TIGER

Journal Articles: 582 results
Use of Wikis in Chemistry Instruction for Problem-Based Learning Assignments: An Example in Instrumental Analysis  Robert Clougherty and Mona Wells
Wikis -- interactive Web sites where visitors can both read and write to pages -- have tremendous potential as an instructional technology. In this case, a wiki used initially to provide students with a shared work-space for the development of projects in an instrumental analysis lab became an effective vehicle for peer interaction and review.
Clougherty, Robert; Wells, Mona. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1446.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Student-Centered Learning
Quantitative Analysis of Nail Polish Remover Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revisited  Markus M. Hoffmann, Joshua T. Caccamis, Mark P. Heitz, and Kenneth D. Schlecht
Substantial modifications intended for a second- or third-year laboratory course in analytical chemistry are presented for a previously described procedure using NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively determine analytes in commercial nail polish remover. The revised experiment introduces student collaboration to critically interpret a relatively large set of data.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Caccamis, Joshua T.; Heitz, Mark P.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1421.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
HPLC Analysis of α- and β-Acids in Hops  Travis M. Danenhower, Leyna A. Force, Kenneth J. Petersen, Thomas A. Betts, and Gary A. Baker
Describes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitation of the predominant a-acids (humulone, cohumulone, and adhumulone) and -acids (lupulone, colupulone, and adlupulone) present in hops.
Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna A.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 954.
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Streaming Waters: Challenges in Monitoring the Chemistry of Dynamic Environments  Joseph H. Aldstadt, III and Melissa A. Singer Pressman
Students can learn to build simple monitors that illustrate the challenges (and frustrations) and benefits (and drawbacks) of remote environmental monitoring.
Aldstadt, Joseph H., III; Singer Pressman, Melissa A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 181.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Variable Temperature Equipment for a Commercial Magnetic Susceptibility Balance  Albert Lötz
Variable temperature equipment for the magnetic susceptibility balance MSB-MK1 of Sherwood Scientific, Ltd., is described. Whereas the balance as sold commercially can be used only for room temperature measurements, the setup presented here extends the temperature range from 20C to 80C without a loss in performance.
Lötz, Albert. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 107.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties
Integrated Laboratories: Crossing Traditional Boundaries  Debra K. Dillner, Robert F. Ferrante, Jeffrey P. Fitzgerald, William B. Heuer, and Maria J. Schroeder
Describes a new, integrated laboratory curriculum recently developed at the U.S. Naval Academy in response to the 1999 ACS Committee on Professional Training guidelines that required inclusion of biochemistry and a stronger emphasis on student research.
Dillner, Debra K.; Ferrante, Robert F.; Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P.; Heuer, William B.; Schroeder, Maria J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1706.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
E = mc2: An Intuitive Derivation  James J. Leary and William H. Ingham
Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is derived using a thought experiment that can easily be understood by any serious student of chemistry.
Leary, James J.; Ingham, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1651.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Teaching Science in Art  Erich S. Uffelman
Describes two linked, interdisciplinary courses examining conservation science and the history of 17th-century Dutch painting. Strengths and limitations of the approaches taken are discussed and key resources cited.
Uffelman, Erich S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents  Suzanne K. Lunsford, Justyna Widera, and Hong Zhang
This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment that incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in the presence of common interferents.
Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1471.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products
A One-Hour Practical Lab Exam for Organic Chemistry  Edward G. Neeland
Presents a lab practical for second-year organic chemistry that tests lab skills and theory acquired from laboratory experiences and may serve as an effective end-of-term exam.
Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1453.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introducing Students to the Scientific Literature  Lee Roecker
Describes an exercise in a quantitative analysis course that uses the primary literature to provide students with practice in the interpretation of statistical data, the use of spreadsheets, critical evaluation of scientific evidence, and insight into the work of analytical chemists.
Roecker, Lee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1380.
Instrumental Methods |
Student / Career Counseling
Quantitative Imaging in the Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching  Tanya Cumberbatch and Quentin S. Hanley
This article describes an experiment based on quantitative imaging in which students use the quenching of fluorescein dianion to measure rate constants.
Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1319.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative Measurement of Trans-Fats by Infrared Spectroscopy  Edward B. Walker, Don R. Davies, and Mike Campbell
FTIR-ATR spectroscopy provides an efficient analytical tool to measure the percentage of trans-fat in several commercially available lipids and the degree of alkene isomerization induced by brominationdebromination chemical reactions.
Walker, Edward B.; Davies, Don R.; Campbell, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1162.
Alkenes |
Calibration |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  Amber Victoria Irish Hess
Thin-layer chromatography enhanced by digital photography is ideal for high school and college labs and can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis comparable to more expensive, high-performance TLC equipment. Using common photo-editing software, one can quickly produce multi-spectral scans, densitograms, and calibration curves, output previously limited to HPTLC.
Hess, Amber Victoria Irish. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 842.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Mercury-Free Analysis of Lead in Drinking Water by Anodic Stripping Square Wave Voltammetry  Jeremy P. Wilburn, Kyle L. Brown, and David E. Cliffel
The analysis of drinking water for lead, which has well-known adverse health effects, provides an instructive example of the use of analytical chemistry to monitor a common hazard of everyday life. This article offers a mercury-free analytical method for the analysis of lead in drinking water using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.
Wilburn, Jeremy P.; Brown, Kyle L.; Cliffel, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 312.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid–Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project  Howard Drossman
Describes a three-part laboratory project that integrates a full chemical speciation analysis of Gatorade and Powerade, including base standardization, potentiometric or colorimetric titration, and ion chromatography.
Drossman, Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 124.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chromatography
A Developmental History of Polymer Mass Spectrometry  Matthew J. Vergne, Robert P. Lattimer, and David M. Hercules
This review provides a historical perspective of the development of polymer mass spectrometry, divided into three eras: the small molecule era (1950s and 1960s); the macromass era (1970s and 1980s); and the modern era (the late 1980s to the present).
Vergne, Matthew J.; Lattimer, Robert P.; Hercules, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 81.
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
An Inexpensive Device for Capillary Electrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection  Greg Anderson, Jonathan E. Thompson, and Khriesto Shurrush
Describes an inexpensive device for performing capillary electrophoresis separations with fluorescence detection. As a demonstration of utility, the device is used to determine the mass of riboflavin in a commercially available dietary supplement.
Anderson, Greg; Thompson, Jonathan E.; Shurrush, Khriesto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1677.
Electrophoresis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Infrared Examination of the Transformation of Barium Sulfate into Barium Carbonate. An Inorganic Infrared Qualitative and Quantitative Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
This experiment provides an interesting pedagogical exercise that not only demonstrates the value of infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of inorganic systems, but also visually illustrates a procedure used in classical wet chemical qualitative analysis for sample preparation.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 910.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids
Classroom Demonstrations of Concepts in Molecular Fluorescence  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
A multichannel CCD-array spectrophotometer and handheld UV lamp are utilized to acquire and project in real-time the fluorescence emission spectra of quinine, fluorescein, eosin yellow, and rhodamine B.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 758.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Introduction to Polymer Processing, Morphology, and Property Relationships through Thermal Analysis of Plastic PET Bottles. Exercises Designed to Introduce Students to Polymer Physical Properties  H. Darrell Iler, Eric Rutt, and Seth Althoff
Through thermal analyses of poly(ethylene terephthlate) (PET) bottles, students are introduced to the relationships between processing, morphology, and physical properties of polymer materials.
Iler, H. Darrell; Rutt, Eric; Althoff, Seth. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 439.
Applications of Chemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Thermal Analysis
Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops  Erich C. Meister and Tatiana Yu. Latychevskaia
Examinmes the buildup of axially symmetric hanging drops, starting from the YoungLaplace equation and the governing differential equation. The growing of drops is discussed in terms of changing geometrical quantities such as drop volume, height, surface area, and contact angle to the capillary.
Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 117.
Computational Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Liquids |
Materials Science |
Surface Science
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Content in Popular Carbonated Drinks  Jessie Rodgers and Marina Koether
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Rodgers, Jessie; Koether, Marina. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Transport Properties
A Simple Low-Cost Lock-In Amplifier for the Laboratory  Sandip K. Sengupta, Jessica M. Farnham, and James E. Whitten
The construction of a simple, low-cost, stand-alone lock-in amplifier suitable for physical and analytical chemistry instructional laboratories is described. The instrument is useful for detecting and amplifying signals that are in-phase with a reference signal and is particularly important for optical experiments that employ a pulsed light source.
Sengupta, Sandip K.; Farnham, Jessica M.; Whitten, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1399.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy  David E. Alonso and Steven E. Warren
Second-year organic chemistry students analyze and compare the spectral data of three unknown ketones (2-heptanone, 3-heptanone, and 4-heptanone). Students acquire one-dimensional proton and carbon NMR data for each unknown and make signal assignments based on chemical shifts, integration values, and splitting patterns of signals. Difficulties are encountered during interpretation of NMR data for 2- and 3-heptanone. Acquiring and analyzing the two-dimensional NMR spectra of the heptanones resolve these problems.
Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1385.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A Networked NMR Spectrometer: Configuring a Shared Instrument  David Alonso, G. William Mutch, Peter Wong, Steven Warren, Bal Barot, Jan Kosinski, and Mark Sinton
Andrews University, Lake Michigan College, and Southwestern Michigan College established an educational consortium in southwest lower Michigan. An FT-NMR spectrometer was installed at AU and networked with the community colleges. Students and faculty from LMC and SMC visit Andrews on a regular basis to receive training and operate the NMR. The instrument is accessible via the Internet for data acquisition, processing, and transfer. The spectrometer has helped the consortium schools improve the quality of chemistry education, exposed students in chemistry courses to the concepts and techniques of modern NMR spectroscopy, and strengthened the collaboration between the chemistry faculty of the three schools. This article describes the NMR network configuration and the methodology for NMR data acquisition and distribution.
Alonso, David; Mutch, G. William; Wong, Peter; Warren, Steven; Barot, Bal; Kosinski, Jan; Sinton, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1342.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
Ewing's Analytical Instrumentation Handbook, 3rd Edition (Jack Cazes)  Jack K. Steehler
This resource is a figurative and literal heavyweight. Its 31 chapters and more than 1000 large-size pages (filled with small text) provide an enormous amount of information. About a third of the book discusses spectroscopic techniques (11 chapters, all the standard types of spectroscopy); the second third covers various separation methods (10 chapters); and the remaining third hits a cross section of other topics, including four chapters on electrochemistry and three chapters on automation. The core of spectroscopy and separation science is appropriate and well chosen, covering the expected topics. There is even a chapter on Validation of Chromatographic Methods, an important topic for any lab working in a regulated environment. Additional, more unusual chapters include a chapter on Chiroptical Spectroscopy and a long chapter (100 pages) on Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip methods, both of current research interest.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1315.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Substituted Benzoic Acids. An Experiment for the Organic Synthesis Laboratory  Nancy S. Mills, John D. Spence, and Michelle M. Bushey
We have introduced an experiment into the organic chemistry sequence, in the synthesis laboratory, that utilizes capillary electrophoresis to evaluate the pKa shift on a series of student-prepared substituted benzoic acids. The pKa shift is examined in reference to the electrophoretic-migration behavior of benzoic acid and is a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the substituent. This strategy allows us to increase the exposure of students to modern methods of separation. We are using repeated exposure to increase students' knowledge of separation strategies and techniques.
Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1226.
Synthesis |
Electrophoresis |
Grignard Reagents |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Simplex Optimization of Headspace-Enrichment Conditions of Residual Petroleum Distillates Used by Arsonists  Molly M. Warnke, Angela E. Erickson, and Eugene T. Smith
A forensic project is described that is suitable for an undergraduate instrumental methods lab. Accelerants commonly used by arsonists are analyzed by static headspace enrichment followed by gas chromatography. The conditions used for headspace enrichment (e.g., time and temperature) are known to influence the distribution of hydrocarbons extracted from an arson sample. To minimize artifacts associated with headspace enrichment, simplex optimization was used to determine the optimal time and temperature for the various classes of common hydrocarbon accelerants.
Warnke, Molly M.; Erickson, Angela E.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1082.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Forensic Chemistry
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
A Convenient Method for Dispensing Organometallic Reagents  Thomas A. Newton
The construction of a simple apparatus for dispensing air-sensitive organometallic reagents is described.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 936.
Organometallics |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis
Appropriate Use of Blanks, Standards, and Controls in Chemical Measurements  Mark F. Vitha, Peter W. Carr, and Gary A. Mabbott
It is critical to teach students the use of control samples, blanks, standards, dummy analyses, and system suitability checks to increase confidence in measurements. This article is intended as a concise primer on these topics that faculty can distribute to and discuss with their laboratory and research students, particularly undergraduate students. Our experience suggests that students sometimes do not appreciate the fundamental differences between these concepts. This article directly addresses those differences and clarifies the distinct functions served by each.
Vitha, Mark F.; Carr, Peter W.; Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 901.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Calibration |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Realizing Workplace Skills in Instrumental Analysis  John H. Kalivas
Undergraduates entering the workforce often lack key technical skills. This paper describes an approach to teaching an instrumental analysis laboratory that assists students in attaining expertise needed for the work place. The course provides experiences with life-long benefits by developing good laboratory practices in concert with protocols common to commercial and research laboratories.
Kalivas, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 895.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Nanotribology: Rubbing on a Small Scale  J. Thomas Dickinson
With the development of the atomic force microscope, the study of friction, wear, and lubrication (i.e., tribology) between a single asperity of nanometer dimensions and a solid surface has led to a wealth of knowledge. We present a review of tribological concepts and examine the consequences of reducing the size scale of surfaces in sliding contact. A few examples of nanotribology studies including fundamental investigations of friction and tribochemistry are presented.
Dickinson, J. Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 734.
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science
Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach, Second Edition (R. Martin Smith)  Bill Boggess
The interpretation of mass spectra represents arguably the most significant challenge to both newcomers and practitioners in the field of mass spectrometry (MS). For those of us who have ever struggled to use a mass spectrum to solve the structure of an organic compound, R. Martin Smith offers the second edition of Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach. Fortunately, the author manages to go well beyond the obvious and expected explanations of the common modes of fragmentation for ions generated during electron ionization (EI) by offering a rational approach to mass spectral problem solving. This ten-step approach, which represents the most important contribution of this text, appears in chapter 5 and is condensed into table 5.1.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 687.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
The Determination of Vanillin in a Vanilla Extract: An Analytical Undergraduate Experiment  Jozef L. Beckers
Vanillin is an interesting compound, often used in educational chemistry. It can be synthesized from the plant extract eugenol and can be used for the preparation of diverse products. Less attention is paid, however, to the determination of vanillin, although it can be analyzed in a rather simple way. In this article, vanillin is determined in a commercially-available vanilla extract using RP-HPLC equipment and CE apparatus, without any pretreatment. Some student results are presented, giving an indication of the accuracy and precision of the separation techniques RP-HPLC and CE.
Beckers, Jozef L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 604.
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring. A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Robert M. Sobel, David S. Ballantine, and Victor Ryzhov
A quantitative analysis or instrumental analysis laboratory experiment was created to perform a gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of phenol level found in natural products. The analysis utilizes selected ion monitoring for the determination of phenol concentration in natural oil of wintergreen. The experimental design addresses the industrys need for increasing awareness of gas chromatographymass spectrometry techniques with shortened analysis time.
Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 601.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments  Giuseppe Alibrandi, Santi D'Aliberti, Salvatore Coppolino, Antonino Villari, and Norberto Micali
This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data.
Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 442.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Chemometrics Module for an Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Course  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Phet Elkins, Segmia K. Tata, and Dustin Ryan Smith
A chemometrics module for the undergraduate instrumental analysis chemistry course was developed and implemented. The objective of this module is to provide the skills needed by students to design experiments, to learn calibration techniques for analyzing multicomponent systems, to extract chemical information from large data sets provided by modern instruments, and, overall, to provide a broader spectrum of analytical techniques especially for those students who aspire going to graduate schools or working in chemical industries.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Elkins, Phet; Tata, Segmia K.; Smith, Dustin Ryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 415.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry (Frank M. Dunnivant)  Marco A. De Jesús
Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry is a good reference for educators involved in the design of an introductory environmental or instrumental chemistry laboratory. The manual contains 28 laboratory exercises grouped in seven core areas encompassing fundamental laboratory techniques, analysis of air contaminants, aquatic chemistry, hazardous waste analysis, soil chemistry, natural waters analysis, and fate and transport modeling of environmental pollutants. The text comes with a CD-ROM that contains additional problems for the students and an electronic version of the supportive material. The CD also includes a series of interactive Shockwave simulations that models distribution coefficient of different acidbase systems and the fate and transport of a contaminant in a variety of environmental matrices.
De Jesús, Marco A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 382.
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere  John V. Seeley, Arthur W. Bull, Richard J. Fehir, Jr., Susan Cornwall, Gabriel A. Knudsen, and Stacy K. Seeley
This laboratory experiment applies several different fundamental concepts including oxidationreduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis. In addition, students are provided with unique experiences in constructing simple instrumentation and collecting environmental samples.
Seeley, John V.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.; Seeley, Stacy K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 282.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gases
Writing-Intensive Multimedia Projects in the Instrumental Methods Course  Hal Van Ryswyk
A writing-intensive, team-based multimedia project has been incorporated into the instrumental methods course. The project serves two student populations: students in the course gain an enhanced understanding of an instrumental technique through extensive, focused writing, while first-time instrument users outside of the course gain useful documentation and high-quality point-of-use training.
Van Ryswyk, Hal. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 70.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Remote Instrumentation for the Teaching Laboratory  Jit Baran, Ron Currie, and Dietmar Kennepohl
Chemistry has traditionally been one of the more difficult subjects to teach at a distance owing mostly to challenges in delivering the laboratory component. It is now possible to control analytical instruments in real time and carry out computer-interfaced instrumental chemistry experiments remotely via an Internet connection.
Baran, Jit; Currie, Ron; Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1814.
Instrumental Methods
Initial Design and Development of an Integrated Laboratory Network: A New Approach for the Use of Instrumentation in the Undergraduate Curriculum  Devon A. Cancilla
This paper describes both the conceptual framework and initial development of Western Washington University's Integrated Laboratory Network (ILN). The ILN brings together scientific instrumentation, Internet-based classroom management systems (CMS), and other online resources to provide a new working model for the use and introduction of instrumentation within the undergraduate curriculum. Full implementation of the ILN will allow greater access to instruments and instrumental data and will provide a wide variety of novel teaching and learning opportunities.
Cancilla, Devon A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1809.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Students' Attitudes toward and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Instrumentation  Larry S. Miller, Mary B. Nakhleh, John J. Nash, and Jeanne A. Meyer
Data collected from field notes, surveys, and interviews are used to evaluate (i) the attitudes students have toward using instrumentation, (ii) how students relate the underlying chemical concepts to the instrumentation, and (iii) how working in a group impacts students' attitudes toward, and their conceptual understanding of, chemical instrumentation.
Miller, Larry S.; Nakhleh, Mary B.; Nash, John J.; Meyer, Jeanne A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1801.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Unifying Description of Modern Analytical Instrumentation within a Course on Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Gary D. Rayson
A unifying approach to the description and teaching of modern analytical instrumentation typically discussed in undergraduate courses in Instrumental Methods of Analysis has been developed and is described. The approach involves the description of all analytical instruments as comprising of five basic modules.
Rayson, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1767.
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  Paul R. Haddad, Matthew J. Shaw, John E. Madden, and Greg W. Dicinoski
An ion chromatography exercise is described that uses a free Internet-based software package, Virtual Column 2, to simulate retention behavior and to optimize separation conditions. Virtual Column 2 permits the detailed study of retention behavior of inorganic anions on a Dionex AS11 column using isocratic hydroxide eluents and also on a Dionex AS4ASC column using carbonate-bicarbonate eluents. Collection of retention data from Virtual Column 2 allows students to investigate the effects of variation in eluent composition on retention, to examine separation selectivity in ion chromatography, and to evaluate the performance of simple retention models.
Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1293.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The History of Ion Chromatography: The Engineering Perspective  Barton Evans
This article traces the history of the engineering development related to the several generations of ion chromatography instruments, columns, suppressers, and software. In so doing, several representative engineering challenges and their outcomes are discussed including: early directions (traveling without a road map, or "going where the applications are"), dealing with an extremely corrosive mobile phase (aka: the "eluent"), resolving the inherent incompatibilities of nonmetallic flow paths with the benefits of high-pressure, elevated temperature operation, managing the ever-evolving nature of the suppressor, coping with requirements for ultra high-end online systems, and providing extremely simple-to-use dedicated analyzer systems.
Evans, Barton. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1285.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development  Hamish Small
In the late 1950s, a small group of chemists at the Dow Chemical Company envisioned replacing these classical methods of inorganic analysis with but a single, universal chromatographic technique. They called their project "Inorganic Chromatography". This article describes how they developed this concept into a new technique, ready for commercial development into what we know today as "Ion Chromatography". In particular, the account will describe: how the Dow scientists adapted electrical conductance monitoring to chromatography, the introduction of the suppressor to chromatography, the invention of special stationary phases, and the evolution of strategies and principles that would shape and guide the practice of ion chromatography for many years to come.
Small, Hamish. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The 12th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Ion Chromatography  Adrian C. Michael
The objectives of the annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon are to explore the origins, development, and commercialization of scientific instrumentation of established and major significance. The topic of the twelfth Waters Symposium was ion chromatography; three of those papers are featured in this issue of the Journal.
Michael, Adrian C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Instrumental Methods
Pressure-Assisted Chelating Extraction as a Teaching Tool in Instrumental Analysis  Omowunmi A. Sadik, Adam K. Wanekaya, and Gelfand Yevgeny
This article describes a laboratory procedure designed for a junior-level instrumental analysis course using a pressure-assisted chelating extraction (PACE) technique to digest heavy metals from solid matrices. PACE can achieve the digestion of metals through direct contact between solids and chelates under controlled temperature and pressure. The combination of PACE with FAAS enabled the students to develop a greater appreciation and understanding of the highly automated, modern instrumental techniques, including sample preparation. [last author's name was mis-written in the hard copy. It is first name Yevgeny, last name Gelfand - TB]
Sadik, Omowunmi A.; Wanekaya, Adam K.; Yevgeny, Gelfand. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1177.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
A Simplified Calculation of the Real Confidence Interval in Analytical Methods  Javier Galbán
This paper describes a detailed study of the imprecision of an analytical method resulting from the quantification step. This model allows students to calculate imprecision more easily so that they will be able to apply this mathematical model both in their studies and their future professional activities.
Galbán, Javier. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1053.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Removal of Zinc from Carbonic Anhydrase. A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams and Bhavin Adhyaru
The Zn(II) ion in the active site of carbonic anhydrase can be removed by complexation with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate (dipicolinate).
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1045.
Kinetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods
Superoxygenated Water as an Experimental Sample for NMR Relaxometry  Nikolaus Nestle, Marwan Dakkouri, and Hubert Rauscher
Measuring the oxygen content in superoxygenated table waters, and following the oxygen loss upon storage of such waters in open containers, is presented as an experiment for NMR relaxometry in the student lab.
Nestle, Nikolaus; Dakkouri, Marwan; Rauscher, Hubert. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1040.
Water / Water Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nutrition |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods
Benzoin Condensation: Monitoring a Chemical Reaction by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography  Apurba Bhattacharya, Vikram C. Purohit, and Nicholas R. Beller
High-pressure liquid chromatography was successfully introduced in the undergraduate advanced organic chemistry laboratory to reinvestigate the cyanide-catalyzed condensation of benzaldehyde to benzoin.
Bhattacharya, Apurba; Purohit, Vikram C.; Beller, Nicholas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1020.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Instrumental Methods
The Multi-Initiative Dissemination Project Workshops: Who Attends Them and How Effective Are They?  K. A. Burke, Thomas J. Greenbowe, and John I. Gelder
Multi-Initiative Dissemination Project (MID) workshops funded by NSF are designed to expose college instructors from two- and four-year institutions to classroom active-learning techniques from the perspective of four of the NSF-funded chemistry reform projects.
Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Gelder, John I. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 897.
Professional Development |
Learning Theories |
Instrumental Methods
The Dog Ate My Homework: A Cooperative Learning Project for Instrumental Analysis  Leanna C. Giancarlo and Kelli M. Slunt
This paper describes a project-based laboratory experiment in which students determine the composition of an unknown metal knob that was ingested and recovered from a large puppy.
Giancarlo, Leanna C.; Slunt, Kelli M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 868.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals
Chem 111: A General Education Course in Organic Structure Determination  Stuart C. Clough, René P. F. Kanters, and Emma W. Goldman
A course in organic structure determination has proven to be effective in addressing the general education science requirement for liberal arts and business majors who have only a basic high school chemistry background.
Clough, Stuart C.; Kanters, René P. F.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 834.
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Investigating Intermolecular Interactions via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  David Pullman and Karen I. Peterson
In the first part of the project, the students produce and analyze images of graphite and use these images to calibrate the scan size of the instrument. In the second part, the students produce images of a decanol monolayer on the graphite surface.
Pullman, David; Peterson, Karen I. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 549.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Surface Science |
Instrumental Methods
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers. We Must Afford Affordances  Eric Malina and Mary B. Nakhleh
We understand it may be difficult to initially understand the theory of affordances; however, we also believe that affordances can give us new insight into student learning, especially student learning in the laboratory.
Malina, Eric; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 486.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Learning Theories |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Constructivism
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers. Can We Afford Affordances?  Roy W. Clark
"Affordances" must be an educationese term that is delightfully meaningful to the authors, and it is my hope that in future papers these authors might define their terms when writing for mere chemists.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 486.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Learning Theories |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Constructivism
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Determination of Pb in Biological Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. An Exercise in Common Interferences and Fundamental Practices in Trace Element Determination  Thomas M. Spudich, Jennifer K. Herrmann, Ronald Fietkau, Grant A. Edwards, and David L. McCurdy
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) for the determination of trace levels of Pb in bovine muscle or liver samples. The major emphasis of the experiment is to explore common interferences, first by investigating the impact of molecular spectral absorption interferences on a real-world sample, then demonstrating the susceptibility of GFAAS to chemicalphysical matrix interferences.
Spudich, Thomas M.; Herrmann, Jennifer K.; Fietkau, Ronald; Edwards, Grant A.; McCurdy, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 262.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and Identification of a Mixture of Group 6 Transition-Metal Carbonyl Compounds Using GC–MS in the General Chemistry Curriculum  Lawrence K. Fong
From the mass spectral data, our students are able to determine the atomic mass of the transition metal. In addition, utilizing Mo(CO)6 as an internal standard, our students are able to quantify the quantity of Cr(CO)6 and W(CO)6 in an unknown mixture.
Fong, Lawrence K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 103.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Gas Chromatography
The Determination of Caffeine in Coffee: Sense or Nonsense?  Jozef L. Beckers
Determination of caffeine in coffee applying a UV spectrophotometer, HPLC equipment, and CE apparatus. Some representative results are given showing the accuracy of the methods and showing the differences between the separation methods HPLC and CE versus UV spectrophotometry.
Beckers, Jozef L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 90.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
HPLC
Investigation of Imposter Perfumes Using GC–MS  Kelley A. Mowery, Daniel E. Blanchard, Stephanie Smith, and Thomas A. Betts
The minimal sample preparation required for this experiment enables students to spend significantly more time becoming familiar with GCMS hardware and software. After performing the experiment students should be familiar with the operation of a modern GCMS, headspace sampling, data analysis using GCMS software tools, and mass spectral library searching.
Mowery, Kelley A.; Blanchard, Daniel E.; Smith, Stephanie; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 87.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Including Non-Traditional Instrumentation in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Courses  J. David Jenkins, Jessica N. Orvis, C. Jimmy Smith, Citabria Manley, and Jeanette K. Rice
In this work, we report on the successful incorporation of a direct mercury analyzer into the environmental science laboratory for both non-majors and majors.
Jenkins, J. David; Orvis, Jessica N.; Smith, C. Jimmy; Manley, Citabria; Rice, Jeanette K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 22.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Remote NMR Data Acquisition and Processing in the Organic Chemistry Curriculum  Caleb Benefiel, Ron Newton, Gregory J. Crouch, and Karen Grant
A procedure for enabling remote and hands-on access to a Varian Mercury 300 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer in a large organic chemistry laboratory is described. Additionally, procedures for remotely connecting two high schools and a community college to the NMR are also described.
Benefiel, Caleb; Newton, Ron; Crouch, Gregory J.; Grant, Karen. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1494.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Emission Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Scott R. Goode and Lori A. Metz
Simple lab experiments using an inexpensive, solid-state computerized spectrometer can help to introduce students to analytical emission spectroscopy. A series of experiments that employ an Ocean Optics spectrometer, a Windows PC, and a fiber optic pickup are described.
Goode, Scott R.; Metz, Lori A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1455.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer  Adam Kneisel and Michael K. Bellamy
Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash.
Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1448.
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alcohols
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Study of Elimination Reactions Using Gas Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Devin Latimer
This article describes an investigation of elimination reactions of alkyl halides. 1-Bromopentane or 2-bromopentane are reacted with either sodium ethoxide or potassium tert-butoxide. Gas chromatography is used to monitor the relative amounts of 1-pentene, (E)-2-pentene, and (Z)-2-pentene produced.
Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1183.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography |
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry
Determination of Minerals in Apples by ICP–AES  Mark Duxbury
A laboratory experiment is described that involves the elemental analysis of apples by inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectroscopy (IICPAES). The results of the experiment allow students to predict the cold-storage stability of apples.
Duxbury, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1180.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Nutrition |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   David S. Hage
No evidence to suggest that the lack of nitrites is due to their oxidation.
Hage, David S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   Gregorio Cruz
Lack of nitrites could be due to their oxidation to nitrates.
Cruz, Gregorio. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Using Periodate with Nitrite Solutions for Capillary Electrophoresis (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588-1590)   Gregorio Cruz
Lack of nitrites could be due to their oxidation to nitrates.
Cruz, Gregorio. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  Paul J. Ogren, Ian Henry, Steven E. S. Fletcher, and Ian Kelly
A programmable imaging system for thin-layer and kinetics measurements; examples of applications include well plate analysis, TLC quantitative analysis of acetaminophen and aspirin, analysis of electrophoresis bands, and kinetics of toluidine blue reduction by sulfite.
Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 699.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
How Students Use Scientific Instruments To Create Understanding: CCD Spectrophotometers  Eric G. Malina and Mary B. Nakhleh
Investigation of how upper-division college students interact with laboratory instruments to identify the characteristics that influence students' construction of scientific understanding.
Malina, Eric G.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 691.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories
Low-Cost Temperature Control from 160 K to Ambient Temperature Using Liquid Nitrogen Evaporation  Gustavo S. Faraudo and Daniel E. Weibel
Apparatus to control temperature between 110 and 283 K without the need to precool the evaporated gas from a liquid reservoir.
Faraudo, Gustavo S.; Weibel, Daniel E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 676.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Incorporating Scanning Probe Microscopy into the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  David W. Lehmpuhl
Project at Colorado State University - Pueblo, to incorporate scanning probe microscopy into the undergraduate curriculum through demonstrations, a hands-on instrumental analysis experiment, and undergraduate research projects.
Lehmpuhl, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 478.
Instrumental Methods |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Undergraduate Research
Was the Suspect in Contact with the Victim? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Analysis of Single Fibers Using FT-IR Microscopy  Sharin Bender and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic analysis of fiber samples using FT-IR microscopy to sustain interest and motivation in an upper-level analytical laboratory.
Bender, Sharin; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 437.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
Techniques in Organic Chemistry: Miniscale, Standard Taper Microscale, and Williamson Microscale (Jerry R. Mohrig, Christina Noring Hammond, Paul F. Schatz, and Terence C. Morrill)  Richard M. Pagni
Supplementary text organized like most organic chemistry lab manuals, but without the experiments.
Pagni, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 388.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Instrumental Methods |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Environmental Analysis in the Instrumental Lab: More Than One Way...  M. Sittidech and S. Street
Laboratory practical in which students are asked to complete a problem of quantitative analysis drawn from environmental hazards (acrolein and acrylonitrile) using available instrumentation (spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrochemical, and mass spectrometric techniques).
Sittidech, M.; Street, S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 376.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Applications of Chemistry
Detection of Method Effects on Quality of Analytical Data. A Statistical Exercise  S. E. Quintar, J. P. Santagata, O. I. Villegas, and V. A. Cortinez
Procedure that applies the statistical analysis of data to information collected from atomic absorption spectrometry.
Quintar, S. E.; Santagata, J. P.; Villegas, O. I.; Cortinez, V. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 326.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Visualizing Atoms, Molecules, and Surfaces by Scanning Probe Microscopy  Kimberly Aumann, Karen J. C. Muyskens, and Kumar Sinniah
Examples of applications of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in an undergraduate curriculum; includes investigating DNA, analysis of microchip memory arrays and circuitry, and visualizing filamentous actin.
Aumann, Kimberly; Muyskens, Karen J. C.; Sinniah, Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Identifying a Protein by MALDI–TOF Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Anne E. Counterman, Matthew S. Thompson, and David E. Clemmer
Experiment that requires students to use mass spectral data (MALDI-TOF) to find the identity of an unknown protein sample by performing a database search on the Internet.
Counterman, Anne E.; Thompson, Matthew S.; Clemmer, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 177.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Two Laboratory Activities for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course  Ara S. Kooser, Judith L. Jenkins, and Lawrence E. Welch
Procedures involving an examination and comparison of spectral transitions originating from atomic versus ionic species through atomic emission spectroscopy, and a determination of the temperature produced buy the inductively coupled plasma (ICP).
Kooser, Ara S.; Jenkins, Judith L.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 86.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Measurement of Trace Metals in Tobacco and Cigarette Ash by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy  W. Wang and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
An experiment in which inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is used to quantify zinc, iron, and chromium present in cigarette tobacco, the cigarette filter, and the ash from a burning cigarette.
Wang, W; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 83.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The Water Project: A Multi-Week Laboratory Project for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry  Randy J. Arnold
A project-based laboratory that challenges students to develop their analytical reasoning skills and instrumental techniques by investigating the composition of drinking water; includes results of student surveys.
Arnold, Randy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 58.
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
An Environmental Focus Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography  Arthur Salido, Cynthia Atterholt, J. Roger Bacon, and David J. Butcher
Efforts by the chemistry department at Western Carolina University to incorporate an environmental focus in its curriculum and research programs; NSF project to integrate inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and ion chromatography instruments into the curriculum.
Salido, Arthur; Atterholt, Cynthia; Bacon, J. Roger; Butcher, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 22.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Undergraduate Research
Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Signal Processing, and Spectral Information in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory  Jonathan P. Blitz and Douglas G. Klarup
Laboratory for an instrumental analysis course that shows how signal-to-noise ration can be increased for FTIR spectrometers by choice of conditions and data manipulation.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Klarup, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1358.
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Quantitative Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Urine and Sputum Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  A. E. Witter, D. M. Klinger, X. Fan, M. Lam, D. T. Mathers, and S. A. Mabury
Quantifying a naturally formed metabolite that is a biochemical indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke.
Witter, A. E.; Klinger, D. M.; Fan, X.; Lam, M.; Mathers, D. T.; Mabury, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1257.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Experimental Design Using a GC–MS Analysis of Cocaine on Money: A Cross-Disciplinary Laboratory  Christopher A. Heimbuck and Nathan W. Bower
An opportunity for students to develop and use experimental designs to refine and optimize an extraction technique from the literature.
Heimbuck, Christopher A.; Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1254.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research
Elemental Analysis of Wisdom Teeth by Atomic Spectroscopy Using Standard Additions. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Exercise  Venda J. Porter, Patricia M. Sanft, Jennifer C. Dempich, Dana D. Dettmer, Angela E. Erickson, Nicole A. Dubauskie, Susan T. Myster, Emory H. Matts, and Eugene T. Smith
Procedure to familiarize students with inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and other atomic absorption techniques and to develop an understanding of the advantages and limitations of these methods.
Porter, Venda J.; Sanft, Patricia M.; Dempich, Jennifer C.; Dettmer, Dana D.; Erickson, Angela E.; Dubauskie, Nicole A.; Myster, Susan T.; Matts, Emory H.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1114.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Application of Datalogger in Biosensing: A Glucose Biosensor  Martin M. F. Choi and Pui Shan Wong
Using an eggshell as a platform for the immobilization of glucose oxidase while determining glucose concentration through the depletion of oxygen as measured by an oxygen sensor and datalogger.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 982.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Education: Environmental Studies  Marina C. Koether, Donald McGarey, Mark Patterson, and Daniel J. Williams
Project to develop an environmental chemistry laboratory course and an environmental science capstone course; includes summary of equipment and activities involved in the lab course.
Koether, Marina C.; McGarey, Donald; Patterson, Mark; Williams, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 934.
Instrumental Methods
Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet  Edward B. Flint, Carrie L. Kortz, and Max A. Taylor
A technique for microscale pH titrations using 1-5 mL of analyte and titrant.
Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 705.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Exploring the Diffraction Grating Using a He-Ne Laser and a CD-ROM  Joel Tellinghuisen
Demonstrating the grating equation using a compact disc.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 703.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale Determination of Vitamin C by Weight Titrimetry  Gaston A. East and Erica C. Nascimento
Electroanalytical method for the microscale determination of vitamin C using a nontraditional oxidimetric titrant.
East, Gaston A.; Nascimento, Erica C. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 100.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Raman Spectroscopy with a Fiber-Optic Probe and Multichannel Detection  Thomas J. Vickers, Jeanne Pecha, and Charles K. Mann
Exercise emphasizing instrumental methods of chemical analysis of solids and liquids relying on Raman spectroscopy.
Vickers, Thomas J.; Pecha, Jeanne; Mann, Charles K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1674.
Instrumental Methods |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
The Lead Project. An Environmental Instrumental Analysis Case Study  Vincent T. Breslin and Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy
An environmental instrumental analysis course that examines lead contamination in paint, soil, and drinking water of suburban residential houses.
Breslin, Vincent T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1647.
Instrumental Methods |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Applied Electronics: Construction of a Simple Spectrophotometer  Melissa A. Thal and Michael J. Samide
A simple spectrophotometer intended for use as a capstone circuit for an electronics laboratory exercise.
Thal, Melissa A.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1510.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
News from Online: Chemistry and Art  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Web sites devoted to neutron activation analysis, carbon dating, X-ray fluorescence, polarized light spectroscopy, pigments and paints, and the arts in general.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1322.
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Chemistry, Color, and Art  Mary Virginia Orna
The history and chemistry of common pigments.
Orna, Mary Virginia. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1305.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Beer's Law Measurements Using Non-monochromatic Light Sources--A Computer Simulation  George C.-Y. Chan and WingTat Chan
Using a spreadsheet program to simulate the spectral profile of the transmitted radiation and the apparent absorbance for different combinations of bandwidth and peak profiles.
Chan, George C.-Y.; Chan, WingTat. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1285.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content  Jennifer L. Zabzdyr and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1225.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
Determination of Ethanol in Alcohol Samples Using a Modular Raman Spectrometer  Caryn L. Sanford, Brent A. Mantooth, and Bradley T. Jones
An inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer that overcomes the cost and complexity of traditional equipment; application to measuring ethanol content of a variety of aqueous solutions.
Sanford, Caryn L.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1221.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy
News from Online: Teaching with Chemical Instrumentation on the Web  Thomas G. Chasteen
Variety of web-based animations on analytical instrumentation; WWW addresses for software, plug-ins, sites for images and animations, references for designing sites, and sites regarding specific analytical techniques.
Chasteen, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1144.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Distinguishing Calcium Carbonate from Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate by Instrumental Methods. A Set of Laboratory Experiments for Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  Eugenio Garribba, Giovanni Micera, Liliana Strinna-Erre, and Giovanna Stara
Distinguishing calcium carbonate from calcium sulfate dihydrate through chemical analysis, thermal analysis and decomposition, IR spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and EDXRF spectroscopy.
Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Strinna-Erre, Liliana; Stara, Giovanna. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1090.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Thermal Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Instruments and Experimentation in the History of Chemistry
edited by Frederic L. Holmes and Trevor H. Levere
  Jeffrey Kovac
Collection of 14 essays on the history of experimentation and its accompanying instrumentation in chemistry.
Kovac, Jeffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1027.
Instrumental Methods
The Use of Disposable IR Cards for Quantitative Analysis Using an Internal Standard  Ramee Indralingam and Angelito I. Nepomuceno
Lab that is useful as a teaching tool to illustrate the use of internal standards and calibration curves and the principle of Beer's law.
Indralingam, Ramee; Nepomuceno, Angelito I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
Reduction of Calcium Concentrations by the Brita® Water Filtration System: A Practical Experiment in Titrimetry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy  Kimberly G. Olsen and Lisa J. Ulicny
Classic EDTA titration experiment that focusses the function of common a household item.
Olsen, Kimberly G.; Ulicny, Lisa J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 941.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modular Spectrometers in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Paul Bernazzani and Francine Paquin
Effect of integrating two Ocean Optics S2000 series spectroscopic instruments, based on a 2048-element linear CCD-array, into an undergraduate laboratory.
Bernazzani, Paul; Paquin, Francine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 796.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Build a Simple Polarimeter  Frank E. Stary and Norman Woldow
Details of the construction of a durable, inexpensive portable polarimeter with a self-contained 585-nm light source are given, combining the best features of several polarimeters; may easily be scaled up in size for increased sensitivity.
Stary, Frank E.; Woldow, Norman. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 644.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stereochemistry
Determining the Percent Water in Organic Solvents Using the Zwitterionic Dimroth-Reichardt Betaine ET-30 Dye. An Industrially Relevant Application of a Previously Published Laboratory Experiment  Mark F. Vitha
ET-30 is used to determine the percent water in an organic solvent. This experiment, combined with a case study from Procter & Gamble's workshop "Professional Analytical Chemists in Industry", teaches students about the importance of dry organic solvents, the differences in diode array and scanning UV-vis spectrophotometers, the use of a wide variety of instrumental and wet-chemical analyses in answering analytical questions, and the application of the scientific approach to the solution of industrial chemical problems.
Vitha, Mark F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 370.
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry
Ion Chromatography: Analysis of Ions in Pond Waters  Kumar Sinniah and Kenneth Piers
Using an ion chromatography instrument to investigate water quality and analyze fluoride, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate ions in pond ecosystems; results are compared with classical wet chemical methods.
Sinniah, Kumar; Piers, Kenneth. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 358.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using a Diode Laser Pointer to Count Drops and Automate Titration Systems  Paul Ogren, Steve Nelson, and Ian Henry
A diode laser pointer is used to construct a simple system for recording drops falling from a buret. The drop signal is recorded together with one or more measurement signals by a LabVIEW-based programmable interfacing system. A standard buret is converted to a Mariotte buret to provide a constant drop-addition rate.
Ogren, Paul; Nelson, Steve; Henry, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 353.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Sampling Technique for Organic Solids in IR Spectroscopy: Thin Solid Films as the Method of Choice in Teaching Laboratories  Patty L. Feist
Techniques for sampling solid organic compounds for FTIR spectroscopy are briefly compared and contrasted. One method, called thin solid films, stands out as the method of choice in undergraduate laboratories because they are easy and inexpensive to prepare; the spectra obtained are of good to excellent quality.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 351.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Qualitative Analysis
A Computer-Controlled Bipolar Pulse Conductivity Apparatus  N. Papadopoulos and M. Limniou
A laboratory apparatus for ion conductivity measurements is described. This apparatus is controlled by a personal computer.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Limniou, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 245.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of Flavonoids in Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  Celeste da Queija, M. A. Queirós, and Ligia M. Rodrigues
An application of HPLC to the analysis of flavonoids in wines, designed for students of instrumental methods. This laboratory work is very attractive to students because they deal with a common daily product whose components are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects.
da Queija, Celeste; Queirós, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 236.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC
The Escalator--An Analogy for Explaining Electroosmotic Flow  Andrew J. Vetter and Garrett J. McGowan
An analogy of people on an escalator for teaching the concept of electroosmotic flow. The moving escalator is analogous to the overall bulk flow of solution through the capillary (electroosmotic flow) and partly responsible for the separation of species using capillary electrophoresis (CE).
Vetter, Andrew J.; McGowan, Garrett J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 209.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
A Short History of the Chemical Shift  Samuel G. Levine
The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element will all undergo resonance at the same frequency regardless of their environment.
Levine, Samuel G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 133.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Analytical Instrumentation--Performance Characteristics and Quality by Graham Currell  Jack K. Steehler
This book provides guidance to analytical practitioners regarding the use of instrument performance criteria when making purchase decisions and when pursuing solutions to real-life instrumentation problems.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 34.
Instrumental Methods
Hybridization and Structural Properties
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888-890)  Victor M. S. Gil
Clarifying cause-effect relationships between orbital hybridization and structural properties.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
MO Theory |
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Hybridization and Structural Properties
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888-890)  Victor M. S. Gil
Clarifying cause-effect relationships between orbital hybridization and structural properties.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
MO Theory |
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab  Margaret A. Hill
Three laboratory exercises in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.
Hill, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 26.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analysis of Common Household Cleaner-Disinfectants by Capillary Electrophoresis  William P. Gardner and James E. Girard
Capillary electrophoresis analysis for benzalkonium compounds in common household cleaners and disinfectants.
Gardner, William P.; Girard, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1335.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds |
Consumer Chemistry
Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  H. Robert Bergen III, Linda M. Benson, and Stephen Naylor
High school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry.
Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1325.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy of Calcium in Foodstuffs in Non-Science-Major Courses  Keith S. Kostecka
Non-science-major students are introduced to the concept of ppm, prepare AAS standard solutions, digest foodstuffs in nitric acid, conduct AAS analysis for Ca, determine mass percentage of calcium in the sample, and check calcium levels in various food items on the Internet with a critical eye.
Kostecka, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1321.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis |
Food Science
Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Joel A. Olson, Karen J. Nordell, Marla A. Chesnik, Clark R. Landis, and Arthur B. Ellis, M. S. Rzchowski, S. Michael Condren, and George C. Lisensky
Several demonstrations of resonance phenomena associated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. Complete instructions for the construction of the demonstrations, which can be used on an overhead projector, are included.
Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Landis, Clark R.; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 882.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy
Analysis of Diet Tonic Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  Harvey B. Herman, John R. Jezorek, and Zhe Tang
An experiment for instrumental analysis is described in which components of diet tonic water are determined using capillary electrophoresis. Separation of quinine, saccharin, and benzoate in pH 7 phosphate buffer, with phenol as internal standard, is accomplished in about 12 minutes.
Herman, Harvey B.; Jezorek, John R.; Tang, Zhe. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 743.
Instrumental Methods |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and Quantification of Preservatives Using Ion Pair HPLC and CZE: An Extended Investigation of Separation Mechanisms  Mary Boyce and Evadne Spickett
This paper describes the separation of preservatives in food and cosmetic creams by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion pair HPLC, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The experiments described here are designed to promote understanding of the separation mechanisms involved and give students an opportunity to compare and evaluate the different techniques.
Boyce, Mary; Spickett, Evadne. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 740.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Electrophoresis
Instrumental Analysis Lecture and Laboratory: A Survey  James E. Girard and Constance T. Diamant
Which topics should be covered in instrumental analysis lecture and which instrumental techniques should be used in the instrumental laboratory? We surveyed a randomly chosen group of analytical chemistry faculty. It appears that there is a consensus about which experimental techniques the instrumental course should offer to undergraduates.
Girard, James E.; Diamant, Constance T. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 646.
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Laboratory-Constructed Automatic Titrator  Kurt L. Headrick, Terry K. Davies, and Aaron N. Haegele
The construction of a simple automatic titrator is described. The buret is replaced with a metering pump to provide a constant flow of titrant. The output from the pH meter is sent to a recorder via a laboratory- constructed differentiator, allowing the results to be plotted as potential versus time, first or second derivative
Headrick, Kurt L.; Davies, Terry K.; Haegele, Aaron N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 389.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Rapid, Simple Quantitation in Thin-Layer Chromatography Using a Flatbed Scanner  Mitchell E. Johnson
Simply scanning a visibly stained TLC plate into a computer substitutes for much more expensive plate readers. With common image analysis software, "elution" profiles can be obtained. The resulting "chromatograms" can be analyzed in the same manner as other chromatograms.
Johnson, Mitchell E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 368.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Determination of the Scoville Heat Value for Hot Sauces and Chilies: An HPLC Experiment  James D. Batchelor and Bradley T. Jones
The student will isolate the capsainoids from commercial food products (chilies and sauces) using a simple extraction technique. The identity and concentration of the capsainoids are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations are then used to determine the pungency (Scoville heat value) of the foods.
Batchelor, James D.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 266.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry
An Inexpensive Commercially Available Analog-to-Digital Converter  Gary W. Breton
The use of an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter for interfacing gas chromatographs to computers in a teaching laboratory environment is described. Raw data may be read, processed, and printed from software supplied with the converter to afford chromatograms of acceptable quality.
Breton, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 262.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
A Low-Cost Device for Automatic Photometric Titrations  Fábio R. P. Rocha and Boaventura F. Reis
Construction of a simple, low-cost (about $150 U.S.) automatic photometric titrator employing a light-emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor. The electronic circuit can be assembled by the students themselves. The device was employed to implement a common procedure in chemical labs, making feasible the introduction of concepts related to electronics in undergraduate chemistry courses.
Rocha, Fbio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 258.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calculator-Based Instrumentation: The Design of a Digital Interface Based on I2C Technology  A. B. Hickman, W. G. Delinger, and Robin S. Helburn
In this work, we describe the interfacing of a digital temperature sensor to a Texas Instruments TI-85 calculator to make a portable instrument. The design of the interface is based on an integrated circuit that uses the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) protocol.
Hickman, A. B.; Delinger, W. G.; Helburn, Robin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 255.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Development of Innovative Laboratory Experiments with UV-Visible Spectrophotometer   Peter Abeta Iyere
A brief description of the instrument acquired with National Science Foundation funds (Cary 300 BIO UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, model EL98013047 equipped with diffuse reflectance and temperature control accessories) precedes highlights of some of the experiments being developed at Tennessee State University.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 153.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Understanding NMR Multiplet Structure with WinDNMR  N. Bampos and A. Vidal-Ferran
Employing interactive, user-friendly software packages (such as WinDNMR) on a conventional personal computer to investigate the effect of changing the constituent coupling constants on the appearance of a multiplet. As an example, a multiplet representing a proton coupled to three neighboring environments (four-spin system) is treated in detail.
Bampos, N.; Vidal-Ferran, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 130.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode  Florinel Gabriel Banica
A device producing reproducible hanging mercury drops at the end of a glass capillary is described. Mercury flow through the capillary is controlled by means of a closing needle actuated by an electromagnetic relay. The timing circuit is very simple and consists only of resistors and capacitors.
Banica, Florinel Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 98.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Easy-to-Make Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode  Gaston A. East and M. A. del Valle
In this contribution we describe the construction of a silver-silver chloride reference electrode that can be readily assembled in any teaching laboratory and that fulfills most of the requirements expected for a device of this kind.
East, Gaston A.; del Valle, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Identifying Softwoods and Hardwoods by Infrared Spectroscopy  Brady Barker and Noel L. Owen
Infrared spectra of 45 softwoods and hardwoods have been recorded. The wavenumber values of the carbonyl stretching vibration and one of the ring-breathing modes of lignin are used to distinguish softwoods from hardwoods. The differences between the absorption bands for the softwoods and hardwoods in each instance are shown to be statistically significant.
Barker, Brady; Owen, Noel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1706.
Carbohydrates |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analysis of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Fuels Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Tal M. Nahir
The analysis of diesel fuel using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. The experiment is especially appropriate for courses in instrumental analysis and environmental chemistry. Results from the injections of small amounts of liquid samples include total-ion- and single-ion-mode chromatograms as well as mass spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives.
Nahir, Tal M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1695.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Removal of Heavy Metals from Water: An Environmentally Significant Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiment  Brian P. Buffin
In the first portion of the laboratory project, students perform treatment studies on simulated wastewater samples that contain heavy metal contaminants common to the effluent of the metal finishing industry. In the second portion of the experiment, AAS is used to determine metal concentrations in treated and untreated water samples, thus enabling the students to determine the effectiveness of the treatment process.
Buffin, Brian P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1678.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Toxicology
Constructing Environmental Impact Statements. An Organizational Focus for Teaching Analytical Environmental Chemistry  Susan M. Libes
Preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is the organizational focus for an undergraduate lab course in environmental chemistry. Students work collaboratively through the semester to prepare an EIS following National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines. This involves several stages of activity including a scoping process, field sampling, and laboratory analyses, modeling of the results to predict impacts, and report writing.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1649.
Instrumental Methods |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Learning Quality Assurance/Quality Control Using U.S. EPA Techniques. An Undergraduate Course for Environmental Chemistry Majors  Susan M. Libes
In the environmental realm, quality control (QC) includes activities associated with sampling, sample preservation and storage, method validation, and analysis involving solids, liquids, and gases. Students should be led to discover the need for QC by first performing analyses with little guidance. This is followed by a class discussion in which they critique their data.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1642.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Antacids Revisited with Modern Chemical Instruments: GCMS, AAS, and CCT  Stanley L. Burden and Christopher J. Petzold
This paper describes a novel experiment that requires students to obtain and interpret data from several analytical techniques to identify the brand name of a commercial antacid. They are required to design a set of experiments utilizing computer controlled titrations (CCT), atomic absorption (AA), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), and careful quantitative manual titrations using a visual indicator of their choice to determine the brand name of their sample from a list of six to eight choices.
Burden, Stanley L.; Petzold, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1544.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)  reviewed by Nathan W. Bower
This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students.
Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1489.
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Supplementary Offset Device for Data Acquisition Systems  Thomas Kappes and Peter C. Hauser
The device described in this article offers in a simple way the possibility of extending the offset range and can be combined with any data acquisition system. The signal offset is obtained by adding a manually adjustable voltage to the raw signal.
Kappes, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1429.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Determination of Anionic Surfactants Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry  Richard John and Daniel Lord
An experiment has been developed that demonstrates the indirect analysis of anionic surfactants by techniques normally associated with metal ion determination; that is, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV).
John, Richard; Lord, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1256.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Surface Science
CO2 - Potentiometric Determination and Electrode Construction, a Hands-on Approach  Santiago Kocmur, Eduardo Cortón, Liliana Haim, Guillermo Locascio, and Lydia Galagosky
Hands-on activity in which the principles of gaseous equilibria and electrochemical potentials are applied to the construction of a carbon dioxide detector. The device is constructed using a combination pH electrode and a minimal amount of inexpensive, normally available laboratory materials.
Kocmur, Santiago; Cortn, Eduardo; Haim, Liliana; Locascio, Guillermo; Galagosky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1253.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
Demonstration of Optical Rotatory Dispersion of Sucrose  S. M. Mahurin, R. N. Compton, and Richard N. Zare
A method for demonstrating and measuring the optical activity of chiral molecules in solution is described in which the rotation of linearly polarized light is directly observed at right angles to the propagation of light in the liquid.
Mahurin, S. M.; Compton, Robert N.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1234.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates
A New Concept for pH-Potential Calculations  K. L. Cheng
This paper discusses the concept of pH-potential calculations and indicates that the pH electrode is a capacitor, not a half-cell as currently believed.
Cheng, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1029.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
pH
An Integrated Molecular Modeling and Melting Point Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Thomas Poon, Sheri A. Bodolosky, and Cynthia M. Norris
An introductory organic chemistry laboratory experiment that introduces students to the utility and caveats of computational chemistry is described. Molecular modeling software is used to determine the net dipoles and surface areas of six unknown solids. These and other noncomputational results are then correlated with data from melting point determinations of the unknowns.
Poon, Thomas; Bodolosky, Sheri A.; Norris, Cynthia M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 983.
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Optimizing Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Sequential Simplex Optimization  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students adjust the level of four variables to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the flame atomic absorption determination of calcium. They observe that three of the four variables, flame observation height, burner horizontal position, and fuel-to-air ratio, affect S/N. The fourth variable, volume of water in a graduated cylinder, has no effect on S/N.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 834.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Separation and Quantification of Simple Ions by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mary Boyce
A wide range of samples can be rapidly separated and quantified by CE, requiring only small amounts of sample and solvent. The experiments described here give a suitable introduction to capillary electrophoresis and effectively illustrate the mechanism of separation.
Boyce, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 815.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Estimates of Precision in a Standard Additions Analysis  Graham R. Bruce and Paramjit S. Gill
It is shown, numerically and algebraically, that a method using the law of propagation of errors invariably gives lower values for the standard deviation than a second technique, which uses extrapolation.
Bruce, Graham R.; Gill, Paramjit S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 805.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Immunoassay, DNA Analysis, and Other Ligand Binding Assay Techniques: From Electropherograms to Multiplexed, Ultrasensitive Microarrays on a Chip  Roger P. Ekins
"Ligand" or "binding" assays have made a major impact on biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since their development in the late 1950s. Immunoassay techniques (relying on specific antibodies to bind the target analyte) represent the best-known example, but analogous DNA and RNA analysis methods (using oligonucleotides to recognize defined polynucleotide sequences) are rapidly gaining in importance and are likely to exert profound effects on human society.
Ekins, Roger P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 769.
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Recognition |
Nanotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology
New Quant: A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Curriculum Using an Analyzed Complex Matrix  R. Cameron Dorey, Jeffrey A. Draves, and Conrad L. Stanitski
New Quant is a project to introduce students to issues faced in contemporary analytical chemistry in the laboratory portion of the quantitative analysis ("Quant") course by utilizing an analyzed complex matrix (ACM).
Dorey, R. Cameron; Draves, Jeffrey A.; Stanitski, Conrad L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 752.
Quantitative Analysis |
Learning Theories |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Introducing a Practice-Oriented Approach in the Physical Chemistry Instructional Laboratory  David E. Budil, Lutfur R. Khundkar, Ihsan A. Shehadi, and Mary Jo Ondrechen
There remains a tendency to follow the traditional philosophy that physical principles are to be illustrated experimentally rather than applied in problem solving, often with complex apparatus that distracts students from the point of the experiment.
Budil, David E.; Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Shehadi, Ihsan A.; Ondrechen, Mary Jo. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 601.
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies)  Treptow, Richard S.
Relation between instrument resolution and skill.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements  Thomsen, Volker
The difference between instrument resolution and precision.
Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Variable Path-Length Cells for Discovery-Based Investigation of the Beer-Lambert Law  Sarah A. Stewart and André J. Sommer*
An economical approach to the variation of path length for visible absorption measurements is demonstrated. The method is particularly useful for discovery-based learning of the Beer-Lambert law.
Stewart, Sarah A.; Sommer, André J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 399.
Instrumental Methods |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A GC Instrument Simulator  D. Bruce Armitage
This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory.
Armitage, D. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 287.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC  Thomas A. Betts
The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method.
Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 240.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC
Microscale Synthesis and 1H NMR Analysis of Tetraphenylporphyrins  RaeAnne E. Falvo, Larry M. Mink, and Diane F. Marsh
The synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrin, H2[TPP], and para-substituted tetraphenylporphyrins, H2[(p-X)4TPP], where X = CN, CH3, and OCH3, is easily accomplished using microscale glassware. The compounds are synthesized from inexpensive starting reagents.
Falvo, RaeAnne E.; Mink, Larry M.; Marsh, Diane F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 237.
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Applications of Atomic Spectrometry to Regulatory Compliance Monitoring, 2nd Edition (by Stephen W. Jenniss, Sidney A. Katz, and Richard W. Lynch)  Doreen Mehs
Describes analytical atomic spectrometry methods including the theory behind the method, the design of the instruments used, calibration methods, sample collection and preservation, sample preparation, quality control and assurance, and an extensive collection of official methods drawn from several regulatory agencies.
Mehs, Doreen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 170.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Calibration
Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom
Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases.
Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Spectroscopy of Simple Molecules  C. Baer and K. Cornely
A spectroscopy experiment in which students utilize IR and NMR spectroscopy to identify the structures of three unknowns from a list of 15 carefully chosen simple organic molecules. In taking IR and NMR spectra, students learn to use state-of-the-art instrumentation that is used by practicing chemists.
Baer, Carl; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 89.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Incorporation of GC-MS into an Environmental Science Curriculum  Audrey E. McGowin and George G. Hess
Incorporating modern analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS into an interdisciplinary environmental science program presents many challenges. The most daunting challenge is the variety of disciplines from which students come and their limited understanding of chemistry and chemical analysis.
McGowin, Audrey E.; Hess, George G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 23.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Chromatography, Absorption, and Fluorescence: A New Instrumental Analysis Experiment on the Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Smoke  Lisa M. Wingen, Jason C. Low, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
An experiment suitable for an undergraduate junior/senior-level instrumental analysis laboratory which illustrates the principles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its application to the identification and measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tobacco smoke.
Wingen, Lisa M.; Low, Jason C.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1599.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
A New GC-MS Experiment for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory in Environmental Chemistry: Methyl-t-butyl Ether and Benzene in Gasoline  Dinh T. Quach, Nancy A. Ciszkowski, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
In addition to illustrating the fundamentals of GC and MS, this experiment demonstrates (i) the use of internal standards to improve precision; (ii) the application of the method of standard additions; and (iii) the importance of techniques such as selected ion extraction/monitoring in the identification and measurement of specific highly volatile organic compounds in complex environmental mixtures.
Quach, Dinh T.; Ciszkowski, Nancy A.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1595.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers
Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Water by Capillary Electrophoresis: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  David S. Hage, Anuja Chattopadhyay, Carrie A. C. Wolfe, Julie Grundman, and Paul Kelter
In this report we describe an undergraduate laboratory experiment based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the simultaneous analysis of nitrate and nitrite in water samples. This method may be used for analyzing a wide variety of water samples and can serve as a laboratory component in either environmental chemistry or instrumental analysis.
Hage, David S.; Chattopadhyay, Anuja; Wolfe, Carrie A. C.; Grundman, Julie; Kelter, Paul B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1588.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Beer's Law: The Real Hazards (the author replies)  Muyskens, Mark
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, one should consider both stray light effects and chemical effects.
Muyskens, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Beer's Law: The Real Hazards  Logan, S.R.
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, stray light effects should not be ignored.
Logan, S.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  
In considering deviations from Beer's Law, stray light effects should not be ignored.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1514.
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
A 19F NMR Study of Enzyme Activity  Keith E. Peterman, Kevin Lentz, and Jeffery Duncan
This basic enzyme activity laboratory experiment demonstrates how 19F NMR can be used in biochemical studies and presents the advantages of 19F NMR over 1H NMR for studies of this nature. This is a viable laboratory experiment for junior/senior-level courses in instrumental analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, or spectroscopy.
Peterman, Keith E.; Lentz, Kevin; Duncan, Jeffery. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1283.
Instrumental Methods |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A Simple Electrochemical Approach to Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics  K. J. Drok, I. M. Ritchie, and G. P. Power
The system studied is the dissolution of a known amount of copper in a solution of iron(III). The reaction time is determined by measuring the potential of the copper, which has been electrodeposited on an inert electrode, as a function of time
Drok, K. J.; Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1145.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
A Solid-State Water Flow Fault Safety Switch for the Chemical Laboratory  Jonas Gruber, Rosamaria Wu Chia Li, and Isaac Gruber
A low cost solid-state water flow fault switch with a thermal sensing device is described that cuts the electric power of the heating element, normally employed in distillation and reflux devices, whenever their cooling water streams are impaired. This to prevent any possible escape of distillate vapours which may be toxic or flammable.
Gruber, Jonas; Li, Rosamaria Wu Chia; Gruber, Isaac. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1132.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Design and Operation of a Portable Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer for the Undergraduate Curriculum  Michael Henchman and Colin Steel
We describe the design and construction of a teaching mass spectrometer from components that are available commercially. The instrument is transportable, robust, and inexpensive. It yields a mass spectrum 3 minutes after being switched on and is designed to be used by undergraduates and maintained by faculty without special instrumental skills.
Henchman, Michael; Steel, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1042.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry
A Strategy for Incorporating 13C NMR into the Organic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Courses  Perry C. Reeves and Chris P. Chaney
The use of spectroscopy in establishing the structures of molecules is an important component of the first course in Organic Chemistry. However, the point in the course at which these techniques are best introduced remains uncertain. We suggest that carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy should be introduced at an early stage of the lecture course, specifically while studying the alkanes, and used extensively for structure determination throughout the course.
Reeves, Perry C.; Chaney, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1006.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Thermometer as a Simple Instrument  George F. Atkinson
The liquid-in-glass thermometer is used as a simple example of designing a measurement instrument which requires no previous knowledge of topics like electricity or optics.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 849.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A Decade of Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement  John W. Moore
The National Science Foundation's Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI) program is a little over ten years old, and its first ten years (1985-1994) have been thoroughly evaluated by an independent research and consulting firm, Westat, Inc. According to their report, "the program's first decade of activity has been rich and fertile", and "the seed money provided by NSF has yielded value well beyond its initial investments."
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 799.
Administrative Issues |
Instrumental Methods
A Standardized Approach to Collecting and Calculating Noise Amplitude Spectra  Norman N. Sesi, Mathew W. Borer, Timothy K. Starn, and Gary M. Hieftje
A standardized approach to acquire, calculate, and display noise spectra is proposed. The method is based on normalizing the noise amplitude spectrum to the average dc level of the input signal. This normalization procedure should allow noise spectra, obtained in different laboratories or from different sources, to be compared both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Sesi, Norman N.; Borer, Mathew W.; Starn, Timothy K.; Hieftje, Gary M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 788.
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis  Valerie L. McDevitt, Alejandra Rodriguez, and Kathryn R. Williams
Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello Yellow; caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography; and the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis.
McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 625.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Nonlinear Optical Instrumentation  N. Bloembergen
Picosecond and femtosecond laser-pulse generators are rapidly becoming standard instruments in physical, chemical, biological, and medical laboratories. They have led to the new analytical field of femtochemistry. They have promoted the growth of nonlinear spectroscopy, because high peak powers are available at small total energy. New devices in electro-optic communications may be based on polymeric and semiconductor nanostructures. Basic concepts of nonlinear optical response are penetrating further into many branches of chemistry, as evidenced by specific examples in surface and polymer chemistry.
Bloembergen, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 555.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Surface Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Nanotechnology
Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy  Aaron Aponick, Emedio Marchozzi, Cynthia R. Johnston, and Carl T. Wigal
This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.
Aaron Aponick, Emedio Marchozzi, Cynthia R. Johnston, and Carl T. Wigal. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 465.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Kinetics-Based Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of MnO4- and Cr2O72-: A Modern Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Siddharth Pandey, Mary E. R. McHale, Ann-Sofi M. Horton, Sandra A. Padilla, Ashantè L. Trufant, Noé U. De La Sancha, Ernesto Vela, and William E. Acree, Jr.
An indirect kinetics-based spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of permanganate and dichromate ion concentrations in an unknown. The method is based upon differences in reaction times between pyrogallol red and the two analytes.
Siddharth Pandey, Mary E. R. McHale, Ann-Sofi M. Horton, Sandra A. Padilla, Ashantè L. Trufant, Noé U. De La Sancha, Ernesto Vela, and William E. Acree, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 450.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Educational NMR Software  Peter Lundberg
A description of a compilation of computer programs (EduNMRSoft) suitable for teaching NMR at an introductory to advanced level is presented. Each program is categorized and described by function, hardware requirements, availability, author, and references in the list.
Lundberg, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1489.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Investigation of Atropisomerism in ortho-Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrins: An Experimental Module Involving Synthesis, Chromatography, and NMR Spectroscopy  Ruth Freitag Beeston, Shannon E. Stitzel , and Mitchell A. Rhea
It is shown that as the number of cofacial methyl neighbors for a particular methyl group decreases, the chemical shift of the methyl protons increases. This experiment leads to a greater understanding of chromatography and NMR spectroscopy in addition to introducing students to porphyrin synthesis and the concepts of atropisomerism and statistical distributions.
Beeston, Ruth Freitag; Stitzel, Shannon E.; Rhea, Mitchell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1468.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry
Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids by Optical Interference  Scott A. Riley, Nathan R. Franklin, Bobbie Oudinarath, Sally Wong, David Congalton, and A. M. Nishimura*
Laser light reflects and refracts at the air-surface interface; the latter beam then reflects at the lower liquid glass interface. These two beams are focused onto a photodiode. The optical interference occurs as a result of the different distances traveled by the two beams and the intensity at the detector oscillates as the liquid evaporates. The frequency of oscillation is used to determine the rate of evaporation.
Riley, Scott A.; Franklin, Nathan R.; Oudinarath, Bobbie; Wong, Sally; Congalton, David; Nishimura, A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1320.
Instrumental Methods |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Lasers
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Instrumentation and Applications  David C. Muddiman, Ray Bakhtiar, Steven A. Hofstadler, and Richard D. Smith
This article introduces educators and researchers to the theory, principles, instrumentation, and some applications of MALDI-MS. Reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers are described in detail, since TOF is the most common mass analyzer for ions produced by MALDI.
Muddiman, David C.; Bakhtiar, Ray; Hofstadler, Steven A.; Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1288.
Mass Spectrometry |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Simple and Inexpensive 8-Bit Analog to Digital Converter for the PCs Parallel Port  Orfeo Zerbinati
A simple and inexpensive 8-bit analog to digital (ADC) converter based on the ADC0804 integrated circuit, for replacing stripchart recorders by measuring analog voltages through the Centronics port (printer or parallel output) of an IBM-compatible personal computer, is proposed.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1241.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentiometric Acid-Base Titrations with Activated Graphite Electrodes  P. Riyazuddin and D. Devika
Dry cell graphite (DCG) electrodes activated with potassium permanganate are employed as potentiometric indicator electrodes for acid-base titrations. Special attention is given to an indicator probe comprising activated DCG-non-activiated DCG electrode couple.
Riyazuddin, P.; Devika, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1198.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Remarkable Resilience of Beer's Law  Mark A. Muyskens and Eric T. Sevy
Described is a case where Beer's law holds to a remarkable degree. Linear absorbance over three orders of magnitude is shown for both pyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine absorption of 266-nm laser light in a 3-m gas cell. This case provides a counter-example for a discussion of deviations from Beer's law.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Sevy, Eric T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1138.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  Janusz Pawliszyn, Min J. Yang, and Maureen L. Orton
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice.
Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1130.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Capillary Electrophoresis in the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory: Determination of Common Analgesic Formulations  Lynn Thompson, Hans Veening, and Timothy G. Strein
Efforts to introduce students to capillary zone electrophoresis, the simplest mode of CE, to students in a instrumental analysis course. The two period laboratory experiment described includes both the use of both HPLC and CZE to determine the formulation of common over the counter analgesic formulations.
Thompson, Lynn; Veening, Hans; Strein, Timothy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1117.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Medicinal Chemistry
Simultaneous Determination of Aspirin, Salicylamide, and Caffeine in Pain Relievers by Target Factor Analysis  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Melissa J. Charles, and Nea W. Martin
A factor analysis-based experiment for the undergraduate instrumental analysis labs is reported. Target factor analysis (TFA) is investigated as an option to the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of a pain reliever sample containing aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Charles, Melissa J.; Martin, Nea W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1114.
Separation Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry
Determination of Crude Fat in Food Products by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Gravimetric Analysis  Nicholas H. Snow, Maureen Dunn, and Sohita Patel
The use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), a recently developed analytical extraction method, in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is demonstrated.
Snow, Nicholas H.; Dunn, Maureen; Patel, Sohita. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1108.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Gravimetric Analysis
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Identification of Volatile Flavor Components by Headspace Analysis: A Quick and Easy Experiment for Introducing GC/MS  Richard Kjonaas, Jean L. Soller, and Leslee A. McCoy
By placing a piece of chewing gum (Wrigley's) or a crushed piece of hard candy (LifeSavers or Runts) into a vial, followed by GC/MS analysis of a five microliter sample of the headspace, students are able to identify several of the volatile flavoring components which are present.
Kjonaas, Richard; Soller, Jean L.; McCoy, Leslee A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1104.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows  Keiichi Ohno, Hiroatsu Matsuura, Haruhiko Tanaka
An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions.
Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 961.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Hydrogen Bonding
Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block  Charles G. Shevlin, Ward Coppersmith, Christopher Fish, Stanley Vlock, William Vellema
A simple constant temperature heat block was constructed from readily available materials. The configuration of the heating block can be constructed to meet the needs of any laboratory.
Shevlin, Charles G.; Coppersmith, Ward; Fish, Christopher; Vlock, Stanley; Vellema, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Modern Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment: Quantitative Determination of Cr (III) and Co (II) Using a Spectroscopic H-Point Standard Addition Method  Siddarth Pandey, Joyce R. Powell, Mary E. R. McHale, William E. Acree, Jr.
Advantages associated with the HPSAM include elimination of sample matrix effects, reduction of both constant and systematic errors, and a decrease in the number of absorbance measurements that must be made. The method is applicable to determine an analyte concentration in the presence of an interfering impurity. if the identity of the impurity is known, its concentration can also be determined.
Pandey, Siddarth ; Powell, Joyce R. ; McHale, Mary E. R. ; Acree, Jr., William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 848.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Demonstration of Characteristics of Basic Components of a Spectrophotometer  Juwadee Shiowatana
Introductory experiments were designed to demonstrate the characteristics of basic components of a spectrophotometer using an IL AA/AE spectrophotometer. Emissive properties of various types of radiation source; resolving power of wavelength selectors and response of photodetectors were investigated through simple experiments.
Shiowatana, Juwadee. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 730.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Easily Built Low-Cost Apparatus To Measure Polymer Conductivity  Jonas Gruber, Henrique de Santana, Isaac Gruber, Wilson Gazotti, Jr.
A low-cost two-point probe apparatus to measure polymer conductivity intended for teaching purposes is described. Full mechanical details of the probe, as well as electronic schematic diagrams are given.
Gruber, Jonas; de Santana, Henrique; Gruber, Isaac; Gazotti, Wilson Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 418.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science
Screening and Sequential Experimentation: Simulations and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiments  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students are introduced to screening and sequential experimentation using simulations and experimentation. The work begins with spreadsheet simulations and practice with the experimental design software. Students learn how to use the graphical output, normal quantile plots, to recognize the specific factors that affect the result of an experiment. In the laboratory, students make a preliminary investigation of the effect of six variables (flame observation height, flame stoichiometry, acetic acid, lamp current, wavelength, and slit width) on the atomic absorption signal for silver.
Stolzberg, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Electrochemical Measurements in the Undergraduate Curriculum  John F. Wheeler, Sandra K. Wheeler, and Laura L. Wright
Application of two voltammetric workstations, a low-current amplifier for microelectrode use, and two amperometric detectors in an undergraduate curriculum and research programs.
Wheeler, John F.; Wheeler, Sandra K.; Wright, Laura L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 72.
Electrochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Over 100 Years of Research on Cyclopentadienylironcarbonyl Chemistry: Microscale-Integrated Organometallic Experiments  E. Mocellin, M. Ravera, R. A. Russell, and T. Hynson
This unified microscale laboratory program is intended to build independence, confidence and even adventurousness both in synthesis and instrumental analysis, and to apply these results in a meaningful situation by demanding of the students: interpretation of results, evaluation of data and conclusion reached, reference to the original literature, and suggestion of further experimentation.
Mocellin, E.; Ravera, M.; Russell, R. A.; Hynson, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A99.
Organometallics |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy: Part I. Instrumentation and Spectral Interpretation  Steven A. Hofstadler, Ray Bakhtiar, and Richard D. Smith
ESI-MS is now one of the most widely utilized and fastest growing mass spectrometric techniques for the analysis of biomolecular species. This article is intended to introduce the theory, principles, and instrumentation of ESI-MS to teachers, researchers, and future researchers with a rudimentary knowledge of ion formation, separation, and detection processes.
Hofstadler, Steven A.; Bakhtiar, Ray; and Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A82.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
An LC/Particle Beam/MS Experiment for Undergraduates  Norman Sproch, Kelly J. Begin, and Robert J. Morris

Sproch, Norman; Begin, Kelly J.; Morris, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A33.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC
Synthesis and Use of Reverse-Phase Silica Gel for HPLC in Undergraduate Chemistry  Fernando Ortega, Ernesto Velez, and Ratnasamy Somanathan
Commercially available silica gel was derivatized with n-octadecyldimethylchlorosilane to produce inexpensive HPLC reverse-phase stationary support, which was used in separation experiments.
Ortega, Fernando; Velez, Ernesto; Somanathan, Ratnassamy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A26.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Laboratory Interfacing Using the LabVIEW Software Package  Paul J. Ogren and Thomas P. Jones
This paper describes a range of interfacing experiments designed for physical or analytical undergraduate laboratories. Students use the LabVIEW software package to control the acquisition of voltage information from experiments such as potentiometric titrations, and to control voltage output and input for experiments such as cyclic voltammetry or remote spectrophotometric sensing.
Ogren, Paul J.; Jones, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1115.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Data Acquisition in the Chemistry Laboratory Using LabVIEW Software  Mark A. Muyskens, Samuel V. Glass, Thomas W. Wietsma, Terry M. Gray
Our application of LabVIEW software for computer data-acquisition using several techniques used across our curriculum is described. The techniques are gas chromatography, calorimetry, titrations and other volume-dependent techniques, spectrometry for kinetics using a Spectronic 20(R), and emission spectroscopy.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Glass, Samuel V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gray, Terry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1112.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
Integration of National Instruments' LabVIEW Software into the Chemistry Curriculum  Steven M. Drew
The overall aim of this continuing project has been to provide students with user-friendly analytical tools that will improve their ability to quickly perform chemical analyses, in turn leaving more laboratory time for experimental design and open-ended investigation. We have found that LabVIEW can be used as a central laboratory software system that can be customized by the instructor to fit specific experimental needs and programmed by students with minimal training.
Drew, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1107.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Teaching Analytical Instrument Design with LabVIEW  Rudy Gostowski
This curriculum was devised to provide hands-on experience with the theory and design of modern instruments. A background in electronics is considered fundamental to this goal. This course extensively utilizes LabVIEW to economically provide basic electronic instrumentation and to serve in data acquisition and manipulation for a student design project.
Gostowski, Rudy. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1103.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Development of a Low-Cost Four-Color LED Photometer  Jay R. Hamilton, Jeffrey S. White, Mary B. Nakhleh
This photometer resembles a Spectronic 20 in that it detects absorbance at selected wavelengths of visible light. However, the photometer retains the advantages of a dual-beam system. The cost is reduced by the elimination of all optical components, which are often the most expensive portion of spectrophotometers.
Hamilton, Jay R.; White, Jeffrey S.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1052.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
The Quantitative Analysis of an Analgesic Tablet: An NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Course   Thomas A. Schmedake, Lawrence E. Welch
Initial work utilizes a known compound (acenapthene) to assess the type of NMR experiment necessary to achieve a proportional response from all of the carbons in the compound. Once the experiments with the known compound have illuminated the merits of the differing strategies for obtaining a proportional carbon response, a quantitative assessment of an unknown analgesic tablet is undertaken. The amounts of the two major components of the tablet, acetaminophen and aspirin, are determined following addition of an internal standard to the mixture.
Schmedake, Thomas A.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1045.
Quantitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
A New Photochemistry Experiment, A Simple 2+2 Photocycloaddition that Poses an Interesting NMR Problem   John T. Magner, Matthias Selke, Arlene A. Russell, Orville L. Chapman
The cycloaddition of -nitrostyrene to 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene provides an extremely clean example of 2 + 2 cycloaddition. This laboratory exercise combines theory, technique, spectroscopy, and data interpretation.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 854.
Photochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table  I. P. Gerothanassis and C. G. Kalodimos
The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.
Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Instrumental Methods
Labeling Histidines in Cytochrome c: An Integrated Laboratory Project  Amy M. Bonser and Owen A. Moe
This four-week laboratory project uses an inorganic protein labeling reagent, chloro(2,2':6,2''-terpyridine)-platinum(II)chloride dihydrate ([Pt(trpy)Cl]Cl(2H2O), to label histidine residues of the protein, cytochrome c. The goal of the experiment is to determine the stoichiometry of labeling.
Bonser, Amy M.; Moe, Owen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 794.
Instrumental Methods |
Stoichiometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Simple NMR Imaging  Per-Ola Quist
Recently we modernized an NMR course for undergraduate chemists. The aim of the new course is to introduce them to the most common applications of NMR.
Quist, Per-Ola. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 751.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
An Integrated Curriculum for First- and Second-Year Chemistry Courses  T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick
Key features of this innovation are the integration of organic and inorganic chemical concepts throughout the first two years of the curriculum, the incorporation of modern instrumentation into lecture and laboratory beginning the first semester, and the matching of topic development to student ability throughout the two-year sequence.
T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 638.
Instrumental Methods
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Examination of a Reaction Mechanism by Polarimetry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Michael D. Mosher, Chad O. Kelly, and Melvyn W. Mosher
The experiment has been shown to be successful with chiral mandelic acid and POCl3 and with chiral lactic acid and HBr. The substitution mechanisms of these reactions proceed with 1% and 38% SN2 character respectively.
Mosher, Michael D.; Kelly, Chad O.; Mosher, Melvyn W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 567.
Instrumental Methods |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography
NMR Determination of Internal Rotation Rates and Rotational Energy Barriers: A Physical Chemistry Lab Project  Kevin F. Morris and Luther E. Erickson
This experiment will expose students to a variety of NMR techniques, such as saturation transfer, inversion-recovery, and line shape analysis. It will also demonstrate that NMR is an extremely useful tool to chemists, with very relevant applications in physical chemistry.
Morris, Kevin F.; Erickson, Luther E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 471.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Are They Really Sloppy?: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance in the Laboratory  Katalin Kovács-Hadady and István Fábián
The performance of the students in the analytical laboratory was tested in a potentiometric determination of fluoride ion in anti-caries dental tablets. The analytical results determined by freshman students and experienced personnel were compared.
Kovács-Hadady, Katalin; Fábián, István. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 461.
Potentiometry |
Instrumental Methods
In This Issue  
The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 288.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Fluorometric Determination of Aluminum: A Quantitative Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory  Jim Peterson
There appear to be very few laboratory procedures published describing the quantitative determination of inorganic species by fluorometric methods that are suitable for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course. This article describes a quantitative experiment that employs fluorometry to determine aluminum.
Peterson, Jim. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 262.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Capillary Gas Chromatography Injection: An Exercise for Students of Instrumental Analysis  Philip J. Marriot and Peter D. Carpenter
A laboratory exercise is described which illustrates the operation of a split/splitless capillary gas chromatography injection system.
Marriott, Philip J.; Carpenter, Peter D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 96.
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry  
Listing of the 1995 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE).
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A214.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Introduction of Modern Instrumentation in the First Two Years of Chemistry: The Iowa Chemistry Curriculum Network (IACCN)  Greenbowe, Thomas J.
Project to incorporate three modular instructional resources on modern instrumentation into the first two years of college chemistry.
Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 534.
Instrumental Methods
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Trihalomethanes Produced in Humic Acid Reactions: A GC-MS Experiment for Instrumental Analysis  Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W.
This lab was developed for an instrumental analysis course to determine quantitatively trihalomethanes produced from the chlorination of humic acids in the presence of various levels of bromide.
Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A293.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative and Instrumental Analysis of Environmentally Significant Elements (Chasteen, Thomas G.)  Bath, Donald
A supplementary lab text.
Bath, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
LIMSport (V): pH Data Acquisition: An Inexpensive Probe and Calibration Software  Vitz, Ed; Betts, Thomas A.
161. Construction and use of a "software pH meter".
Vitz, Ed; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 412.
pH |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: II: Introductory Spectroscopy  Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger
A simple atomic flame spectrometer and a solution spectrophotometer that are easily constructed yet provide accurate and reliable results.
Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 353.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Low-Cost Reference Electrode for Potentiotitrimetry  Riyazuddin, P.
This Cu 2+ / Cu half-cell can serve as a simple, truly low-cost reference electrodes in all types of potentiometry.
Riyazuddin, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 167.
Potentiometry |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: Part 1. Ion-Selective Electrodes  Ramaley, Louis; Wedge, Paula J.; Crain, Sheila M.
Constructing, applying, and analyzing the results of Na+ selective electrodes.
Ramaley, Louis; Wedge, Paula J.; Crain, Sheila M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 164.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
pH
FT NMR in the Instrumental Analysis Course: A Curriculum and a Laboratory  Fuson, Michael M.
Discussion of NMR in the context of instrumental analysis should focus on the nature of the FT NMR experiment; a procedure to support this discussion is provided.
Fuson, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 126.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Applications of autosampling GC-MS in an introductory organic chemistry laboratory   Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.
Incorporation of an automated GC-MS has allowed students to have access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in a cost-effective and pedagogically sound manner.
Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A290.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
An experiment using time-based detection in flow injection analysis   Carroll, Mary K.; Tyson, Julian F.
This experiment can be adopted to work with any number of reactions that result in a product that absorbs light of the LED wavelength significantly.
Carroll, Mary K.; Tyson, Julian F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A210.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Determination of sugars in food products: Using HPLC and electrochemical detection at a Cu electrode  Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P.
This lab activity takes advantage of the fact that students' interest in a lab is increased when common life experiences are drawn upon.
Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 679.
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents
Potentiometric measurements in a freshwater aquarium  Harris, Thomas M.
The author describes a laboratory activity for an instrumental methods course that is both interesting and instructive to the students while providing a lesson in environmental chemistry and tropical fish care.
Harris, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 340.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
LIMSport (II): Use of the Interfaced Balance for Pressure Measurements, Streamlined Syntheses, and Titrations  Vitz, Ed
145. LIMSport facilitates direct acquisition of data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet.. This article explores the use of LIMSport in understanding gas laws.
Vitz, Ed J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 63.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumental analysis courses: Part II. The choice and use of instrumentation  Jones, Bradley T.
Survey of what spechtrochemical analysis techniques are used in 95 chemistry departments.
Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A268.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy
Instrumental analysis courses: Part I. The current experimental practice  Harris, Harold H.; O'Brien, James J.
Survey of what instrumental techniques have been included in instrumental analysis courses from 32 chemistry departments.
Harris, Harold H.; O'Brien, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A266.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 4th Edition (Skoog, D. A.; Leary, J. J.).  Bower, Nathan W.
Presentation of instrumental methods for introductory students.
Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A224.
Instrumental Methods
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
1H NMR analysis of mixtures using internal standards: A quantitative experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory  Peterson, Jim
Procedure to illustrate the general principles of quantitative NMR methodology.
Peterson, Jim J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 843.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Atomic emission spectrometry with helium plasmas: An emerging approach for nonmetal determinations  Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W.
Capabilities of helium microwave-induced plasmas for the determination of nonmetals.
Wu, Mingin; Gehlhausen, Jay M.; Carnahan, Jon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 757.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Illustration of the principles of fluorimetry: An apparatus and experiments specially designed for the teaching laboratory.  Bigger, Stephen W.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Mellak, Geoffrey A.; Verity, Bruce.
An apparatus designed to be constructed cheaply that allows students to become familiar with the components of a fluorimeter and its operation.
Bigger, Stephen W.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.; Mellak, Geoffrey A.; Verity, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 675.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Electricity/electronic experiments for the chemistry laboratory.  Braun, Robert D.
Experiments that permit students to observe the behavior of simple electrical circuits, including a DC constant current source, voltage divider, diodes, logic gates, flip-flops, and the seven-segment display.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Voltammetric behavior of a ferrocene derivative: A comparison using surface-confined and diffusion-controlled species.  Gomez, Marielle E.; Kaifer, Angel E.
Description of cyclic voltammetry and an experiment that examines the voltammetric behavior of a ferrocene derivative in aqueous solution (diffusion-controlled) and inside an anionic polyelectrolyte film (diffusion-controlled).
Gomez, Marielle E.; Kaifer, Angel E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 502.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Spreadsheet exercises for instrumental analysis  Prais, Michael G.
138. Five spreadsheet assignments used in a course on instrument analysis to familiarize students with personal computers and the numerical analysis of data.
Prais, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 488.
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Art, archaeology, and analytical chemistry: A synthesis of the liberal arts  Beilby, Alvin L.
Examples of applications of instrumental methods of analysis in art and archeology (with references).
Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 437.
Applications of Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
HPLC: A Practical Technique for Future Chemists  
HPLC has been particularly helpful in separating the large molecules dealt with in biochemistry, and, therefore, it is essential that future chemists know how to use this technique routinely.
J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 260.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods
Experimental study of monochromators in UV-vis and IR spectrophotometers  Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J.
This is a laboratory exercise where students strip down a UV-vis spectrophotometer and an IR spectrophotometer.
Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 77.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Inert atmosphere techniques for the microscale laboratory   Newton, Thomas A.
A system developed to introduce students to working under inert atmosphere.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A60.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab
The Pittsburgh conference on analytical chemistry and applied spectroscopy: An educational experience  Settle, Frank A., Jr.
During the conference, there are many opportunities for students and educators to increase their knowledge of all areas of analytical chemistry and to see how chemistry is applied in many areas of society.
Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A37.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conferences |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Professional Development
Undergraduate organic and polymer lab experiments that exemplify structure determination by NMR  Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C.
Where in the curriculum is the best place to teach experimental NMR methods that are so essential to chemists and chemistry? These authors are of the opinion that NMR must be given more than a cursory introduction involving a single experiment, and present a series of experiments.
Viswanathan, T.; Watson, F.; Yang, D. T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 685.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
A simple method for producing efficient concentric tube distillation columns  Smith, Sherrel
The typically used columns packed with glass beads have several disadvantages. This paper offers a solution that proves to be a better teaching aid.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 616.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Experiments in synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the undergraduate instrumental chemistry course  Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C.
These experiments can be used to compare the detection limits afforded by UV/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy for a given analysis and to show that the latter method is capable of of greater selectivity.
Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 433.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Proton-carbon chemical shift correlations  Macomber, Roger S.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between H-1 chemical shifts and C-13 chemical shifts in some detail.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 284.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR, & CMR (Clough, Fred W.)  Byrd, James E.
Set of programs designed to help students analyze and interpret infrared, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra.
Byrd, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A194.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A home-built spectrofluorometer  Hadley, Fred J.; Mahloudji, Ali
Combining two Beckman DU spectrophotometers to produce a modest spectrofluorometer.
Hadley, Fred J.; Mahloudji, Ali J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 806.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel by multivariate linear regression  Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey
The use of multivariate linear regression in order to reduce the number of absorbance measurements and provide a means for evaluating the precision of the results of the simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel in solution by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 797.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The use of Dristan Nasal Spray as the unknown for simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a mixture  Williams, Kathryn R.; Cole, Steven R.; Boyette, Stacey E; Schulman, Stephen G.
The simultaneous determination of a mixture of two chromophores is a popular experiment in the instrumental analysis laboratory.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Cole, Steven R.; Boyette, Stacey E; Schulman, Stephen G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 535.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Potentiometric and photometric methods for determining the solubility of lead iodide  Rice, Gary W.
The use of potentiometric and photometric methods for determining the solubility of lead iodide have allowed students to observe first-hand that physical constants can be determined by very different analytical approaches and concepts.
Rice, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 430.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Potentiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
On-the-job evaluation of education in analytical chemistry  Harwood, John J.
Results of a survey in which analytical laboratory supervisors were asked to list the three instrumental and three "wet" chemical or physical analyses most commonly performed in his or her laboratory.
Harwood, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A268.
Instrumental Methods
The Fourier transform in chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear magnetic resonance: Introduction  King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
Provides a fundamental understanding and appreciation of FT-NMR.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A213.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Computer-interfaced digital counter-analogue data acquisition system and demonstration of signal-to-noise enhancement methods  Xu, Qing; Demas, J. N.; Grubb, Marvin
A PC interface for a digital freqeuncy-period-counter-ratio meter and an analogue interface based on a voltage-to-freqeuncy converter.
Xu, Qing; Demas, J. N.; Grubb, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A199.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Seventh Edition (Dean, John A.; Merritt, Lynne L., Jr.; Settle, Frank A., Jr.; Willard, Hobart H.)  Young, Vaneica
Compared with the sixth edition, the seventh edition has five fewer chapters.
Young, Vaneica J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A46.
Instrumental Methods
A comparison of optical detectors for the visible and ultraviolet  Grossman, William E. L.
A comparison of the operating mechanisms and characteristics of photomultiplier tubes, silicon photodiode arrays, and charge transfer devices.
Grossman, William E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 697.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Semiconductors
Determination of the pK of an indicator by thermal lens spectroscopy: A laser experiment for instrumental analysis laboratory  Erskine, Steven R.; Bobbitt, Donald R.
The exercises described in this article demonstrate how the enhanced limit of detection can be use to evaluate weakly absorbing solutions not readily accessible by conventional absorbance methods.
Erskine, Steven R.; Bobbitt, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 354.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers
Availability of video tape to clarify the method of standard abbreviations  Williams, Kathryn R.
The method of standard addition is recognized as an important calibration technique in instrumental analysis.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 247.
Calibration |
Addition Reactions |
Instrumental Methods
Antioxidants in plastic: An instrumental analysis project  Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung
The authors have devised the following project in their instrumental analysis laboratory to investigate the antioxidant content in polypropylene products.
Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 172.
Phenols |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A step-by-step picture of pulsed (time domain) NMR  Schwartz, Leslie J.
The goal of this paper is to describe a pulsed NMR experiment that is as simple and pictorial as possible, but that stops short of dangerous generalizations and oversimplifications that can lead to contradictions.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 752.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Incorporation of consumer products in the teaching of analytical chemistry   Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
A development and selection of a number of experiments involving the use of common consumer products for incorporation into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 207.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Quantitative Chemical Analysis (Manahan, Stanley E.)  Guthrie, Frank A.
Quantitative analysis text.
Guthrie, Frank A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A328.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Fourier transforms for chemists. Part 3. Fourier transforms in data treatment  Glasser, L.
Mathematical properties and manipulations of Fourier transforms.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A306.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Part III. Applications  Perkins, W. D.
Applications of FT-IR spectroscopy to aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, photoacoustic spectroscopy, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope.
Perkins, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A296.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Part II. Advantages of FT-IR  Perkins, W. D.
Considers energy and other advantages of FT-IR.
Perkins, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A269.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Fourier transforms for chemists. Part 2. Fourier transforms in chemistry and spectroscopy  Glasser, L.
Considers the number of data channels in a spectrometer, the dispersive element as a delay device, the Fourier transform technique and its advantages, the fast Fourier transform technique and its advantages, and applications of these techniques to chemistry.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A260.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of geologic materials Part 2. Applications  Anzelmo, John A.; Lindsay, James R.
Interferences due to matrix effects; analysis of geologic materials; sample preparation; trace element analysis; and optimizing geologic sample analysis.
Anzelmo, John A.; Lindsay, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A200.
Spectroscopy |
Geochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Computer interfacing to laboratory instruments: How to minimize noise interferences  Karpinski, Mary
Suggestions for replacing mechanical, analog data recorders with computer-based data-acquisition systems, particularly in terms of minimizing noise.
Karpinski, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A100.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
The History and Preservation of Chemical Instrumentation (Stock, John T.; Orna, Mary Virginia)  Kauffman, George B.
18 papers presented on the title subject presented at the 190th meeting of the American Chemical Society in Chicago in September of 1985.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A27.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A colorimetric titration experiment with laser excitation and computer-interfaced endpoint detection  Mehta, Manish A.; Dallinger, Richard F.
88. Students experience the use and handling of laser beams, the construction of a simple and inexpensive photodetector, and the use of a commercially available computer interface system all within the framework of the familiar titration curve.
Mehta, Manish A.; Dallinger, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1019.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Inexpensive low-frequency IR windows using Tupperware seals and polyethylene coffee can lids  Dew, Vinita C.
Using disks cut from coffee can lids and Tupperware tumbler seals as low-frequency IR windows.
Dew, Vinita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 975.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A very brief, rapid, simple, and unified method for estimating carbon-13 NMR chemical shifts: The BS method  Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C.
The "BS" method is so brief and simple that students can memorize and use it to interpret 13C NMR spectra with ease.
Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 915.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Instrumental Methods
Introduction to the interpretation of electron spin resonance spectra of organic radicals  Bunce, Nigel J.
Principles and applications of electron spin resonance; this article is addressed directly to undergraduates rather than their instructors.
Bunce, Nigel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 907.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A new microcell technique for NMR analysis  Yu, Sophia J.
Eliminating expensive microcells and replacing them with disposable units.
Yu, Sophia J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 812.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Anodic polarography of cyanide in foodstuffs  Farrell, T. J.; Lauh, R. J.; Wadsworth, E. P., Jr.
Determining the amount of cyanide present in foodstuffs through anodic polarography.
Farrell, T. J.; Lauh, R. J.; Wadsworth, E. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 635.
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
One simple solution to erratic instrument behavior  Huitink, Geraldine M.
Eliminating erratic needle movement on pH meters and Spec 20 spectrophotometers by eliminating rubber soled shoes and the static electricity they generate.
Huitink, Geraldine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 530.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Estimating the equilibrium voltage of an ion-selective electrode  Chang, On-Kok
A procedure for estimating the value of the equilibrium voltage based on just a few voltage readings obtained in the early stage of the measurement process.
Chang, On-Kok J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 91.
Equilibrium |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
An introductory quantitative GC experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory  Leber, Phyllis. A.
GC instrumentation is complicated enough that students need introductory exposure to the technique before embarking on its applications. The authors accomplish this by developing an introductory GC experiment that allows students to explore the scope and limits of the technique.
Leber, Phyllis. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 550.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Illustration of plane-polarized light  Elakovich, Stella D.
A simple illustration of the effect of polarizing lenses.
Elakovich, Stella D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 268.
Stereochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Information management systems in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory. Part II: Applications of LIMS  Merrer, Robert J.
A Laboratory Information Management System is applied to two instrumental analysis experiments .
Merrer, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A173.
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation and the total analytical process  Pleva, Michael A.; Settle, Frank A., Jr.
Emphasizing the total analytical process by considering the goal of the analysis, isolation of the system on which the analysis is to be performed, physical and chemical manipulations of the sample to produce the analyte, measurement of the analyte, and evaluation of the results, in addition to instrumental techniques.
Pleva, Michael A.; Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A85.
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation and analytical methodology in forensic science  Gaensslen, R. E.; Kubic, Thomas A.; Desio, Peter J.; Lee, Henry C.
Types of evidence and analytical / instrumental methods involved in forensic science. From one of two symposia on forensic chemistry, one held at the ACS meeting in Seattle, 1983, and the second held at the 8th BCCE, Storrs CT, 1984.
Gaensslen, R. E.; Kubic, Thomas A.; Desio, Peter J.; Lee, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1058.
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The esterification of trifluoroacetic acid: An NMR kinetics experiment  Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C.
Procedure to determine pseudo-first-order rate constants for the esterification of trifluoroacetic acid.
Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 911.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods
A problem in calibrating a spectrophotometer  Johnson, James G.
Standardization checks should be carried out under exactly the same conditions as used for daily work with the instrument.
Johnson, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 885.
Calibration |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments in software data handling  Thompson, Robert Q.
64. An instrumental analysis experiment that facilitates the study of data-handling software and its methods, including sampling, boxcar averaging, smoothing, ensemble averaging, and digital filtering.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 866.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy
Inexpensive Apple II/photometer interfacing  Russo, Thomas
62. Bits and pieces, 25. A combined software / hardware package for the Apple II that will monitor light intensity versus real time.
Russo, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 692.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Photochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Demonstrations of signal-to-noise enhancement: Digital filtering  Glasser, L.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Two demonstration programs for the Apple II involving signal-to-noise enhancement.
Glasser, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 691.
Instrumental Methods
Interfacing a scanning infrared spectrophotometer to a microcomputer  Mattson, B. M.; Shepherd, T. R.; Solsky, J. F.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Upgrading an older spectrophotometer to interface with a computer.
Mattson, B. M.; Shepherd, T. R.; Solsky, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 690.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Coulometric titrations using computer-interfaced potentiometric endpoint detection  Greenspan, Paul D.; Burchfield, David E.; Veening, Hans
62. Bits and pieces, 25. A procedure for using a potentiometric endpoint detection system interfaced with a computer to facilitate endpoint detection.
Greenspan, Paul D.; Burchfield, David E.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 688.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
A FORTH-language, computer-controlled potentiometric titration  Verbeek, A. A.
62. Bits and pieces, 25. Program and apparatus to the stirrer, buret additions, data gathering, and endpoint determination for a potentiometric titration.
Verbeek, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 687.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Voltammetry as a model for teaching chemical instrumentation  Gunasingham, H.; Ang, K. P.
The technique of voltammetry, evolution of instrumentation for voltammetry, and the use of computers in voltammetry.
Gunasingham, H.; Ang, K. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 610.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Signal-to-noise improvement: An instrumental analysis experiment  Vassos, B. H.; Lopez, E.
Circuit diagrams for a laboratory-made peak simulator, noise generator, and filtration device.
Vassos, B. H.; Lopez, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gas chromatographic determination of fatty acid compositions  Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia
An experiment that includes a derivatization step and uses readily available reagents.
Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 449.
Gas Chromatography |
Lipids |
Instrumental Methods |
Fatty Acids
Wide selection of selective electrodes  Monroe, Dan
Description of some new types of ion and bioselective electrodes.
Monroe, Dan J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 178.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
An experiment to examine the phosphate interference in the flame emission analysis of calcium  Jackman, Donald C.
A procedure that considers flame emission technique, calibration plots, interferences, indirect flame emission analysis, and techniques for removing interferences.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 161.
Instrumental Methods
Electronic instrumentation at the liberal arts college  Keedy, Curtis R.; Abele, John C.
Outline of a two-term course combining the offerings in electronic instrumentation in the chemistry and physics departments.
Keedy, Curtis R.; Abele, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 144.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The design of a computer-controlled flow-injection analyzer: An undergraduate experiment  McClintock, Sam A.; Weber, James R.; Purdy, William C.
57. Bits and pieces, 22. Students construct a simple solid-state photometer and uses it as a detector in a flow-injection or continuous-flow analyzer.
McClintock, Sam A.; Weber, James R.; Purdy, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 65.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
A modern GS/MS/data system  Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C.
Describes the design, use, and advantages of a gas chromatography / mass spectrometer / computerized data system.
Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A233.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded (Robinson, James W.)  Mark, Harry B., Jr.
Textbook for instrumental methods of analysis.
Mark, Harry B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A141.
Instrumental Methods
Choosing the right instrument: The modular approach. Part II  Strobel, Howard A.
How well can instrument specification be related to the behavior of modules? How often is a specification fixed by a single module?
Strobel, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A89.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Choosing the right instrument: The modular approach. Part I.  Strobel, Howard A.
Considering instruments as systems rather than individually.
Strobel, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A53.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Quantitative analysis of a mixture by NMR spectroscopy  Wallace, Tim
Adding a measured quantity of an inert, easily removed reference compound with a simple NMR signal that does not overlap with the mixture's signal can provide the basis for an instructive experiment.
Wallace, Tim J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1074.
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
High performance thin layer chromatography  Costanzo, Samuel J.
Considers the various ways in which high performance has been achieved in thin layer chromatography, including the new TLC plates, sample application, plate development, and instrumental techniques.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1015.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
An easy method for salvaging thermal conductivity detectors  Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter
Exchanging resistors in a gas chromatograph.
Ronman, Peter; Sallastrom, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 813.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Performance characterization of an instrument  Salin, Eric D.
Experiment that introduces students to detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, and linear dynamic range using flame atomic emission.
Salin, Eric D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 70.
Instrumental Methods |
Calibration |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Single-pan balances, buoyancy, and gravity or "a mass of confusion"  Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G.
Most manufacturers of balances either do not understand the idea of buoyancy corrections or believe them to be irrelevant.
Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 51.
Physical Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Chemical instrumentation for the visually handicapped  Anderson, James L.
An approach developed for introducing visually handicapped students to chemical instrumentation via experiments on operational amplifiers as examples of some of the electronic building blocks of chemical instrumentation.
Anderson, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 871.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Undergraduate infrared spectroscopy experiments  MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.
A set of experiments that provide experience in deuteration and derivatization procedures as applied to infrared spectroscopy.
MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 799.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes
Sensitive electroanalysis using solid electrodes  Wang, Joseph
Hydrodynamic modulation voltammetry (HMV) is a very sensitive solid electrode technique that may be easily adapted and demonstrated in most instrumental analysis laboratories.
Wang, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 691.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
An analytical chemistry experiment in simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Fe(III) and Cu(II) with hexacyanoruthenate(II) reagent  Mehra, M. C.; Rioux, J.
This method is based on selective interaction of the complex formed between Fe(III) and Cu(II) and potassium hexacyanoruthenate(II) in acid solution; this technique can easily be extended toward the analysis of these species in environmental samples.
Mehra, M. C.; Rioux, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 688.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Simulation of chemical instrumentation. I: Computer-graphics emulation of chemical instrumentation: Absorption spectrophotometers  Gilbert, D. D.; Mounts, T. T., II; Frost, A. A.
31.
Gilbert, D. D.; Mounts, T. T., II; Frost, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 661.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Modular approach to instrumental analysis  Deming, Richard L.; Van Willis, W.; Janota, Harvey F.
An instrumental analysis course is divided into six, 3.5-4 week modules.
Deming, Richard L.; Van Willis, W.; Janota, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 203.
Instrumental Methods
Calculator program for analysis of a complex by Job's method  House, J. E., Jr.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. Program permits users to measure an appropriate property of a complex as a function of composition of the solutions and determine the composition of the complex according to Job's method.
House, J. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 132.
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Instrumental analysis laboratory experiments  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.
Offer of an instrumental analysis laboratory manual to those interested.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Instrumental Methods
Project Select (the author replies)  Settle, Frank A., Jr.
Addresses concerns regarding bias toward comparison of instrument specifications.
Settle, Frank A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A171.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Project Select  Aquilina, Ellen P.; Malone, James P.
Concerns regarding bias toward comparison of instrument specifications.
Aquilina, Ellen P.; Malone, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A171.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
CII. Automated anodic stripping voltammetry  Stock, John T.
Circuitry and use of a computer-controlled, anodic stripping analyzer.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A125.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Construction and evaluation of a solid-state iodide selective electrode: A chemical instrumentation laboratory experiment  Papastathopoulos, D. S.; Karayannis, M. I.
The experiment is based on the construction of a crystalline homogeneous membrane electrode (solid-state type) employing an AgI/Ag2S coprecipitate pellet-sensing membrane.
Papastathopoulos, D. S.; Karayannis, M. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 904.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A systematic approach to standard addition methods in instrumental analysis  Bader, Morris
Nine cases of standard addition methods in instrumental analysis, including linear instruments, a non-linear response, the electrochemical Nernst equation, and radiochemical techniques.
Bader, Morris J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 703.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
A simple system to illustrate mass spectrometry principles  Finet, Daniel
A simple didactic system that enables one to simulate the different operations of a mass spectrometer and the necessary conditions for ionic refocusing.
Finet, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 232.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Gas chromatographic determination of methyl salicylate in rubbing alcohol: An experiment employing standard addition  Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis
Provides an exercise in standard addition as applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of the methyl salicylate in wintergreen rubbing alcohol.
Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 230.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
XCIX. A device for demonstrating microprocessor interfacing  Schilling, J. W.
In designing interfaces between a microprocessor or minicomputer and an external device, it is important to "breadboard" a prototype unit first.
Schilling, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, A104.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Two HPLC experiments for instrumental analysis laboratory  Byrd, James E.
The determination of aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine in commercial APC tablets; and the determination of saccharin, sodium benzoate, and caffeine in diet cola drinks.
Byrd, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 809.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods
Potassium bromide disc infrared spectroscopy: A useful technique for liquid samples  Andersen, Jan R.
Use of the KBr-disc method need not be restricted to solids alone.
Andersen, Jan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 761.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Mixed stationary liquid phases for gas-liquid chromatography  Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.
Using window diagrams to quantitate the selectivity of a column of liquid phase.
Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 623.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of iodide in milk with an ion selective electrode  O'Reilly, James E.
Uses the method of standard additions.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 279.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
Data manipulation and handling  Binkley, David; Dessy, Raymond
Examines the type of analog signals that are commonly sampled in the laboratory to better understand the importance of data sampling rate and the problems associated with noise.
Binkley, David; Dessy, Raymond J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 148.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
The standardization of pH meters: A comparison of procedures for different types of instruments  Lund, Walter
Discusses the various approaches to the standardization of pH meters and the limitations of the various procedures.
Lund, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 129.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Calibration |
Acids / Bases
Use of a copper(II) reagent impurity as a teaching aid for instrumental analysis  Herman, Richard G.
The characterization and identification of the impurity found in copper(II) nitrate trihydrate serves as an excellent teaching aid in emphasizing the need for good laboratory technique and in introducing certain instrumental methods.
Herman, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 126.
Instrumental Methods
The analytical textbook situation: Can a textbook present analytical chemistry as it really is?  Williams, T. R.; Bromund, R. H.
A new generation of introductory and instrumental methods classes should be written to reflect changes in the discipline. Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Williams, T. R.; Bromund, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 98.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
Analytical chemistry at a community college: A balance of wet chemical methods and instrumental analysis  Hayes, Janan M.
Description of an analytical chemistry course at a community college (American River College). Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Hayes, Janan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 96.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
Analytical chemistry in an integrated laboratory sequence  Dolbow, Kyle E.
Description of a totally integrated, four semester, analytical chemistry program at MIT. Symposium: Present status of the teaching of analytical chemistry.
Dolbow, Kyle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 96.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Instrumental Methods
A microcomputer-controlled transient recorder: A simple and instructive experiment in interfacing  Barrett, Tom; Lunney, David; Salt, Alger D.; Walter, Marc
An experiment to introduce computer interfacing into the laboratory.
Barrett, Tom; Lunney, David; Salt, Alger D.; Walter, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Pure rotational Raman spectroscopy: A dry-lab experiment  Hoskins, L. Claron
Permits the student to analyze the pure rotational Raman spectra of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and determine the bond distances.
Hoskins, L. Claron J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 642.
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Converting atomic spectral line widths from frequency to wavelength  Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L.
A method that illustrates the conversion from frequency to wavelength in a readily understandable fashion requiring only the visualization of a spectral line shape and some algebra.
Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 615.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Automatic potentiometric titrations  Pinkham, Chester A.; Field, Brownlee
Use of a constant flow buret to perform automated potentiometric titrations.
Pinkham, Chester A.; Field, Brownlee J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 577.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Versatile pen-holder for chart recorders  Nieschlag, Henry J.
Using a small binder clip as a versatile pen-holder for chart recorders.
Nieschlag, Henry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A student operated animated infrared spectroscopy teaching model  Hartman, Karel
To help students understand the background of infrared spectroscopy better, a teaching model of spectroscopy can be built.
Hartman, Karel J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 111.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
LXXXVI. Atomic spectroscopy atomization systems (Continued)  Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W.
Reviews recent advances in electrically heated non-flame atomizers.
Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A451.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
LXXXVI. Atomic spectroscopy atomization systems [part one]  Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W.
Reviews recent advances in flame atomizers, including burners, nebulizers, and flames.
Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A403.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
LXXXII. Home-built equipment in the teaching laboratory  Stock, John T.
Considers modular equipment for measuring electrolytic conductance and electronic coulometry.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A165.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
A novel communications-skills-based approach to the instrumental laboratory  Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E.
Describes the approach used in a course designed to stress the importance of good writing style in laboratory reports.
Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 801.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Chemical analysis of the environment: A course for non-chemistry majors  Stepenuck, Stephen J.
Describes an analytical course that includes the essentials of quantitative analysis and instrumental methods.
Stepenuck, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 795.
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
A unique approach to teaching spectrophotometric procedures  Reeves, Roy R.; Hutson, Myron D.; Williams, Howard P.
Substituting commercial food dyes for metal complexes reduces preparation time, tedious record keeping, and allows for a greater variation of unknowns to be issued.
Reeves, Roy R.; Hutson, Myron D.; Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 659.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Dyes / Pigments
Instrumental analysis for medical technologists at small universities  Caruana, L. B.; Palma, R. J., Sr.
Modifications made to an analytical chemistry curriculum to suit the needs of medical technologists.
Caruana, L. B.; Palma, R. J., Sr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 586.
Instrumental Methods |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Determination of the Nyquist frequency. A computer-interfacing experiment  Swanson, Ray; Thoennes, D. J.; Williams, Robert C.; Wilkins, Charles L.
A discussion of sampling theory, aliasing, and an experiment designed to establish the relationship between the analog-to-digital conversion rate and the frequency of a sine wave voltage input.
Swanson, Ray; Thoennes, D. J.; Williams, Robert C.; Wilkins, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 530.
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods
Reference electrodes  Caton, Roy D., Jr.
Examines reference electrodes, including both aqueous and nonaqueous reference electrodes.
Caton, Roy D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A571.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Recent developments in instrumentation for liquid chromatography  Veening, Hans
Considers various accessories for gradient elution systems.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A429.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Anodic stripping voltammetry  Ellis, William D.
Considers the theory, techniques, applications, and instrumentation of anodic stripping voltammetry.
Ellis, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A131.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Chemical instrumentation in the two-year community college  Trujillo, Anthony P.
Results of a questionnaire on the availability and use of a variety of instruments in two-year community colleges.
Trujillo, Anthony P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 784.
Instrumental Methods
Wavelength and spatial distribution of the light from a monochromator  Bruzzone, Liliana; Roselli, Martin E.
A simplified procedure of measurement and calculation for students without a solid background in optics.
Bruzzone, Liliana; Roselli, Martin E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 701.
Instrumental Methods
Precision spectrophotometry using modular instruments. A method for undergraduate courses  Piepmeier, Edward H.
This paper discusses the stable, single beam, visible spectrophotometers and the techniques that are used to obtain measurements with a relative concentration precision of <0.5%.
Piepmeier, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 640.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Computer-controlled colorimetry  Pater, F. G.; Perone, S. P.
In order to illustrate more fully the capabilities of the computer for experimental control, a computer-controlled colorimeter has been conceived, where the computer can select the wavelength of light passing through the sample as well as execute data acquisition and data processing functions.
Pater, F. G.; Perone, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Thermal analysis techniques: Part II. Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (continued)  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines commercial differential thermal analysis instrumentation.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A671.
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermal analysis techniques: Part II. Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry  Wendlandt, W. W.
Introduces differential thermal analysis and differential thermal analysis instrumentation.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A624.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermal analysis techniques: Part I. Thermobalances (continued)  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines commercial thermobalances, including four types of simultaneous TG-DTA instruments.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A623.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gravimetric Analysis
Thermal analysis techniques - Part I. Thermobalances  Wendlandt, W. W.
Examines thermal analysis techniques, thermogravimetry, and a variety of commercial thermobalances.
Wendlandt, W. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A571.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gravimetric Analysis
Principles of instrumental analysis (Skoog, Douglas A.)  Beilby, Alvin L.

Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A362.
Instrumental Methods
Laboratory integrators  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews nonelectrical, electrochemical, electrical analog, and digital methods of integration.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: A Volume of Reprints from the Journal of Chemical Education (Ewing, Galen W.)  Lucchesi, C. A.

Lucchesi, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A317.
Instrumental Methods
A simple electronic integrator with digital read-out  Lindstrom, M.; Sundholm, G.
Presents a circuit diagram for a coulometer / current integrator.
Lindstrom, M.; Sundholm, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 847.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
X-ray fluorescence determination of lead in gasoline  Bills, J. M.; Brier, K. S.; Danko, L. G.; Kristine, F. J.; Turco, S. J.; Zimmerman, K. S.; Divelbiss, P. M.; Tackett, S. L.
The X-ray fluorescence determination of lead in gasoline is simple, straightforward, and reliable, and the analysis is rapid, since no sample treatment is required.
Bills, J. M.; Brier, K. S.; Danko, L. G.; Kristine, F. J.; Turco, S. J.; Zimmerman, K. S.; Divelbiss, P. M.; Tackett, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 715.
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Comparison of analytical methods  Beilby, Alvin L.
One important aspect of the education in analytical chemistry of chemists and others using analytical methods should be the continued emphasis on the comparison of analytical methods so students can learn to chose intelligently the proper analytical methods for the solution of chemical problems.
Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 679.
Instrumental Methods
Paramagnetic moment measurements by nmr. A micro technique  Loliger, J.; Scheffold, R.
Design of a coaxial cell consisting of a simple melting point tube that is used to to determine the paramagnetic moment of a given substance.
Loliger, J.; Scheffold, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 646.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Magnetic Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Variable scale for mass spectral relative ion abundance measurement  Katcher, M. L.
The use of a variable scale allows one to obtain the relative ion abundances directly from the mass spectrum without the necessity of using arithmetic manipulations and/or desk calculators.
Katcher, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 567.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Effects of stray light in spectroscopy  Cook, R. B.; Jankow, R.
Defines stray light and examines its effects on band shapes, accuracy, and Beer's law plots and their linearity.
Cook, R. B.; Jankow, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 405.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Measurement or interpretation?  Atkinson, George F.
Questions the trend of moving away from teaching students how to make valid experimental measurements.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 226.
Instrumental Methods
Increased utilization of electronic apparatus  Twigg, Martyn V.
It is possible to utilize more fully an electronic instrument by connecting it to several probes via a simple switch unit.
Twigg, Martyn V. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 191.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumental techniques compared by analysis of a reaction mixture  Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O.
The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint the student with how a combination of instruments (glc, ir, and nmr) can be used to separate as well as to identify each compound in a reaction mixture.
Fairless, Billy J.; Dunn, Howard E.; Foster, Daniel O. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 827.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Liquid chromatography detectors - Part one  Veening, Hans
Surveys photometric liquid chromatography detectors.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A549.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part two: Methodology  Cazes, Jack
Examines the subjects of calibration, estimation of molecular weight distribution, fractionation of low molecular weight substances, and recycling chromatography.
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A505.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Calibration
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part one: Theory and equipment  Cazes, Jack
This report is presented as a supplement to an earlier pair of papers on gel permeation chromatography and considers the mechanism of separation, resolution, equipment, and column substrates
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A461.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Three (Continued)  Low, M. J. D.
Examines instruments produced by the Digilab, Inc.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A415.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Three  Low, M. J. D.
Examines far-IR spectrometers.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A349.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
IR Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Two  Low, M. J. D.
Surveys available commercial IR and UV spectrometers.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A255.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Instrumental methods of chemical analysis (Ewing, Galen)  Safford, H. W.

Safford, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A128.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
The isomerization of xylenes. An experiment for the organic or instrumental laboratory  Harbison, Kenneth G.
This experiment illustrates both qualitative and quantitative applications of infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of mixtures, as well as providing an interesting study of the mechanism of Friedel-Crafts reactions.
Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 837.
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
Emission spectroscopy using a photoresistor as a light detector  McMeekin, Samuel G.; Toby, Frina S.; Toby, Sidney
Describes a simple, robust yet sensitive light detector system that relies on a cadmium sulfoselenide photoresistor.
McMeekin, Samuel G.; Toby, Frina S.; Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 832.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Assembly of a differential thermal analysis apparatus  Scism, Allen J.
Describes the construction of an apparatus used to show thermal changes in samples due to phase changes and loss of waters of hydration.
Scism, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 772.
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Use of felt-tipped pens with recorders  Ringen, John C.
Using a felt-tipped pen with recorders eliminates problems with pens that rely on ink reservoirs.
Ringen, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 716.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a 3-component mixture: An experiment for instrumental analysis  Hargis, L. G.; Harker, G. G., III; Huntington, J. L., Jr.; Gruber, T. A.
The experiment described herein is fashioned from a published report describing an approach to the analysis of 3-component mixtures of the isomeric cresols.
Hargis, L. G.; Harker, G. G., III; Huntington, J. L., Jr.; Gruber, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 712.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
A tunable amplifier for an audio-frequency Wheatstone Bridge  DeSieno, Robert P.; Du, John
Presents a circuit that provides an inexpensive high-gain amplifier that can be tuned sharply at several frequencies.
DeSieno, Robert P.; Du, John J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 635.
Instrumental Methods
Reference beam attenuator for ir spectrophotometer  Helsen, Jef
Design for a simple reference beam attenuator for an ir spectrophotometer.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 576.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rapidly assembled, linear AC conductance or resistance recorder  Olsen, Eugene D.; Martin, Robert J.; Ahnell, Joseph E.
This paper describes an ac resistance or conductance breadboard-type instrument that can be built in less than an hour by a beginning electronics student.
Olsen, Eugene D.; Martin, Robert J.; Ahnell, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Instrumentation in organic chemistry  Vlassis, C. G.; Cupillari, Thomas G.
Describes an experience in which sophomore organic chemistry students learn largely independently to use instrumentation.
Vlassis, C. G.; Cupillari, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 400.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
A laboratory course on digital computers in chemical instrumentations  Perone, S. P.
Examines on-line computerized experimentation in the laboratory, and educational program in computerized instrumentation, and hardware for on-line experimentation and interface design.
Perone, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 105.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Raman spectroscopy - Part two  Bulkin, Bernard J.
Examines aspects of detection and amplification, sample illumination and handling, and future trends in Raman spectroscopy.
Bulkin, Bernard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A859.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Raman Spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy  Part One  Bulkin, Bernard
This article discusses the current status of Raman instrumentation from the viewpoint of componentslasers, monochromators, detectors, amplifying systems, and sample handling.
Bulkin, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A781.
Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The control of temperature - Part two  van Swaay, Maarten
Focusses on the design, characteristics, and operation of thermocouples and thermistors.
van Swaay, Maarten J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A565.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Pressure transducers - Part two  Curran, David J.
Surveys commercial capacitive, inductive, and piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Curran, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Mass spectrometers - Part three - Commercial spectrometers  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A233.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometers - Part two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines mass-analyzer systems and detectors as well as the resolution and performance of mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A149.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Nmr analysis of water-acetic acid solutions  Brabson, G. Dana
Presents an experiment intended to teach the operation of NMR instrumentation and the interpretation of the data it collects, as well as demonstrate a significant principle of chemistry.
Brabson, G. Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 754.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength: An experiment using a pH meter  Bada, Jeffrey L.
This report presents a procedure for using a pH meter to determine the pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength.
Bada, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 689.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Equilibrium
Analytical chemistry for honors applied chemistry students  Atkinson, G. F.
This paper outlines the analytical chemistry content of a new program being introduced at the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) and discusses some of the rationale underlying the development.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 519.
Instrumental Methods
An instrument for source intensity compensation in atomic fluorescence  O'Haver, T. C.; Winefordner, J. D.
The purpose of this paper is to describe an instrumental system that compensates for variations in the source intensity, thus allowing the use of unstable electrodeless discharge lamps as sources of excitation in atomic flame spectrometry.
O'Haver, T. C.; Winefordner, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 435.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Integrated circuits in the instrumental laboratory  Scherer, George A.
A brief introduction to integrated circuits that exemplifies their use in instrumentation through the construction of a square wave generator, audio amplifier, decimal counting unit, and operational amplifier.
Scherer, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 399.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors
Turbidimetric determination of chelated calcium at various pH levels: An analytical laboratory experiment  L'Annunziata, Michael F.; Fuller, Wallace
A turbidimetric method has been developed that allows the determination of chelated calcium in the presence of micromolar amounts of chelating agents at any level of the pH scale.
L'Annunziata, Michael F.; Fuller, Wallace J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 172.
pH |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods
Reflectometers, Colorimeters, and Reflectance Attachments - Part Two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial reflectometers, colorimeters, and reflectance attachments.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A947.
Instrumental Methods
Reflectometers, colorimeters, and reflectance attachments - Part one  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Examines commercial reflectance attachments.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A861.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Oscilloscopes in chemistry - Part two  Nelson, Joseph E.
Examines the triggered oscilloscope, pug-in amplifiers, special oscilloscopes, and their applications.
Nelson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A787.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Signal to noise optimization in chemistry - Part two: S/N considerations in designing a measuring system  Coor, Thomas
Considers system grounding, transducers, amplifiers, signal processing, and lock-in amplifiers.
Coor, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A583.
Instrumental Methods
Signal to noise optimization in chemistry - Part one  Coor, Thomas
Reviews the properties of the various sources of noise confronted by the chemist in making measurements and various ways to avoid unnecessary noise.
Coor, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A533.
Instrumental Methods
Moisture measurement  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews a wide variety of analytical methods and commercial devices for measuring moisture content in gases, liquids, and solids.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A377.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry
Recent Instrumentation for UV-Visible Spectrophotometry - Part 1 (continued): Dual-Beam Spectrophotometers  Lott, Peter F.
Examines a variety of commercial, dual-beam spectrophotometers.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A169.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modern laboratory balances (concluded). Part one - Lever-arm balances (cont'd). Part two - Strain balances. Part three - Recording and automatic balances  Hirsch, Roland F.
Examines a series of modern laboratory balances, including lever-arm, strain balances, recording, and automatic balances.
Hirsch, Roland F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A7.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple low-current potentiostat coulometric analysis  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a potentiostat and describes its use to conduct a coulometric analysis of 2,2-dinitropropane.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 736.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
A versatile ionization detector system for gas chromatography  Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V.
A versatile and inexpensive ionization detector is described that can increase the utility of any gas chromatograph to which it is attached.
Nowak, A. V.; Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 519.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analytical chemistry  Rogers, L. B.
The purpose of this paper is to indicate that the academic analytical chemist should not only incorporate the ideas of computer control in his teaching but also should use computers to operate his research equipment.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 463.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The identification of vegetable oils: A gas chromatographic experiment  Cover, Richard E.
In this procedure the student is given a sample of oil which he saponifies and then esterfies to form the methyl esters of the fatty acids; the esters are then extracted, concentrated, and identified through gas chromatography.
Cover, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 120.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis
Theory and applications of thermistors  Boucher, E. A.
Examines semiconductor theory and the manufacture, characteristics, and uses of thermistors.
Boucher, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A935.
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 3. Some specific types of calorimeters (conclusion)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the topics of solution calorimetry, microcalorimetry, dynamic calorimetry, and the instrumentation used to conduct these analyses.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A853.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry: Part two. Some associated measurements (cont.)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the measurement of electricity, calorimetric standards, solution calorimetry, and specific types of calorimeters.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A685.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry (continued) Part 2. Some associated measurements  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Topics examined include thermocouples, resistance thermometers, thermistors, and quartz crystal thermometers.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A629.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 1. Introductory survey of calorimetry  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Explores the scope and purpose of calorimetric investigation, types of calorimeters, areas of calorimetric investigation and the procedures and calculations involved.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A571.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modern laboratory balances  Hirsch, Roland F.
Examines the theory behind the operation of lever-arm balances and their methods of operation.
Hirsch, Roland F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1023.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
X-ray diffraction analysis Part 2. X-ray tubes and monochromatization  Rudman, Reuben
Examines X-ray diffraction tubes, beta-filters, pulse-height analysis, and crystal monochromators.
Rudman, Reuben J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A99.
X-ray Crystallography |
Instrumental Methods
Avoiding parallax error when reading a mercury manometer  Carroll, H. L.
This short note describes a simple method employing graph paper to avoid parallax error when reading a mercury manometer.
Carroll, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 763.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A modular system for teaching instrumental chemical analysis  Morgenthaler, L. P.
Identifies eight experiments performed using modular equipment in an instrumental analysis course.
Morgenthaler, L. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 325.
Instrumental Methods
Condensed norms: ACS cooperative examinations  
Provides norms for the 1966 ACS high school, inorganic, instrumental analysis, and quantitative analysis chemistry tests.
J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 243.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart two  Kahn, Herbert L.
Considers sources of atomic absorption, single-element hollow cathodes, manufacturers and lamp life, vapor discharge lamps, multi-element lamps, high brightness lamps, monochromators and detectors, and flame emission operation.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A103.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart one  Kahn, Herbert L.
Examines the advantages, analytical possibilities, interferences, sensitivities, and instrumental systems of atomic absorption.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A7.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Multiple-scan infrared interference spectroscopy  Low, Manfred J. D.
Describes the design, operation, and application of a multiple-scan Michelson interference spectrometer.
Low, Manfred J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 637.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A simple variable speed wavelength drive  Harrison, W. W.; Norvelle, A. W., Jr.
Describes a simple variable speed wavelength drive designed for use with a Beckman DU.
Harrison, W. W.; Norvelle, A. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 598.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumental Methods of Analysis (Willard, Hobart H.; Merritt, Lynne L., Jr.; Dean, John A.)  Safford, H. W.

Safford, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 506.
Instrumental Methods
A simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis  Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A.
Present a circuit diagram and describes typical applications of a simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis.
Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 428.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Hollahan, John R.
The technique in the cited article is not a new one.
Hollahan, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 392.
Instrumental Methods
Letter to the editor  Gleit, Chester F.
The technique in the cited article is not a new one.
Gleit, Chester F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 392.
Instrumental Methods
Systems for automatic direct readout of rate data  Malmstadt, H. V.; Crouch, S. R.
Presents three systems for rate measurements that are based on comparison measurement principles.
Malmstadt, H. V.; Crouch, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 340.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Rate Law
Xylene analysis: Integrated experiment in instrumental analysis  Hanrahan, E. S.
Xylene containing major amounts of ethylbenzene, toluene, and three xylene isomers, is analyzed using infrared and gas chromatographic analysis.
Hanrahan, E. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 321.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds
Dependence of the Beer-Lambert absorption law on monochromatic radiation: An experiment of spectrophotometry  Wentworth, Wayne E.
The purpose of this paper is to present an experiment that clearly emphasizes the necessity of using monochromatic radiation.
Wentworth, Wayne E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 262.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Interferometric spectroscopy in the far infrared  Hurley, William J.
Examines interferometric spectroscopy instrumentation, interferograms, interferometry versus conventional spectroscopy, and some chemical applications of interferometric spectroscopy.
Hurley, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 236.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Instructional NMR instrument  Proffitt, Michael H.; Gardiner, W. C., Jr.
Presents circuit diagrams for the components of an instructional NMR instrument.
Proffitt, Michael H.; Gardiner, W. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 152.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart Five  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines double-imaging, surface profile, and standards microscopes, as well as oculars, body tubes, objectives, and stages.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A945.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart four  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines types of compound microscopes and micrometer-equiped microscopes.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A853.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopy. Part three  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines optical principles of the compound microscope, the role of the eye, the process of visual magnification, image quality, resolution versus magnification, and microscope objective and ocular lenses.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A775.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart 2  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines dispersion, chromatic aberration and correction, highly corrected magnifiers, limitations of single lenses, and the compound microscope.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A619.
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopy  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines types of magnifiers, the biconvex lens and its applications, magnification, depth of focus, limitations of simple lenses, and spherical correction and aberration.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A565.
Instrumental Methods
Elementary infrared spectroscopy (Meloan, Clifton E.)  Cooke, W. D.

Cooke, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A492.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation for electrodeposition and coulometryPart two  Lott, Peter F.
Examines all-electronic potentiostats, constant current coulometry, galvanostats, and a microcoulometric titration system.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A361.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Instrumentation for electrodeposition and coulometryPart one  Lott, Peter F.
Examines electrodeposition, controlled potential analysis, potentiostats, and other electromechanical devices.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A261.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Luminous gas light sources  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines luminous gas behavior, glow discharge tubes, high intensity glow discharge lamps, electronic flask tubes, and arc discharge lamps.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A165.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis  van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F.
Presents the design and an evaluation of performance for a simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis.
van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Use of polychromatic radiation in absorption photometry  Strong, Frederick C., III
Proportionality between concentration and absorbance (Beer's Law) requires approximately monochromatic radiation to the extent that the variation of absorptivities with wavelength results in less error than other instrumental and chemical errors.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 342.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Several designs for constructing potentiometers  Battino, Rubin
This paper describes several designs for constructing inexpensive potentiometers that possess a practical degree of precision.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 211.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modular instrumentation in analytical chemistry  Ewing, Galen W.
It is the purpose of this paper to describe an approach to modular instrumentation in analytical chemistry in which students complete the assembly of partially assembled instruments.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 32.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines computer systems, search procedures, microfilm storage, and future developments.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A921.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Mechanical aids for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectral data  Slavin Donald G.
Examines the topics of spectral-structure correlation charts, book indices, the operation of "Spec-Finder," punched card identification systems, edge punched cards, and optical coincidence systems.
Slavin Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A827.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Apparatus for large scale gas chromatography  Bayer, Ernst
Examines the design and operation of large scale gas chromatography columns.
Bayer, Ernst J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A755.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part three: Miscellaneous  Eisner, Leonard
Considers magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, atomic beam spectroscopy, mass spectrometers, chromatography, electrochemistry, electron diffraction, field emission microscopes, glass blowing and vacuum systems, high and low temperatures, and ultrasonics.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A607.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Magnetic Properties |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part one: Optical devices (continued)  Eisner, Leonard
Examines lasers used as instrumental teaching equipment.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A551.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part one: Optical devices  Eisner, Leonard
Examines the attributes of teaching equipment, teaching fundamental principles, optics and spectroscopy, and spectroscopic equipment of modular design.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A491.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy
Instrumentation for fluorometry. Part two  Lott, Peter F.
Examines a variety of fluorometers, including filter fluorometers.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A421.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Mass spectrometry, part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Considers the applications of mass spectrometry and various commercial mass spectrometers.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A153.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Examines the theory of mass spectroscopy and factors that influence mass spectra.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A75.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Adaptation of a Sargent polarograph to a pen recording instrument  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This brief note describes the adaptation of a Sargent polarograph to a pen recording instrument.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 632.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Demonstrating Job's method with colorimeter or spectrophotometer  Carmody, Walter R.
Presents a method for demonstrating Job's method of continuous variations with a colorimeter or spectrophotometer.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 615.
Instrumental Methods |
Coordination Compounds
Interpretation of mass spectra of organic compounds (Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Djerassi, Carl; Williams, Dudley H.)  Silverstein, Robert M.

Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 464.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Modified single deflection weighing  Knudson, George E.
Describes a single deflection method of weighing using older, double pan balances.
Knudson, George E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 449.
Instrumental Methods
Construction of a simple refractometer: A chemical instrumentation experiment  Coe, Gordon R.; Conlon, Ralph D.; Dessy, Raymond E.
The construction of a simple refractometer can be used as an experiment to teach basic concepts of instrumentation.
Coe, Gordon R.; Conlon, Ralph D.; Dessy, Raymond E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 337.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A versatile and inexpensive controlled potential polarographic analyzer  Enke, C. G.; Baxter, R. A.
The instrument described in this article was built to be used for basic research in nonaqueous and ac polarography and for instruction in polarographic principles and techniques in introductory and advanced analytical chemistry laboratories.
Enke, C. G.; Baxter, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 202.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Emission spectroscopy. Part one  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H.
Examines the general principles of emission spectroscopy, quantitative analysis through emission spectroscopy, and excitation sources.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A927.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
A text-book of quantitative inorganic analysis including elementary instrumental analysis (Vogel, Arthur I.)  Welcher, Frank J.

Welcher, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A68.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive spectrograph of moderately high resolution  Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D.
This article describes a spectrograph with a resolving power greater than 6000 that can easily be built for a minimal cost.
Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 452.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electronics for scientists: Principles and experiments for those who use instruments (Malmstadt, H. V.; Enke, C. G.; Toren, E. C., Jr.)  Moorhead, E. D.

Moorhead, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 335.
Instrumental Methods
A glass electrode pH meter using a vacuum tube voltmeter  Brower, Harold E.
A simple pH meter can be constructed using a vacuum tube voltmeter.
Brower, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 85.
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
A modular approach to chemical instrumentation  Wise, Edward N.
Suggests a modular approach to assist students in acquiring familiarity with the application of instrumental principles.
Wise, Edward N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 73.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Instrumentation based on operational amplifiers (Part II)  Reilley, C. N.
Examines standard voltage sources, differential operational amplifiers, consecutive circuits, and the solution of equations through op amp circuitry.
Reilley, C. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A933.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introduction to chemical instrumentation: Electronic signals and operations (Bair, Edward J.)  Tabbutt, Frederick

Tabbutt, Frederick J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A684.
Instrumental Methods
Electroanalytical instrumentation  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines photographic and pen recording DC polarographs produced by various manufacturers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A445.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Electroanalytical instrumentation (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines polarographic instruments and their components and processes, including the slidewire, the galvanometer, damping, the shunt, and manual polarographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A355.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Electroanalytical Instrumentation  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers types of electrochemical techniques; principles of instrumentation; power supplies, their controllers and programmers; and detection circuitry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Gas chromatographs (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the read-out, zero suppression, read-out of peak areas, ball-and-disc integrator, electromagnetic integrators, all-electronic integrators, digital integrators, and various commercial, laboratory gas chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A161.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operating characteristics of the gas chromatography detector and various types of detectors, including thermal and flame conductivity detectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A83.
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatographs (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the nature of the packing in a gas chromatograph and its effects on the performance of the instrument.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A5.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Experiments and equipment for teaching chemical instrumentation  Tabbutt, Frederick D.
Examines a variety of instruments and their application in an instrumental course.
Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 611.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simplified atomic absorption spectrophotometer  Rechnitz, Garry A.
This paper presents a simple atomic absorption spectrophotometer that can be constructed from inexpensive and readily available components.
Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 475.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
An X-Y recorder for reading a meter: A photoelectric scanning device  Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B.
Describes the design and operation of an automatic photoelectric scanning device that serves as an X-Y recorder.
Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 314.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Potentiometric determination of Kw with the glass electrode  Liberti, Arnaldo; Light, Truman S.
Presents a potentiometric method for determining the ionization product of water in a constant ionic medium.
Liberti, Arnaldo; Light, Truman S. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 236.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Gas Chromatographs  Lewin, S. Z.
Topics examined include carrier gas, flow control, sample injection, and chromatographic columns.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A869.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Chromatographic equipment (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines high voltage pherographs, column electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatographs, photometric effluent sensing systems, and refractometric effluent sensors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A789.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: design considerations for stabilized medium pherographs, specialized types of pherographs, continuous flow electrochromatographs, the continuous flow chromatograph, and fraction collectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A713.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines ascending, descending, and horizontal paper chromatographs; and centrifugally-, thermally-, and electrilytically-accelerated chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A567.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Chomatographic Equipment  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: selectivity in the distribution of components between two phases, chromatographic development, types of chromatographic systems, the production of counter-current flow, the scale of chromatographic separations, the components of chromatographs, the two-phase system, and containers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A515.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Nuclear Radiation Detectors  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines electroscopes, ion chambers, Geiger-Mueller counters, scintillation detectors, and the voltage characteristics of detectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A135.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Infrared spectrometers (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of various commercial models of infrared spectrometers and a flame photometer.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A71.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy
A titration controller for demonstrating the behavior of acid-base indicators  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a device that permits the automatic back-and-forth titration with acid and alkali of a solution containing an appropriate indicator.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 633.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
An inexpensive versatile multi-column gas chromatograph for students  Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A.
Presents the design of a multi-column, gas chromatography unit constructed from common laboratory materials.
Sicilio, F.; Bull, H., III; Palmer, R. C.; Knight, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 506.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments for Instrumental Methods (Reilley, Charles N.; Sawyer, Donald T.)  Tabbutt, Frederick D.

Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 481.
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive coulometer for titrations with externally generated reagents  Head, William F., Jr.; Marsh, Max M.
Describes the design and use of an inexpensive coulometer for titrations with externally generated reagents.
Head, William F., Jr.; Marsh, Max M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 361.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The turbidimetric determination of lead  Perkins, Gerald, Jr.; Wimberley, J. W.; Lamb, J. F.; Maurer, L. E.
Describes the turbidimetric determination of lead precipitated with molybdate.
Perkins, Gerald, Jr.; Wimberley, J. W.; Lamb, J. F.; Maurer, L. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 358.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Infrared Spectrometers  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the components of infrared spectrometers and some commercial devices.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A781.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Spectrophotometers (cont'd)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the various components and operating characteristics of the Beckman Model DU.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A455.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Spectrophotometers  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the important components and operating characteristics of spectrophotometers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A401.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photometers and colorimeters (cont'd)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines vacuum phototube photometers, photomultiplier tube photometers, instruments for color specification, and tristmulus colorimetry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A271.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Photometers and Colorimeters  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines visual photometers, photovoltaic cell photometers, and photovoltaic cell circuitry.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, A197.
Instrumental Methods
Inexpensive polarimeter for demonstrations and student use  Garvin, James E.
This paper describes an easily assembled and inexpensive polarimeter and reports some results of its use in student experiments.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 515.
Instrumental Methods
Research-oriented experiments in instrumental analysis  Sawyer, Donald T; Reilley, Charles N.
These experiments have been designed not only to illustrate analytical applications for instruments but also, whenever possible, to apply instrumental methods to the evaluation of physical chemical data.
Sawyer, Donald T; Reilley, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 400.
Undergraduate Research |
Instrumental Methods
Building a high-frequency titrator for instructional use  Clinkscales, J. K., Jr.; Frye, Herschel
Describes the design and operating characteristics of a high-frequency titrator for instructional use.
Clinkscales, J. K., Jr.; Frye, Herschel J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 304.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A semiautomatic polarograph: A low cost instrument for student use  Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B.
Presents the design of a semiautomatic polarograph suitable for introductory analytical chemistry.
Drake, G. Wilson; Johnston, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 240.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A demonstration polarimeter  Spear, Carleton S.
Describes the construction of a simple polarimeter that can be constructed by students for use in laboratory experiments.
Spear, Carleton S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 203.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurements  Schmitt, Robert H.; Grove, E. L.
This brief note describes an inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurements.
Schmitt, Robert H.; Grove, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 150.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Instrumental Methods
Recording devices  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the basic design, construction, and operation of instrumental recording devices.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A729.
Instrumental Methods
pH meters (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers the standardization, calibration, and testing of pH meters, as well as Beckman pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A595.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calibration
Centrifuges  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operating characteristics and components of centrifuges.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A269.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Balances (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of single pan, constant-load balances and recording balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A67.
Instrumental Methods
Balances  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design, characteristics, and operation of various balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A7.
Instrumental Methods
Use of radioisotopes in the college chemistry laboratory  Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H.
Provides experiments and experiences working with constructed Geiger counters and radioisotopes.
Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 133.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Kinetics
Balance instruction by television  Hayes, John R.; Schempf, John M.; Murnin, Joseph A.
Describes the authors' experience in using closed circuit television to teach students in quantitative analysis the technique of weighing with the analytical balance.
Hayes, John R.; Schempf, John M.; Murnin, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 615.
Instrumental Methods
A compact low-cost electrodeposition apparatus  Cook, Clarence L.
Briefly describes a compact low-cost electrodeposition apparatus.
Cook, Clarence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 280.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A portable mixture colorimeter of high absolute accuracy  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
The equipment described is designed to provide a more rapid and uniform mixing of solutions, allows the use of equal volumes, and requires only one Beckman thermometer.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An experiment in flame photometry  Willard, H. H.; Van Lente, K. A.; Van Atta, R. E.
The main objective of this experiment is to introduce to the student the fundamental qualitative and quantitative aspects of flame photometry.
Willard, H. H.; Van Lente, K. A.; Van Atta, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 192.
Instrumental Methods
A combined oscillator, amplifier, and power supply for conductance bridges  Loytty, O. M.; McCarren, E. F., Jr.; Vernon, A. A.
Describes the investigation, development, and operation of a combined oscillator, amplifier, and power supply for conductance bridges.
Loytty, O. M.; McCarren, E. F., Jr.; Vernon, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 190.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
The use of nephelometric measurements to determine the presence of chelates: A laboratory experiment for an instrumental course  Land, James E.
The experiment presented here has been developed to teach the art and practice of nephelometry and to show the student an application of Job's method of continuous variations to the demonstration of the constitution of an inorganic compound.
Land, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 38.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods
An automatic still-head timer  Binder, L. O.
Presents a schematic diagram for an automatic timer.
Binder, L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 591.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Survey of methods for routine analysis of inorganic chemicals in industrial laboratories  Glasoe, Paul K.
The results of a survey to acquire information on the extent to which instrumentation is used in routine chemical analysis in industrial laboratories.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 441.
Instrumental Methods |
Industrial Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Electronics instruction in the instrumental analysis course  Safford, Hurd W.
Presents lecture demonstrations, group laboratory demonstrations, and the construction and testing of basic instruments.
Safford, Hurd W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 436.
Instrumental Methods
Experience in the teaching of spectrochemical analysis  Devries, Thomas
The purpose of this paper is to present some ideas and relate experiences that may encourage others to include emission spectroscopy in the curriculum.
Devries, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 430.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The recording potentiometer: Its use in the analytical chemistry laboratory  Ewing, Galen W.
Reviews types of recording potentiometers and their applications in the analytical chemistry laboratory.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 424.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Instrumental methods in analytical curricula  Kolthoff, I. M.
Every student in chemistry should be made acquainted with classical methods of instrumental analysis.
Kolthoff, I. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 423.
Instrumental Methods
Introductory remarks  Laitinen, H. A.
Introductory remarks to symposium on problems in the teaching of instrumental analysis.
Laitinen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 422.
Instrumental Methods
A gas-density balance for student use  Werner, A. E.
Describes a gas-density balance robust enough for student use
Werner, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 393.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Blake, G. G.
The author comments on the lack of credit received in the reference list of a previous article.
Blake, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 52.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Investigation of complex metal ions by the polarographic method  Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper is to present in a simplified and readily understandable manner the outline of one of the instrumental methods that, in recent years, has become an increasingly prominent tool in the investigation of complex metal ions.
Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 557.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An inexpensive portable electroanalyzer  Farrington, Paul S.; Pecsok, Robert L.
Describes the design and operating characteristics of an electrolytic analyzer.
Farrington, Paul S.; Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 461.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
An interferometer  Malik, Jim G.; Speirs, John L.; Rogers, Max T.
Presents the general theory of interferometery, its uses, and a description of a constructed instrument and its operation.
Malik, Jim G.; Speirs, John L.; Rogers, Max T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Some uses of radio service kits in teaching quantitative analysis  Phillips, John P.
The problem of obtaining inexpensive and practical instruments to supplement conventional equipment specifically designed for chemical purposes has been partially solved by the purchase of radio service instrument kits.
Phillips, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 70.
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Instructional error in quantitative analysis  Blaedel, W. J.; Jefferson, J. H.; Knight, H. T.
Instructional error is that which is beyond the control of students in making quantitative analyses; illustrates this in the determination of chloride as silver chloride.
Blaedel, W. J.; Jefferson, J. H.; Knight, H. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 480.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Electrolysis with controlled cathode potentials  Foster, Duncan G.
This paper describes the construction of an instrument for the control of a cathode's potential during an electrolysis procedure (a potentiostat) and its use in a quantitative analysis laboratory.
Foster, Duncan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
A course in instrumental analysis  Bassett, Lewis G.; Harley, J. H.; Wiberley, S. E.
A course in instrumental analysis can be conveniently divided into three parts: absorption spectroscopy (including fluorometry), emission spectroscopy, and electrometric procedures. This paper considers each of these fields and discusses student experiments in some detail.
Bassett, Lewis G.; Harley, J. H.; Wiberley, S. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 466.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy