos
The author describes the development, design, and testing of an ultrathermostat suitable in the range between room temperature and 100C.
Meszaros, Lajos J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Raman spectroscopy  Part One  Bulkin, Bernard
This article discusses the current status of Raman instrumentation from the viewpoint of componentslasers, monochromators, detectors, amplifying systems, and sample handling.
Bulkin, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A781.
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Multipurpose Electroanalytical Instruments  Ewing, Galen W.
Surveys commercial electroanalytical instrumentation
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A717.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
The control of temperature - Part two  van Swaay, Maarten
Focusses on the design, characteristics, and operation of thermocouples and thermistors.
van Swaay, Maarten J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A565.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Pressure transducers - Part two  Curran, David J.
Surveys commercial capacitive, inductive, and piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Curran, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Mass spectrometers - Part three - Commercial spectrometers  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A233.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometers - Part two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines mass-analyzer systems and detectors as well as the resolution and performance of mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A149.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Infrared equipment for teaching  Wilks, Paul A., Jr.
Examines the value of infrared analysis, the role of infrared in teaching, and the characteristics of infrared spectrometers.
Wilks, Paul A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A9.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
An inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory  Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G.
Presents an inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory.
Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 874.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
A convenient stencil for glass etching  Alix, Ernest C.
A procedure for etching glass using a mimeograph stencil and hydrofluoric acid.
Alix, Ernest C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 863.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
A vacuum sublimation apparatus for the undergraduate organic laboratory  Kraus, Josef G.
Presents a vacuum sublimation apparatus for the undergraduate organic laboratory that is low in cost, easy to assemble, easy to heat at constant temperature, and has a large sample capacity.
Kraus, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 790.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An attachment for semiautomatic melting point determination  Vogel, George
This simple yet rugged device notifies the experimenter when a small crystalline sample in a capillary tube first begins to melt.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 789.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Nmr analysis of water-acetic acid solutions  Brabson, G. Dana
Presents an experiment intended to teach the operation of NMR instrumentation and the interpretation of the data it collects, as well as demonstrate a significant principle of chemistry.
Brabson, G. Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 754.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Purification of low-melting compounds  Kaye, Irving Allan
Presents a procedure that addresses difficulties to purification by recrystallization caused by the tendency of some low-melting compounds to precipitate from solution as oils.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 696.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management |
Precipitation / Solubility
Basic organic laboratory techniques and problem solving: The nitration of 4-nitrophenol  Pearson, Robert E.
The experiment described requires application of melting point data and the technique of recrystallization to identify the product of a simple chemical reaction.
Pearson, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 692.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis |
Phenols
Analytical chemistry for honors applied chemistry students  Atkinson, G. F.
This paper outlines the analytical chemistry content of a new program being introduced at the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) and discusses some of the rationale underlying the development.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 519.
Instrumental Methods
Electrolytic preparation of iodoform  Helle, K.; Rijks, J. A.; Janssen, L. J. J.; Schuyl, J. W.
This short note describes a simplified method for the production of iodoform.
Helle, K.; Rijks, J. A.; Janssen, L. J. J.; Schuyl, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 518.
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An automatic curve reading device  O'Kane, K. C.; Jurinski, N. B.
Presents a method of using a test scoring machine to read numerical values from graphical input data.
O'Kane, K. C.; Jurinski, N. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 460.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
An instrument for source intensity compensation in atomic fluorescence  O'Haver, T. C.; Winefordner, J. D.
The purpose of this paper is to describe an instrumental system that compensates for variations in the source intensity, thus allowing the use of unstable electrodeless discharge lamps as sources of excitation in atomic flame spectrometry.
O'Haver, T. C.; Winefordner, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 435.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Integrated circuits in the instrumental laboratory  Scherer, George A.
A brief introduction to integrated circuits that exemplifies their use in instrumentation through the construction of a square wave generator, audio amplifier, decimal counting unit, and operational amplifier.
Scherer, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 399.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors
Apparatus for electrodeposition experiments  Atkinson, G. F.; Shaw, John H.
Presents an alternative to commercial instruments for the electrodeposition of copper and lead from brass samples.
Atkinson, G. F.; Shaw, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 387.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Qualitative transfer device for volatile liquids  Giza, Chester A.
Design for a simple, easily made device for qualitative transfer of low-boiling or very volatile liquids.
Giza, Chester A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 289.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
A portable steam bath  Roswell, D. F.; Miller, M. P.; Zaczek, N. M.
Describes a portable steam bath heated by an immersion heater.
Roswell, D. F.; Miller, M. P.; Zaczek, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 236.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient glass-to-glass connector  Collins, Kenneth E.
Describes two modifications of a glass-to-glass O-ring coupling design that can be made easily and cheaply by a glassworker.
Collins, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 179.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Turbidimetric determination of chelated calcium at various pH levels: An analytical laboratory experiment  L'Annunziata, Michael F.; Fuller, Wallace
A turbidimetric method has been developed that allows the determination of chelated calcium in the presence of micromolar amounts of chelating agents at any level of the pH scale.
L'Annunziata, Michael F.; Fuller, Wallace J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 172.
pH |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods
A convenient method for sealing metallic wires into glass tubing  Vijh, A. K.; Alwitt, R. S.
A convenient method for sealing metallic wires into glass tubing is afforded by a special, heat-shrinkable, two-layered Teflon tubing.
Vijh, A. K.; Alwitt, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 121.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple method for preparing spherical metal electrodes  Sharpe, Thomas F.; Meibuhr, Stuart G.
Describes a simple method for preparing spherical metal electrodes.
Sharpe, Thomas F.; Meibuhr, Stuart G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 103.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple, inexpensive shaking apparatus  Burger, Lawrence J.; Taber, Richard L.
This simple, inexpensive shaking apparatus is powered by a common stirring motor.
Burger, Lawrence J.; Taber, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 39.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Safety shut-off for water-cooled devices  Bailey, R. A.; El-Guindy, M.; Tangredi, W.; Walden, J. A.
This note describes an easily constructed device that will automatically shut off electrical heating or other equipment in the absence of water flow.
Bailey, R. A.; El-Guindy, M.; Tangredi, W.; Walden, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 30.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reflectometers, Colorimeters, and Reflectance Attachments - Part Two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial reflectometers, colorimeters, and reflectance attachments.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A947.
Instrumental Methods
Reflectometers, colorimeters, and reflectance attachments - Part one  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Examines commercial reflectance attachments.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A861.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Oscilloscopes in chemistry - Part two  Nelson, Joseph E.
Examines the triggered oscilloscope, pug-in amplifiers, special oscilloscopes, and their applications.
Nelson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A787.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Signal to noise optimization in chemistry - Part two: S/N considerations in designing a measuring system  Coor, Thomas
Considers system grounding, transducers, amplifiers, signal processing, and lock-in amplifiers.
Coor, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A583.
Instrumental Methods
Signal to noise optimization in chemistry - Part one  Coor, Thomas
Reviews the properties of the various sources of noise confronted by the chemist in making measurements and various ways to avoid unnecessary noise.
Coor, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A533.
Instrumental Methods
Recent Instrumentation for UV-Visible Spectrophotometry - Part 1 (continued): Dual-Beam Spectrophotometers  Lott, Peter F.
Examines a variety of commercial, dual-beam spectrophotometers.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A169.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modern laboratory balances (concluded). Part one - Lever-arm balances (cont'd). Part two - Strain balances. Part three - Recording and automatic balances  Hirsch, Roland F.
Examines a series of modern laboratory balances, including lever-arm, strain balances, recording, and automatic balances.
Hirsch, Roland F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A7.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for determining vapor density  Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V.
Presents a simplified vapor-density experiment suitable for use as a freshman demonstration or an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Liquid nitrogen level control  Andrew, John T. S.; Current, Jerry H.
This short not presents a circuit diagram for a simple liquid nitrogen level control device.
Andrew, John T. S.; Current, Jerry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 803.
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A dual range direct current power supply for student use  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
Presents a design for and the performance of a dual range direct current power supply for student use.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 739.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A simple low-current potentiostat coulometric analysis  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a potentiostat and describes its use to conduct a coulometric analysis of 2,2-dinitropropane.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 736.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Low temperature recrystallization tube  Giese, Roger
Presents a low temperature recrystallization tube that eliminates problems with other designs and procedures.
Giese, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 610.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A versatile ionization detector system for gas chromatography  Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V.
A versatile and inexpensive ionization detector is described that can increase the utility of any gas chromatograph to which it is attached.
Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 519.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A mercury dispenser  Duedall, Iver W.
Presents a design for a simple mercury dispenser.
Duedall, Iver W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 393.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple and accurate dilatometer for liquids  Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F.
The density of a liquid as a function of temperature may be readily measured using this dilatometer.
Wagner, Robert E.; Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 349.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
Modified electrode kit  Gard, Walter F.
Presents modifications to a commercial electrode kit that extends its use to two- and three-electrode polarographic work.
Gard, Walter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 275.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The identification of vegetable oils: A gas chromatographic experiment  Cover, Richard E.
In this procedure the student is given a sample of oil which he saponifies and then esterfies to form the methyl esters of the fatty acids; the esters are then extracted, concentrated, and identified through gas chromatography.
Cover, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 120.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Apparatus for measuring spectra of oxygen-sensitive reactions  Lalor, G. C.
This method is particularly suited for quantitative measurement of the absorption spectrum of a product that can be formed by mixing to reactant solutions.
Lalor, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 90.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
A modified micro-boiling-point technique  Bulbenko, George F.
A short note regarding the use of a commercial melting point tube as a fine capillary bubbler for micro-boiling-point determination.
Bulbenko, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 43.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
Theory and applications of thermistors  Boucher, E. A.
Examines semiconductor theory and the manufacture, characteristics, and uses of thermistors.
Boucher, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A935.
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 3. Some specific types of calorimeters (conclusion)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the topics of solution calorimetry, microcalorimetry, dynamic calorimetry, and the instrumentation used to conduct these analyses.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A853.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry: Part two. Some associated measurements (cont.)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the measurement of electricity, calorimetric standards, solution calorimetry, and specific types of calorimeters.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A685.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry (continued) Part 2. Some associated measurements  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Topics examined include thermocouples, resistance thermometers, thermistors, and quartz crystal thermometers.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A629.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 1. Introductory survey of calorimetry  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Explores the scope and purpose of calorimetric investigation, types of calorimeters, areas of calorimetric investigation and the procedures and calculations involved.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A571.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modern laboratory balances  Hirsch, Roland F.
Examines the theory behind the operation of lever-arm balances and their methods of operation.
Hirsch, Roland F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1023.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Avoiding parallax error when reading a mercury manometer  Carroll, H. L.
This short note describes a simple method employing graph paper to avoid parallax error when reading a mercury manometer.
Carroll, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 763.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Evaporative distillation assembly  Giese, Roger
A short note diagramming the construction of an evaporative distillation assembly.
Giese, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 690.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Recyclization apparatus for esterification  Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S.
Describes an apparatus and procedure involved in preparing and distilling n-butyl acetate.
Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 680.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Esters
A simple distillation apparatus  Fenster, A. N.
This short note presents a modified Kugelrohr-type short-path distillation apparatus.
Fenster, A. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 660.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Useful techniques for micro and macro sublimation  Johnson, B. L.
Describes some useful designs and techniques for micro and macro sublimation
Johnson, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 608.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
Accurate measurement of gas volumes by a soap-film method  Hello, O.
The measurement of small gas volumes can be greatly improved by using the soap-film apparatus described in this article.
Hello, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 568.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Microboiling point determination at atmospheric pressure  Chaco, M. C.
This microboiling point determination uses a melting-point capillary
Chaco, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 474.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Physical Properties
Techniques for internal distillation-condensation  Johnson, B. L.
Presents modifications and apparatus for the semi-micro collection of pure substances and macro extraction.
Johnson, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
A continuous gas-mixing apparatus  Bultman, J. D.; Hannan, P. J.
Describes a continuous gas-mixing apparatus that allows gas mixtures of any desired concentration to be generated directly from tanks of compressed gas.
Bultman, J. D.; Hannan, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 424.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A thermostatic bath for temperatures between 90 and 300K  Wood, T. Aylmer
Describes a simple, precisely controlled, variable temperature bath for gaseous adsorption studies.
Wood, T. Aylmer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 423.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A modular system for teaching instrumental chemical analysis  Morgenthaler, L. P.
Identifies eight experiments performed using modular equipment in an instrumental analysis course.
Morgenthaler, L. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 325.
Instrumental Methods
The rest point of the balance  Hakala, Reino W.
Elaborates on the formula for finding the rest point of a balance.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 306.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A new short-path distillation apparatus  Morrison, Harry
This design is basically a modification of the kugelrohr method but was created to surmount difficulties in cooling the receiver and removing the distillant.
Morrison, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An automatic distillation apparatus  Hinton, J. F.; Than, A.; Amis, E. S.
Presents a design for an automatic distillation apparatus capable of handling large amounts of liquid.
Hinton, J. F.; Than, A.; Amis, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 112.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Application of binary and ternary arithmetic to weighing problems  Lang, Sidney B.; Peck, Robert L.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the advantages of using a ternary system of weights on a two-pan balance and a binary system on a single-pan balance.
Lang, Sidney B.; Peck, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 48.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction of an inexpensive constant temperature device  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Presents a design for a simple constant temperature device.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 29.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Unattended laboratory operations. Part 1. The safe operation of laboratory distillations over night  Conlon, D. R.
Examines issues related to the safe operation of laboratory distillations over night.
Conlon, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A589.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart one  Kahn, Herbert L.
Examines the advantages, analytical possibilities, interferences, sensitivities, and instrumental systems of atomic absorption.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A7.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Multiple-scan infrared interference spectroscopy  Low, Manfred J. D.
Describes the design, operation, and application of a multiple-scan Michelson interference spectrometer.
Low, Manfred J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 637.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A simple variable speed wavelength drive  Harrison, W. W.; Norvelle, A. W., Jr.
Describes a simple variable speed wavelength drive designed for use with a Beckman DU.
Harrison, W. W.; Norvelle, A. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 598.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A radiochemical experiment in gas chromatography  Merrigan, J. A.; Nicholas, J. B.; Rack, E. P.
This article presents a method for building a radiogaschromatograph from materials generally available in a radiochemistry laboratory, and an experiment using this chromatograph that illustrates Szilard-Chalmers effects, energies associated with nuclear transformations, and characteristics of the chromatograph.
Merrigan, J. A.; Nicholas, J. B.; Rack, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 543.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumental Methods of Analysis (Willard, Hobart H.; Merritt, Lynne L., Jr.; Dean, John A.)  Safford, H. W.

Safford, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 506.
Instrumental Methods
Improvements in the Victor-Meyer  Bader, Morris
Two improvements in the Victor-Meyer have simplified the apparatus and greatly increased the accuracy of molecular weight determinations.
Bader, Morris J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 500.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Radimer, K. J.
Describes a device to produce a range of constant liquid flows.
Radimer, K. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 446.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis  Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A.
Present a circuit diagram and describes typical applications of a simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis.
Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 428.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Hollahan, John R.
The technique in the cited article is not a new one.
Hollahan, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 392.
Instrumental Methods
Letter to the editor  Gleit, Chester F.
The technique in the cited article is not a new one.
Gleit, Chester F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 392.
Instrumental Methods
Teaching aid for three-component systems  Hermens, R. A.
Describes a triangular graph that can serve as a useful teaching aid for three-component systems.
Hermens, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 334.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Electrical conductance apparatus  Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J.
A circuit diagram for an electrical conductance apparatus that is safe, accurate, and allows for qualitative measurements.
Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 309.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple high-resolution differential thermal analysis unit  Zaret, Matthew E.; McClenon, John R.; Aikens, David A.
Describes the design and operation of a simple high-resolution differential thermal analysis unit.
Zaret, Matthew E.; McClenon, John R.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 307.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Coulometry: A series experiment  Van Lente, K. A.
In this experiment Faraday's Laws are applied to three coulometers - a silver coulometer, an iodine coulometer, and a gas coulometer - all connected in series.
Van Lente, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 306.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A broad-surface condenser  Schultz, Harry P.
Describes a light, broad-surface condenser made from two Pyrex watch glasses whose edges have been sealed to one another with epoxy.
Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Closed system stirring apparatus  Ostroff, A. G.
Described here is a simple device for stirring closed systems.
Ostroff, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 266.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Versatile magnetic stirrer and flexible coupler  Warkentin, J.
Describes a versatile magnetic stirrer and flexible coupler connected to a vacuum line that can be used to determine reaction rates by monitoring gas volume as a function of time.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 265.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Dependence of the Beer-Lambert absorption law on monochromatic radiation: An experiment of spectrophotometry  Wentworth, Wayne E.
The purpose of this paper is to present an experiment that clearly emphasizes the necessity of using monochromatic radiation.
Wentworth, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 262.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Demonstration of the glass transition  Koleske, Joseph V.; Faucher, Joseph A.
Glucose pentaacetate (GPA) has been found to be an excellent compound to use for a simple demonstration of the glass-rubber and amorphous-crystalline transitions.
Koleske, Joseph V.; Faucher, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 254.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Three dimensional models in phase rule studies  Peretti, E. A.
Three-dimensional phase models are constructed from soldered iron wire.
Peretti, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 253.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Short-range manometer  Miller, N. E.
Presents a design for an inexpensive, rugged, and accurate short-range manometer.
Miller, N. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Interferometric spectroscopy in the far infrared  Hurley, William J.
Examines interferometric spectroscopy instrumentation, interferograms, interferometry versus conventional spectroscopy, and some chemical applications of interferometric spectroscopy.
Hurley, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 236.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Instructional NMR instrument  Proffitt, Michael H.; Gardiner, W. C., Jr.
Presents circuit diagrams for the components of an instructional NMR instrument.
Proffitt, Michael H.; Gardiner, W. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 152.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart Five  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines double-imaging, surface profile, and standards microscopes, as well as oculars, body tubes, objectives, and stages.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A945.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart four  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines types of compound microscopes and micrometer-equiped microscopes.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A853.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart 2  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines dispersion, chromatic aberration and correction, highly corrected magnifiers, limitations of single lenses, and the compound microscope.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A619.
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopy  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines types of magnifiers, the biconvex lens and its applications, magnification, depth of focus, limitations of simple lenses, and spherical correction and aberration.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A565.
Instrumental Methods
Design and construction of glass vacuum systemsConcluded  Rondeau, Roger E.
Examines the transfer of gases, vacuum gauges, glass seals, break seals, manifolds, cold traps, and high vacuum stopcocks.
Rondeau, Roger E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A511.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Elementary infrared spectroscopy (Meloan, Clifton E.)  Cooke, W. D.

Cooke, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A492.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Melting point depression  Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam
The eutectic temperature of the piperonal / resorcinol system is well below room temperature.
Di Pippo', Ascanio G.; Joseph, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A413.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Instrumentation for electrodeposition and coulometryPart two  Lott, Peter F.
Examines all-electronic potentiostats, constant current coulometry, galvanostats, and a microcoulometric titration system.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A361.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Instrumentation for electrodeposition and coulometryPart one  Lott, Peter F.
Examines electrodeposition, controlled potential analysis, potentiostats, and other electromechanical devices.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A261.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Luminous gas light sources  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines luminous gas behavior, glow discharge tubes, high intensity glow discharge lamps, electronic flask tubes, and arc discharge lamps.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A165.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The rest point of the balance  Crawford, Crayton M.
This paper offers a new method for determining the rest point of a balance.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 669.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Student potentiometer using a zener diode  Atkinson, George F.
Presents a circuit diagram for a student potentiometer using a zener diode.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 656.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Improvised melting point apparatus  Rogers, F. E.
A simple substitute for the Fisher-Johns melting point apparatus can be improvised using Wood's alloy.
Rogers, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 619.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Multiple remote magnetic stirring device  Miller, Bernard
Presents the design of a multiple remote magnetic stirring device.
Miller, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Melting point techniques for volatile mixtures  Wilcox, W. R.
Describes two techniques for avoiding volatilization while taking melting points of small quantities of a mixture.
Wilcox, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 616.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An inexpensive immersion heater for an oil bath  Ault, Addison
A short note on an inexpensive immersion heater for an oil bath made from a resistor.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 603.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Safety gas washing bottle and gas safety valve  Molau, G. E.; Keller, R. T.
Presents a new design of a safety gas washing bottle in which the principle of the Kipp gas generator is combined with the principle of a gas washing bottle.
Molau, G. E.; Keller, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 563.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electronic timer for the study of electron transfer reactions  Stephens, J. F.; Chakrabarty, M. R.
Studies of rapid kinetic processes by a quenching method necessitated the construction of electronic timing devices, capable of pumping reacting solutions into a vessel and introducing a quenching solution at desired time intervals.
Stephens, J. F.; Chakrabarty, M. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 562.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Apparatus for preparations and filtrations under inert, dry conditions  Holah, D. G.
The equipment described here presents an easily constructed and versatile means for carrying out reactions and filtrations under inert conditions.
Holah, D. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 561.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An automatic mercury still  Low, Manfred J. D.; Abrams, L.
The automatic vacuum still described here is useful for the continuous distillation of mercury for use in a variety of equipment.
Low, Manfred J. D.; Abrams, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 557.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A sensitive inexpensive thermometer  Slabaugh, W. H.
Presents a circuit diagram for a simple thermistor.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 467.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Melting point apparatus  Brown, Richard K.
Describes a simple melting point apparatus that relies on a soldering iron element for heat.
Brown, Richard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 433.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis  van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F.
Presents the design and an evaluation of performance for a simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis.
van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Use of polychromatic radiation in absorption photometry  Strong, Frederick C., III
Proportionality between concentration and absorbance (Beer's Law) requires approximately monochromatic radiation to the extent that the variation of absorptivities with wavelength results in less error than other instrumental and chemical errors.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 342.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Three dimensional models in phase rule studies  Petrucci, Ralph H.
Describes the results of a NSF program to illustrate and encourage the use of three-dimensional representations in the teaching of phase rule principles.
Petrucci, Ralph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 323.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Standard taper lab-kit for undergraduate organic chemistry  Darling, S. D.; Brown, R. F.
Describes a standard taper lab-kit for undergraduate organic chemistry.
Darling, S. D.; Brown, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 280.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A boiling point apparatus for organic laboratories  Wright, Oscar L.
A rather simple but effective ebulliometer can be built by anyone with a minimum of glass-blowing ability.
Wright, Oscar L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 259.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A modified condensing apparatus for both refluxing and distilling  Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C.
The condenser described here can be pivoted from a vertical position (refluxing) to one approximately horizontal (distilling) without having to switch the inlet and outlet condensor connections.
Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 221.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
A simple float valve for maintaining the water level of a bath at elevated temperatures  Thacker, Raymond
Presents a simple float valve for maintaining the water level of a bath at temperatures close to 100C despite evaporation.
Thacker, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 215.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Several designs for constructing potentiometers  Battino, Rubin
This paper describes several designs for constructing inexpensive potentiometers that possess a practical degree of precision.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 211.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for steam distillation  Mallory, Frank B.
This apparatus for steam distillation eliminates the time required to bore corks with a more traditional apparatus.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A versatile hot stage microscope: Lab studies in high temperature chemistry  Glasser, L.; Miller, R. P.
Presents a simple and elegant technique for demonstrating the processes of chemical change at high temperatures, from which phase diagrams can be constructed.
Glasser, L.; Miller, R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 91.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Modular instrumentation in analytical chemistry  Ewing, Galen W.
It is the purpose of this paper to describe an approach to modular instrumentation in analytical chemistry in which students complete the assembly of partially assembled instruments.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 32.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines computer systems, search procedures, microfilm storage, and future developments.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A921.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Slavin Donald G.
Examines the topics of spectral-structure correlation charts, book indices, the operation of "Spec-Finder," punched card identification systems, edge punched cards, and optical coincidence systems.
Slavin Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A827.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for large scale gas chromatography  Bayer, Ernst
Examines the design and operation of large scale gas chromatography columns.
Bayer, Ernst J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A755.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part three: Miscellaneous  Eisner, Leonard
Considers magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, atomic beam spectroscopy, mass spectrometers, chromatography, electrochemistry, electron diffraction, field emission microscopes, glass blowing and vacuum systems, high and low temperatures, and ultrasonics.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A607.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Magnetic Properties |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part one: Optical devices (continued)  Eisner, Leonard
Examines lasers used as instrumental teaching equipment.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A551.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part one: Optical devices  Eisner, Leonard
Examines the attributes of teaching equipment, teaching fundamental principles, optics and spectroscopy, and spectroscopic equipment of modular design.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A491.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Instrumentation for fluorometry. Part two  Lott, Peter F.
Examines a variety of fluorometers, including filter fluorometers.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A421.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Mass spectrometry, part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Considers the applications of mass spectrometry and various commercial mass spectrometers.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A153.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Examines the theory of mass spectroscopy and factors that influence mass spectra.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A75.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple direct current source for the laboratory  de Ita, Odon Sanchez; Urquiza, Manual
Presents a simple apparatus for the conversion of ac to dc.
de Ita, Odon Sanchez; Urquiza, Manual J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 655.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Adaptation of a Sargent polarograph to a pen recording instrument  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This brief note describes the adaptation of a Sargent polarograph to a pen recording instrument.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 632.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Demonstrating Job's method with colorimeter or spectrophotometer  Carmody, Walter R.
Presents a method for demonstrating Job's method of continuous variations with a colorimeter or spectrophotometer.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 615.
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
A novel distillation flask  Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A.
Presents a design for a distillation flask that relies on boiling the liquid in an inverted conical flask heated by a Nichrome wire element.
Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Interpretation of mass spectra of organic compounds (Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Djerassi, Carl; Williams, Dudley H.)  Silverstein, Robert M.

Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 464.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Modified single deflection weighing  Knudson, George E.
Describes a single deflection method of weighing using older, double pan balances.
Knudson, George E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 449.
Instrumental Methods
Method for the determination of liquid-vapor binary equilibria  Colgate, S. O.; Hanrahan, R. J.
In the method described here, which is a modification of the refluxing procedure, provision is made for collecting samples of both condensed vapor and liquid without disturbing the equilibrium.
Colgate, S. O.; Hanrahan, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 433.
Equilibrium |
Liquids |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive photochemical reactor  Starr, J. Edward; Eastman, Richard H.
The study of photolytic reactions can be readily and effectively carried out using this inexpensive and easily constructed photolysis apparatus.
Starr, J. Edward; Eastman, Richard H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 394.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Photochemistry
A convenient apparatus for small scale ozonizations  Rubin, Mordecai B.
Describes a convenient apparatus for small scale ozonizations.
Rubin, Mordecai B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 388.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A constant-level oil-bath melting point apparatus  Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F.
Presents a modification of the Theile-Denis melting point apparatus.
Powell, H. B.; Mellon, E. K., Jr.; Burow, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 345.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Construction of a simple refractometer: A chemical instrumentation experiment  Coe, Gordon R.; Conlon, Ralph D.; Dessy, Raymond E.
The construction of a simple refractometer can be used as an experiment to teach basic concepts of instrumentation.
Coe, Gordon R.; Conlon, Ralph D.; Dessy, Raymond E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 337.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The history of the Warburg apparatus: Some reminiscences on its use  Oesper, Peter
The Warburg apparatus is a device for measuring the pressure of a gas at constant volume and constant temperature so that the pressure is a measure of the quantity of gas and changes in pressure reflect the production or absorption of gas.
Oesper, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 294.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A versatile and inexpensive controlled potential polarographic analyzer  Enke, C. G.; Baxter, R. A.
The instrument described in this article was built to be used for basic research in nonaqueous and ac polarography and for instruction in polarographic principles and techniques in introductory and advanced analytical chemistry laboratories.
Enke, C. G.; Baxter, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 202.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A demonstration device for gas chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This paper describes the construction and use of a simple gas chromatograph with removable covers for class demonstrations.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 162.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
A convenient micro filter-stick  Cooper, Paul D.
This brief note describes a device that can serve to replace conventional sintered filter-sticks.
Cooper, Paul D. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 85.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
A constant current source for student use  Mann, C. K.
Suggests constructing a constant current source as described in the cited article.
Mann, C. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A986.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Emission spectroscopy. Part one  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H.
Examines the general principles of emission spectroscopy, quantitative analysis through emission spectroscopy, and excitation sources.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A927.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
A temperature sensitive stirring rod  Eddy, R. D.
Provides suggestions for research based on an earlier published article.
Eddy, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A text-book of quantitative inorganic analysis including elementary instrumental analysis (Vogel, Arthur I.)  Welcher, Frank J.

Welcher, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A68.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Freezing point observations on micellar solutions  Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu
Describes freezing point observations on solutions of p-methylphenyl glucose and p-butylphenylglucose.
Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 472.
Micelles |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An inexpensive spectrograph of moderately high resolution  Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D.
This article describes a spectrograph with a resolving power greater than 6000 that can easily be built for a minimal cost.
Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 452.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple pressure stopcock  Gilmont, Roger
Describes the modification of a standard stopcock into a pressure stopcock.
Gilmont, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds  Begeman, Charles R.
Presents a simple evaporator for heat sensitive compounds that is similar to common flask rotating devices.
Begeman, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 427.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Apparatus for molecular distillation and vacuum sublimation  Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F.
A simple, inexpensive yet highly effective apparatus for laboratory scale purifications by molecular distillation or vacuum sublimation has been designed.
Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A simple closed end manometer  Trumbull, Elmer R.
Presents the design for a simple closed end manometer that minimizes spillage of mercury.
Trumbull, Elmer R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 350.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electronics for scientists: Principles and experiments for those who use instruments (Malmstadt, H. V.; Enke, C. G.; Toren, E. C., Jr.)  Moorhead, E. D.

Moorhead, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 335.
Instrumental Methods
Modification of a vacuum desiccator  Head, E. L.; Pavone, D.
A simple device has been constructed to eliminate the difficulty normally encountered in the removal of vacuum desiccator lids.
Head, E. L.; Pavone, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 316.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A gas saturation apparatus  Shatzberg, Paul
Presents a simple apparatus for saturating air with water or, more generally, gases with liquids.
Shatzberg, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 267.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A thermistor actuated proportional temperature controller  Milligan, Barton
Presents the design of a thermistor actuated proportional temperature controller employing only solid-state devices.
Milligan, Barton J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 263.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Device for measuring temperature in a closed rotating flask  Lubbs, Eugene K.
Presents a simple thermocouple for measuring temperature in a closed rotating flask.
Lubbs, Eugene K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 200.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A glass electrode pH meter using a vacuum tube voltmeter  Brower, Harold E.
A simple pH meter can be constructed using a vacuum tube voltmeter.
Brower, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 85.
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
A modular approach to chemical instrumentation  Wise, Edward N.
Suggests a modular approach to assist students in acquiring familiarity with the application of instrumental principles.
Wise, Edward N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 73.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Constant current power supply  Svec, Harry J.; Peterson, Norman C.
Provides a circuit diagram for a constant current power supply.
Svec, Harry J.; Peterson, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 37.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Thin layer chromatography apparatus  Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, D. G.; Perrings, J. D.
Describes the preparation of the grooved plate and adsorbent layer for a simple and inexpensive, thin layer chromatography apparatus.
Hansbury, Elizabeth; Ott, D. G.; Perrings, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 31.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation based on operational amplifiers (Part II)  Reilley, C. N.
Examines standard voltage sources, differential operational amplifiers, consecutive circuits, and the solution of equations through op amp circuitry.
Reilley, C. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A933.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introduction to chemical instrumentation: Electronic signals and operations (Bair, Edward J.)  Tabbutt, Frederick

Tabbutt, Frederick J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A684.
Instrumental Methods
Electroanalytical instrumentation  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines photographic and pen recording DC polarographs produced by various manufacturers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A445.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Electroanalytical instrumentation (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines polarographic instruments and their components and processes, including the slidewire, the galvanometer, damping, the shunt, and manual polarographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A355.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Electroanalytical Instrumentation  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers types of electrochemical techniques; principles of instrumentation; power supplies, their controllers and programmers; and detection circuitry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Gas chromatographs (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the read-out, zero suppression, read-out of peak areas, ball-and-disc integrator, electromagnetic integrators, all-electronic integrators, digital integrators, and various commercial, laboratory gas chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A161.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Letters  Dence, Joseph B.
The author provides some suggestions regarding the distillation of benzyl alcohol following the Cannizzaro reaction.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 320.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Experiments and equipment for teaching chemical instrumentation  Tabbutt, Frederick D.
Examines a variety of instruments and their application in an instrumental course.
Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 611.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  Naiman, Barnet
Suggests small vials modified to hold eyedroppers to weigh samples of a volatile liquid accurately.
Naiman, Barnet J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 594.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gideon's fleece tests: The earliest recorded vapor phase adsorption experiment?  Giles, C. H.
Provides a physical explanation for Gideon's biblical fleece test.
Giles, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 584.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A large capacity laboratory extraction apparatus  Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis
Presents a non-commercial design for a large capacity, Soxhlet extractor.
Diaper, Dennis G. M.; Kuksis, Arnis J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 532.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Simplified atomic absorption spectrophotometer  Rechnitz, Garry A.
This paper presents a simple atomic absorption spectrophotometer that can be constructed from inexpensive and readily available components.
Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 475.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A simple inexpensive glove box  Shore, Sheldon G.
Presents a design for a simple and inexpensive glove box that relies on the use of a polyethylene bag.
Shore, Sheldon G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
An efficient and inexpensive inert gas chamber  Ocone, L. R.; Simkin, Joseph
Describes a plastic bag modified for use as an efficient and inexpensive inert gas chamber.
Ocone, L. R.; Simkin, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 463.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Boiling point and molecular weight  Rich, Ronald
This short note points out that molecular weight, by itself, has negligible influence on boiling point.
Rich, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 454.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Magnetic stirring promotes smooth boiling  Bloomfield, Jordan J.
This short note indicates that the use of a magnetic stirrer effectively prevents violent bumping.
Bloomfield, Jordan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 355.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An X-Y recorder for reading a meter: A photoelectric scanning device  Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B.
Describes the design and operation of an automatic photoelectric scanning device that serves as an X-Y recorder.
Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 314.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A semimicro Kipp apparatus  Polya, J. B.
Presents a design for a semimicro Kipp apparatus.
Polya, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 295.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Observations of molecular behavior in cold traps  Morrow, J. I.; Turk, Amos; Kaplan, Bruce E.
describes the operation of a modified cold trap.
Morrow, J. I.; Turk, Amos; Kaplan, Bruce E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 263.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient laboratory sublimation apparatus  Mallory, Frank B.
Reduced-pressure sublimation can eliminate many of the problems involved in purification through recrystallization.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 261.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A funnel for the controlled addition of solids  Bloomfield, Jordan J.; Nunamaker, Harry
Describes an addition funnel for solids based on the use of a Teflon screw to deliver solids at any desired rate to a reaction.
Bloomfield, Jordan J.; Nunamaker, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 255.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentiometric determination of Kw with the glass electrode  Liberti, Arnaldo; Light, Truman S.
Presents a potentiometric method for determining the ionization product of water in a constant ionic medium.
Liberti, Arnaldo; Light, Truman S. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 236.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
A student preparation of butyl ether  Smith, William B.
This preparation uses a Dean-Stark tube to separate water from the reaction mixture as it is formed.
Smith, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 212.
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient and safe method for the evaporation of organic solvents  Kamphausen, H. A.
Solutions of a wide variety of organic compounds in common organic solvents have been evaporated to dryness rapidly and safely with this apparatus.
Kamphausen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 208.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Close packing of atoms: A lecture demonstration  Mellor, D. P.; Shuk, V.
This lecture demonstration illustrates the close packing of atoms and the effect of melting; it relies on steel balls and a permanent magnet.
Mellor, D. P.; Shuk, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 130.
Metals |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Filter-pipets  Rapoport, Morris; Hancock, C. Kinney
This short note describes the use of filter-pipets to separate solid particles from supernatant solutions.
Rapoport, Morris; Hancock, C. Kinney J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 98.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Countercurrent distribution: Apparatus for a simple experiment  Verzele, M.; Schamp, N.
Presents an apparatus and its application to perform a countercurrent distribution.
Verzele, M.; Schamp, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Liquids
Locating ultraviolet-absorbing substances on paper chromatography  Katz, Sam
Describes a simple device for scanning paper chromatographs that is a version of the Haines apparatus and is suitable for classroom use.
Katz, Sam J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 34.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chromatographic Equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines ascending, descending, and horizontal paper chromatographs; and centrifugally-, thermally-, and electrilytically-accelerated chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A567.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Chomatographic Equipment  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: selectivity in the distribution of components between two phases, chromatographic development, types of chromatographic systems, the production of counter-current flow, the scale of chromatographic separations, the components of chromatographs, the two-phase system, and containers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A515.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Nuclear Radiation Detectors  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines electroscopes, ion chambers, Geiger-Mueller counters, scintillation detectors, and the voltage characteristics of detectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A135.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Infrared spectrometers (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of various commercial models of infrared spectrometers and a flame photometer.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A71.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
A titration controller for demonstrating the behavior of acid-base indicators  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a device that permits the automatic back-and-forth titration with acid and alkali of a solution containing an appropriate indicator.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 633.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Miscellanea no. 4  Mysels, Karol J.
Errors examined include the chromyl chloride test for chlorides, "monovalent" oxygen compounds, and ternary diagrams.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 627.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Adapting hospital "castoffs" for use in a chemistry laboratory  Martinette, Sister Mary B. V. M.; Crowell, Sister Agnita D. C.
A short note on the use of discarded hospital bottles in the chemistry laboratory.
Martinette, Sister Mary B. V. M.; Crowell, Sister Agnita D. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 619.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A teflon bearing for stirrers  Kaplan, M. L.; Crocker, R. E.; Sargent, Herbert
Describes a stirrer bearing assembly that can be operated at high speeds for long durations without additional lubrication.
Kaplan, M. L.; Crocker, R. E.; Sargent, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Safety device for vacuum diffusion pumps  Pritchard, G. O.; Miller, G. H.
This device ensures a continuous stream of coolant water for pumps in a vacuum system.
Pritchard, G. O.; Miller, G. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 525.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A low cost direct current source for the laboratory  Barnard, W. Robert.; Woodriff, Ray
Presents a low cost source of variable direct current.
Barnard, W. Robert.; Woodriff, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A constant current source for student use  Mann, Charles K.; Champeaux, Vernel C.
Describes a controlled current power supply suitable for coulometric and potentiometric titrations, chronopotentiometry, and current scanning polarography.
Mann, Charles K.; Champeaux, Vernel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 519.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Substitute for separatory funnels  Jean, Marcel
A modified polyethylene wash bottle can make a convenient substitute for a separatory funnel.
Jean, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 515.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Temperature and power measurements in precision solution calorimetry  O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G.
Presents the design of a calorimetric apparatus, and accompanying circuit schematic, and their application to calorimetry measurements.
O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 512.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive versatile multi-column gas chromatograph for students  Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A.
Presents the design of a multi-column, gas chromatography unit constructed from common laboratory materials.
Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 506.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments for Instrumental Methods (Reilley, Charles N.; Sawyer, Donald T.)  Tabbutt, Frederick D.

Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 481.
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive coulometer for titrations with externally generated reagents  Head, William F., Jr.; Marsh, Max M.
Describes the design and use of an inexpensive coulometer for titrations with externally generated reagents.
Head, William F., Jr.; Marsh, Max M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 361.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The turbidimetric determination of lead  Perkins, Gerald, Jr.; Wimberley, J. W.; Lamb, J. F.; Maurer, L. E.
Describes the turbidimetric determination of lead precipitated with molybdate.
Perkins, Gerald, Jr.; Wimberley, J. W.; Lamb, J. F.; Maurer, L. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 358.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Apparatus for the Friedel-Crafts reaction: For the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory  Kremer, Chester B.; Wilen, Samuel H.
A simple and practical reaction apparatus has been designed that offers several advantages over earlier set-ups.
Kremer, Chester B.; Wilen, Samuel H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 306.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrophilic Substitution
Laboratory heating bath using fluidized solid  Manes, Milton; Chalmers, David G.
The laboratory heating bath described herein combines the high temperature limit of the traditional sand bath with the good heat transfer and temperature uniformity of fluidized beds.
Manes, Milton; Chalmers, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 102.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Spectrophotometers (cont'd)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the various components and operating characteristics of the Beckman Model DU.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A455.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Spectrophotometers  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the important components and operating characteristics of spectrophotometers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A401.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photometers and colorimeters (cont'd)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines vacuum phototube photometers, photomultiplier tube photometers, instruments for color specification, and tristmulus colorimetry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A271.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photometers and Colorimeters  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines visual photometers, photovoltaic cell photometers, and photovoltaic cell circuitry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A197.
Instrumental Methods
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Line-operated constant voltage supplies for recorders and potentiometers  Thomas, E. B.; Nook, R. J.
Transistors, operated as diodes, may be used as zener diodes to regulate D.C. constant voltage supplies with low current requirements.
Thomas, E. B.; Nook, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 641.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Semiconductors
Water equivalent of vacuum flask calorimeter by the ice fusion method  Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik
Presents the design of a vacuum flask calorimeter and describes the determination of its water equivalent by the ice fusion method.
Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 635.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  Bretherick, L.
The author notes that he had previously developed a flexible vacuum flask connection.
Bretherick, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 602.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive polarimeter for demonstrations and student use  Garvin, James E.
This paper describes an easily assembled and inexpensive polarimeter and reports some results of its use in student experiments.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 515.
Instrumental Methods
A useful glass-blowing lathe for small equipment  Bonner, William A.
This brief note describes a useful glass-blowing lathe for small equipment.
Bonner, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 402.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Research-oriented experiments in instrumental analysis  Sawyer, Donald T; Reilley, Charles N.
These experiments have been designed not only to illustrate analytical applications for instruments but also, whenever possible, to apply instrumental methods to the evaluation of physical chemical data.
Sawyer, Donald T; Reilley, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 400.
Undergraduate Research |
Instrumental Methods
Building a high-frequency titrator for instructional use  Clinkscales, J. K., Jr.; Frye, Herschel
Describes the design and operating characteristics of a high-frequency titrator for instructional use.
Clinkscales, J. K., Jr.; Frye, Herschel J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 304.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Acceleration of flash distillation  Kasman, Sidney.; Rubin, L. E.
The rate of flash distillation can be accelerated through a simple modification.
Kasman, Sidney.; Rubin, L. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 292.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Removable vacuum connectors for filter flasks  Doty, W. R.
This brief note describes a removable vacuum connector for filter flasks.
Doty, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 292.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple, inexpensive rotary film evaporator  Arnett, Edward M.
Presents a design for a simple, inexpensive rotary film evaporator.
Arnett, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 247.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A semiautomatic polarograph: A low cost instrument for student use  Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B.
Presents the design of a semiautomatic polarograph suitable for introductory analytical chemistry.
Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 240.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
An apparatus for the continuous production of triple distilled water  Taylor, Jay E.
Presents the design of an apparatus for the continuous production of triple distilled water.
Taylor, Jay E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 204.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A demonstration polarimeter  Spear, Carleton S.
Describes the construction of a simple polarimeter that can be constructed by students for use in laboratory experiments.
Spear, Carleton S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 203.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A thermogravimetric balance for student experiments  Delhez, Robert
Presents the design of a simple, homemade thermobalance.
Delhez, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 151.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Vessel for small-scale reactions  Kasman, Sidney
This brief note describes a modified test tube that allows a thermometer to be used to measure temperature changes involved in the reaction of very small amounts of material.
Kasman, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 150.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurements  Schmitt, Robert H.; Grove, E. L.
This brief note describes an inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurements.
Schmitt, Robert H.; Grove, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 150.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Instrumental Methods
Apparatus for handling liquefied gases  Badgett, James M., Jr.; Stansbury, Harry A., Jr.
A simple, safe, and useful apparatus has been constructed to facilitate the liquefaction, measurement, and feeding of low-boiling gases in laboratory experiments.
Badgett, James M., Jr.; Stansbury, Harry A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 43.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recording devices  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the basic design, construction, and operation of instrumental recording devices.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A729.
Instrumental Methods
Vacuum pumps (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines a variety of commercial vacuum pumps.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A433.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Vacuum pumps  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the physical principles and operating characteristics of vacuum pumps.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A391.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Centrifuges (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines a variety of commercial centrifuges.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A337.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Centrifuges  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operating characteristics and components of centrifuges.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A269.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Temperature-controlled baths  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines control systems, thermoregulators, heaters, stirrers, and baths.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A131.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Balances (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of single pan, constant-load balances and recording balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A67.
Instrumental Methods
Balances  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design, characteristics, and operation of various balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A7.
Instrumental Methods
Precise coulometric titrations based on silver coulometer measurements  Van Lente, K. A.; van Atta, R. E.; Willard, H. H.
The purpose of this article is to describe a method for coulometric titrations using a different type of silver coulometer and a versatile type of apparatus with which gas evolution causes no trouble.
Van Lente, K. A.; van Atta, R. E.; Willard, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 576.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A modified water rheostat  Yeh, Ping-Yuan; Yu, Chen-Pin
A modified water rheostat is easily constructed from two pieces of glass tubing and copper wire electrodes.
Yeh, Ping-Yuan; Yu, Chen-Pin J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 473.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A water aspirator hood  Moore, Wilbur D.
Presents the design of a small, localized hood that operates using water aspiration.
Moore, Wilbur D. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 407.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A gas testing device using liquids or test papers  Williams, T. R.; Stock, John T.
This simple device facilitates the qualitative testing of gases evolved during small-scale inorganic analysis using liquids or test papers.
Williams, T. R.; Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Glass rod as a stirrer in pH titrations  Venkatachalam, K. A.
This short note describes how a glass rod can be used as a stirrer in potentiometric titrations without interfering with the glass electrode.
Venkatachalam, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 301.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Letters to the editor  Guenther, William B.
The author questions the continued use of two pan balances in the quantitative analysis course.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 257.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple universal apparatus for steam distillation  Wallenberger, Frederick T.; O'Connor, William F.; Moriconi, Emil J.
This paper reports on modifications to an earlier apparatus for steam distillation and its operating characteristics with respect to recovering organic products.
Wallenberger, Frederick T.; O'Connor, William F.; Moriconi, Emil J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple differential fermentograph  Borzani, Walter; Vairo, Marina L. R.
The very simple differential fermentograph described in this report can give good comparative measures of the influence of several factors on the fermentation rate when gases are produced.
Borzani, Walter; Vairo, Marina L. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 242.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Balance instruction by television  Hayes, John R.; Schempf, John M.; Murnin, Joseph A.
Describes the authors' experience in using closed circuit television to teach students in quantitative analysis the technique of weighing with the analytical balance.
Hayes, John R.; Schempf, John M.; Murnin, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 615.
Instrumental Methods
A boiling point apparatus  Lykos, Peter G.
A one-piece boiling-point apparatus that utilizes Cottrell's principle of spraying the thermometer with boiling liquid is described.
Lykos, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 565.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A microreaction block  Schultz, Harry P.
The author has developed an electrically heated reaction block for executing numerous laboratory operations on a micro scale, including distillations, refluxings, sealed tube reactions, sublimations, recrystallizations, drying of analytical samples, and determination of melting points.
Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 564.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
A new addition apparatus  Scheer, Irving; D'Adamo, Amedeo F., Jr.
This device helps to ease the addition of a solid reagent in small portions to a reaction mixture, particularly reagents that are sensitive to air and moisture.
Scheer, Irving; D'Adamo, Amedeo F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 281.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Textbook errors: Guest column. XVI: The vapor pressure of hydrated cupric sulfate  Logan, Thomas S.
Examines variability in the values of pressures of water vapor in equilibrium with pairs of cupric sulfate in hydrates quoted in the literature and texts.
Logan, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 148.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Student-built spectrofluorometer  Goldstein, Jack M.; McNabb, Wallace M.; Hazel, J. Fred
Presents a student project involving the construction of an inexpensive, practical spectrofluorometer.
Goldstein, Jack M.; McNabb, Wallace M.; Hazel, J. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 604.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters to the editor  Burnell, R. H.; Sangster, A. W.
Presents a simple apparatus for vacuum filtration.
Burnell, R. H.; Sangster, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 574.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simplified isoteniscope for vapor pressure measurements  Sternberg, James C.
A modified isoteniscope method has been developed using an isoteniscope that is simple to operate and which the undergraduate can easily assemble himself.
Sternberg, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 442.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Gases
The determination of normal boiling points at high altitudes  Levy, Luis; Proano, Oswaldo E.
A pressurized distillation apparatus is useful for the direct determination of the normal boiling point, regardless of the outside atmospheric pressure.
Levy, Luis; Proano, Oswaldo E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 440.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A compact low-cost electrodeposition apparatus  Cook, Clarence L.
Briefly describes a compact low-cost electrodeposition apparatus.
Cook, Clarence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 280.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A portable mixture colorimeter of high absolute accuracy  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
The equipment described is designed to provide a more rapid and uniform mixing of solutions, allows the use of equal volumes, and requires only one Beckman thermometer.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An automatic titrator  Phillips, John P.
Describes the design and operation of a photoelectric automatic titrator suitable for demonstrations in elementary quantitative analysis.
Phillips, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 203.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
An experiment in flame photometry  Willard, H. H.; Van Lente, K. A.; Van Atta, R. E.
The main objective of this experiment is to introduce to the student the fundamental qualitative and quantitative aspects of flame photometry.
Willard, H. H.; Van Lente, K. A.; Van Atta, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 192.
Instrumental Methods
A combined oscillator, amplifier, and power supply for conductance bridges  Loytty, O. M.; McCarren, E. F., Jr.; Vernon, A. A.
Describes the investigation, development, and operation of a combined oscillator, amplifier, and power supply for conductance bridges.
Loytty, O. M.; McCarren, E. F., Jr.; Vernon, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 190.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A technique for vacuum filtration  Brown, James R.
The method described here permits one to filter with suction directly into a variety of receivers, thus avoiding the need to transfer from a suction flask or to rinse down a filtering adapter.
Brown, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 165.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An apparatus for the microdetermination of melting points  Jennings, Walter G.
Presents a microscope-mounted melting point apparatus constructed from a machined aluminum block.
Jennings, Walter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 95.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab
A nomograph for correction of boiling points  Myers, R. Thomas
Provides a nomograph for the correction of boiling points at elevations above sea level.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 58.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The use of nephelometric measurements to determine the presence of chelates: A laboratory experiment for an instrumental course  Land, James E.
The experiment presented here has been developed to teach the art and practice of nephelometry and to show the student an application of Job's method of continuous variations to the demonstration of the constitution of an inorganic compound.
Land, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 38.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods
A convenient method of determining vapor pressures  Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D.
This apparatus can be used with equal facility for solids and liquids.
Leonard, J. M; Bultman, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 623.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Apparatus for the triple distillation of mercury  Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M.
The rising cost of mercury coupled with the extensive use of this element in a variety of laboratory applications emphasizes the need for an efficient apparatus for purification.
Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 607.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An automatic still-head timer  Binder, L. O.
Presents a schematic diagram for an automatic timer.
Binder, L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 591.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Inexpensive apparatus for speedy evaporation  Greef, Frances; Larsen, Clifford T.
A rotary film type of evaporator has been constructed from materials available in the laboratory.
Greef, Frances; Larsen, Clifford T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 556.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Electronics instruction in the instrumental analysis course  Safford, Hurd W.
Presents lecture demonstrations, group laboratory demonstrations, and the construction and testing of basic instruments.
Safford, Hurd W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 436.
Instrumental Methods
Experience in the teaching of spectrochemical analysis  Devries, Thomas
The purpose of this paper is to present some ideas and relate experiences that may encourage others to include emission spectroscopy in the curriculum.
Devries, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 430.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The recording potentiometer: Its use in the analytical chemistry laboratory  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews types of recording potentiometers and their applications in the analytical chemistry laboratory.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 424.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumental methods in analytical curricula  Kolthoff, I. M.
Every student in chemistry should be made acquainted with classical methods of instrumental analysis.
Kolthoff, I. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 423.
Instrumental Methods
Introductory remarks  Laitinen, H. A.
Introductory remarks to symposium on problems in the teaching of instrumental analysis.
Laitinen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 422.
Instrumental Methods
A gas-density balance for student use  Werner, A. E.
Describes a gas-density balance robust enough for student use
Werner, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 393.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A reduced-scale Lassaigne technique: The detection of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens in organic compounds  Stock, John T.
Presents apparatus that makes use of a reduced-scale Lassaigne technique involving fusion with metallic sodium for the detection of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens in organic compounds.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 345.
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Notes on the lyophilization technique  Devor, Arthur W.; Titchener, Edward B.; Andr, Charles E.; Frajola, Walter J.
Presents a simple apparatus for demonstrating freeze-drying.
Devor, Arthur W.; Titchener, Edward B.; Andr, Charles E.; Frajola, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 343.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A constant-level water bath for the student laboratory  Slagle, James R.; Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Presents the design of a very simple, constant-level water bath for the student laboratory.
Slagle, James R.; Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 330.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Constant temperature vapor bath  Bessinger, F.; Pretorius, V.
A very simple constant-temperature furnace for use in kinetic studies has been developed.
Bessinger, F.; Pretorius, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 330.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A convenient glass cutter for tubing  Woodriff, Ray
A convenient glass cutter for tubing is constructed from a long-nosed pliers.
Woodriff, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 293.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Finding the rest point of a balance: A mathematical justification for an odd number of swings  Wirtschafter, Jonathan D.
Presents a mathematical justification for an odd number of swings in determining the rest point of a balance.
Wirtschafter, Jonathan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 216.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive mercury thermoregulator  Clark, Louis W.
This inexpensive mercury thermoregulator requires a 50 mL pipet, a short piece of thick-wall capillary tubing, a short piece of platinum wire, mercury, and a Bunsen burner.
Clark, Louis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 147.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Semimicro cryoscopic molecular-weight determinations  Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G.
These suggestions eliminate two sources of difficulty encountered by students in carrying out cryoscopic (Rast) molecular-weight determinations.
Pinkus, A. G.; Barron, B. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 138.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Zone refining  Christian, John D.
A brief description of zone refining.
Christian, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 32.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Textbook errors: IV. The sensitivity change of analytical balances  Mysels, Karol J.
It is the relative position of the knife edges and not the bending of the beam that determines the variation of sensitivity with the load on an analytical balance.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 518.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Lecture thermometer and voltmeter  Dutton, Frederic B.
A sensitive temperature-indicating device with a reasonable rapid response time that relies on a thermocouple and can be seen by a large group.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 478.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A current stabilizer for laboratory electrolytic processes  Thompson, H. Bradford; Boehm, Mary Jo; Rogers, Max T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a current stabilizer suitable for laboratory electrolytic processes.
Thompson, H. Bradford; Boehm, Mary Jo; Rogers, Max T. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 463.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations  Hubbard, Edward M.
Describes an automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations that avoids a key difficulty in the earlier Nickels trap.
Hubbard, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 376.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Glascol adapter  Johnston, Jean V.
The usefulness of a Glascol heating mantle can be increased by fitting it with a sand bath.
Johnston, Jean V. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 318.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A laboratory ozonizer  Andrews, A. C.; Mickel, B. L.; Klassen, K. C.
Describes the construction of a small, self-contained ozonizer for use in the laboratory.
Andrews, A. C.; Mickel, B. L.; Klassen, K. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 154.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Blake, G. G.
The author comments on the lack of credit received in the reference list of a previous article.
Blake, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 52.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A simple melting-point apparatus  Gero, Alexander
The melting-point apparatus described in this paper is distinguished by extreme simplicity of construction and negligible cost.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 645.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
A micro gas generator  Baker, Louis C. W.; Stouffer, John E.
This micro Kipp generator for H2S could be modified for use with CO2 and other gases.
Baker, Louis C. W.; Stouffer, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 593.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Microscale Lab
A student polarimeter  Nechamkin, Howard
Describes the construction and use of a crude polarimeter suitable for use by students in early chemistry courses.
Nechamkin, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 579.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A sublimation apparatus for rapid separations  Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III
Presents the design of a macrosublimation apparatus constructed to allow accurate temperature control and ease recovery of the residue.
Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A simple, automatic gas buret  Goodwin, Robert D.
Presents a simple buret that automatically makes adjustments to preserve a constant pressure in the system under study.
Goodwin, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 369.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A convenient constant-temperature heater  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
This convenient constant-temperature heater does away with liquid baths.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 312.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mercury contact for constant temperature thermoregulator  Cefola, Michael; Chadwick, Arthur J.
Presents a device for the precise regulation of temperature in constant temperature baths.
Cefola, Michael; Chadwick, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 142.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Assemblies for suction filtration  Kay, Irving Allan; Burlant, William J.
A filter bell, cut from a standard four-liter flask, has been used successfully for collecting filtrates in Erlenmeyer flasks ranging in size from 50 to 1000 mL.
Kay, Irving Allan; Burlant, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 127.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Two effective but inexpensive antiwetting agents  Taylor, Jay E.
Procedure for producing and using two effective but inexpensive antiwetting agents.
Taylor, Jay E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 124.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A taper-tube condenser  Feldkamp, Rolland F.; Wilt, William A.
In an attempt to improve the drainage and increase the efficiency of a small, Liebig-type condenser, the authors have designed and built a taper-tube condenser.
Feldkamp, Rolland F.; Wilt, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 84.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Automatic equipment for precipitation with H2S  Garcia, S. Bartniski
The automatic equipment presented simplifies and improves the safety of precipitations with H2S.
Garcia, S. Bartniski J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 73.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Precipitation / Solubility
A cheap hot stage  Kiplinger, C. C.
Describes an inexpensive air bath and its use in melting point determinations.
Kiplinger, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 33.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An easily constructed manometer  Castro, Albert T.; Blood, Alden E.
Describes an easily constructed manometer for use in the first-year organic chemistry course.
Castro, Albert T.; Blood, Alden E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 23.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Tygon bulbs for medicine droppers  Margrave, John L.
Tygon bulbs are recommended to replace rubber bulbs that are susceptible to deterioration.
Margrave, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 623.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive portable electroanalyzer  Farrington, Paul S.; Pecsok, Robert L.
Describes the design and operating characteristics of an electrolytic analyzer.
Farrington, Paul S.; Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 461.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
An interferometer  Malik, Jim G.; Speirs, John L.; Rogers, Max T.
Presents the general theory of interferometery, its uses, and a description of a constructed instrument and its operation.
Malik, Jim G.; Speirs, John L.; Rogers, Max T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A visual demonstration of fractional distillation  Osburn, James O.
Describes the design of a glass bubble-cap column, a glass-packed column, and an equilibrium diagram for an engineering department open-house.
Osburn, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 412.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Letters  Thompson, H. Bradford
Suggests a modification to an electronic relay presented in an earlier letter.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 374.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive, easily constructed spectrophotometer  Safford, Hurd W.; Westneat, D. F.
Presents the design and describes the operation of an inexpensive, easily constructed spectrophotometer that relies on a wedge interference filter.
Safford, Hurd W.; Westneat, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 343.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Small-scale techniques in the teaching of organic chemistry  Stock, John T.
Describes the glassware and other equipment used in micro- and semimicro chemical techniques in organic chemistry.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 296.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Electrodeposition apparatus for student laboratories  Elving, Philip J.; Hayes, John R.; Mellon, M. G.
Presents the design of a simple electrodeposition apparatus for student laboratories in quantitative analysis.
Elving, Philip J.; Hayes, John R.; Mellon, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 254.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
An electronic interval marker  Marion, Alexander P.
The device described here provides a tone impulse at a rate variable from 30 to 120 per minute and an additional characteristic signal for submultiples within a range of 5 to 15 per minute.
Marion, Alexander P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
Some uses of radio service kits in teaching quantitative analysis  Phillips, John P.
The problem of obtaining inexpensive and practical instruments to supplement conventional equipment specifically designed for chemical purposes has been partially solved by the purchase of radio service instrument kits.
Phillips, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 70.
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
The kinetic structure of gases  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes a model that illustrates the kinetic properties of gases and ii use to demonstrate the effect of temperature changes on the motion of gas particles.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 68.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Correction of boiling points for variation in barometric pressure  Hakala, Reino W.
Examines several methods for correcting boiling points for variations in barometric pressure.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 616.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An inexpensive thermostat  Linke, William F.
A simple and surprisingly efficient thermostat can be constructed in minutes using a three-necked flask and a liquid (or mixture of liquids) that boils at a desired temperature.
Linke, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 492.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instructional error in quantitative analysis  Blaedel, W. J.; Jefferson, J. H.; Knight, H. T.
Instructional error is that which is beyond the control of students in making quantitative analyses; illustrates this in the determination of chloride as silver chloride.
Blaedel, W. J.; Jefferson, J. H.; Knight, H. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 480.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A new and useful laboratory clamp  Grantom, Roy L.
Describes a clamp that holds a rubber stopper in place to allow the maintenance of a moderate pressure in a straight-wall glass tube.
Grantom, Roy L. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 455.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A recorder for polarography  Thomas, E. B.; Nook, R. J.
The switching arrangement and potential recorder presented here has been used primarily for polarographic work, but may be adapted to many other uses that employ small changes of potential or current to measure or control chemical processes.
Thomas, E. B.; Nook, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 414.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
The 4 in 1 chem-mixer  Wendland, Ray
This device allows one to rely on one- rather then three-necked flasks.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 365.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The thermomatic steamer  Wendland, Ray
Presents an apparatus designed to be kept together, ready for immediate use and easy to clean without tearing down, to conduct steam distillations in organic chemistry.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 364.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Semimicro laboratories  Chelberg, Raymond R.; Anderson, John E.
Describes the equipment and preparations needed to conduct semimicro laboratories in general, organic, and analytical chemistry.
Chelberg, Raymond R.; Anderson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 189.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A constant-temperature bath for warm climates  Loveless, W. M.; Marshall, Madison L.
Describes a simple water bath with a cooling element that can be moved from one room to the next.
Loveless, W. M.; Marshall, Madison L. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 137.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  Swinehart, D. F.
The author points out the repeated observation of positive corrections to be made in calibrating Exax burets.
Swinehart, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 660.
Calibration |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electrolysis with controlled cathode potentials  Foster, Duncan G.
This paper describes the construction of an instrument for the control of a cathode's potential during an electrolysis procedure (a potentiostat) and its use in a quantitative analysis laboratory.
Foster, Duncan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
A compact hydrogen sulfide generator  Gordon, H. B.
Describes a simple device that relies upon the heating of "Aitch-Tu-Ess" to generate hydrogen sulfide.
Gordon, H. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 583.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A laboratory pressure regulator  Lowe, George G.
Presents a device suitable for maintaining a constant pressure when performing low-pressure distillations.
Lowe, George G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 535.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A rapid method for routine checking of melting points  Hughes, Virgil E.
Offers a device and procedure for checking the melting points of ten samples simultaneously.
Hughes, Virgil E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 479.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A course in instrumental analysis  Bassett, Lewis G.; Harley, J. H.; Wiberley, S. E.
A course in instrumental analysis can be conveniently divided into three parts: absorption spectroscopy (including fluorometry), emission spectroscopy, and electrometric procedures. This paper considers each of these fields and discusses student experiments in some detail.
Bassett, Lewis G.; Harley, J. H.; Wiberley, S. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 466.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
An improved melting point apparatus  Nickels, J. E.
Describes an improved form of the Hershberg precision melting point apparatus.
Nickels, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 303.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An electric flask heater  Mathews, Frederick
Describes the construction of an electric flask heater from very simple materials.
Mathews, Frederick J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 258.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An improved stirrer assembly  Patton, John T.
Presents the design of a leak-free stirrer assembly.
Patton, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 207.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A versatile gas-absorption apparatus  Russell, Robert R.
Presents a design for a simple gas-absorption apparatus.
Russell, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 145.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A method of estimating the boiling points of organic liquids  Pearson, D. E.
Discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of organic liquids and their boiling point.
Pearson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 60.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An improvised ultramicroscope  Kiplinger, C. C.
The ultramicroscope is an effective device for demonstrating the probability of molecular motion by its revelation of Brownian movement.
Kiplinger, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 42.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus