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Journal Articles: 52 results
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs  Linda S. Brunauer and Kathryn K. Davis
Describes an experiment in which students use column chromatography to separate and characterize biomolecules, thus expanding their exposure to chromatographic procedures beyond those more commonly employed at the secondary level (e.g., paper or thin-layer chromatography).
Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 683.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Enzymes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents  Beverly Cochran, Deborah Lunday, and Frank Miskevich
This laboratory emphasizes that enzymes mediate the conversion of a substrate into a product and that either the concentration of product or reactant may be used to follow the course of a reaction. It does so by using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity through the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose.
Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 401.
Biosynthesis |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
OMLeT—An Alternative Approach to Learning Metabolism: Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle as an Example  Charles M. Stevens, Dylan M. Silver, Brad Behm, Raymond J. Turner, and Michael G. Surette
Using PHP Hypertext Preprocessor scripting, the dynamic OMLeT (Online Metabolism Learning Tool) Web site is geared towards different learning styles and allows the student to process metabolic pathways (glycolysis and TCA cycle) via a user-defined approach.
Stevens, Charles M.; Silver, Dylan M.; Behm, Brad; Turner, Raymond J.; Surette, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2024.
Bioenergetics |
Enzymes |
Learning Theories |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides
Biochemical View: A Web Site Providing Material for Teaching Biochemistry Using Multiple Approaches  Fernanda C. Dórea, Higor S. Rodrigues, Oscar M. M. Lapouble, Márcio R. Pereira, Mariana S. Castro, and Wagner Fontes
Biochemical View is a free, full access Web site whose main goals are to complement existing biochemistry instruction and materials, provide material to teachers preparing conventional and online courses, and popularize the use of these resources in undergraduate courses.
Dórea, Fernanda C.; Rodrigues, Higor S.; Lapouble, Oscar M. M.; Pereira, Márcio R.; Castro, Mariana S.; Fontes, Wagner. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1866.
Amino Acids |
Bioenergetics |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Glycolysis |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
Receptor Surface Models in the Classroom: Introducing Molecular Modeling to Students in a 3-D World  Werner J. Geldenhuys, Michael Hayes, Cornelis J. Van der Schyf, David D. Allen, and Sarel F. Malan
Proposes a novel method for teaching drug interactions with a receptor, enzyme, or any other macromolecule or protein using plastic molecular models and aluminum foil.
Geldenhuys, Werner J.; Hayes, Michael; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J.; Allen, David D.; Malan, Sarel F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 979.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes
Applications of Reaction Rate  Kevin Cunningham
This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. The assignment is designed to develop and assess a number of valuable skills and understandings, including the ability to write effectively.
Cunningham, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 430.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment Using Laccase for General Chemistry   Yaqi Lin and Patrick M. Lloyd
This article describes the use of laccase, an oxidoreductase enzyme, to study the effects of enzyme catalysts on reaction rates.
Lin, Yaqi; Lloyd, Patrick M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 638.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Brewing Science in the Chemistry Laboratory: A "Mashing" Investigation of Starch and Carbohydrates  Michael W. Pelter and Jennifer McQuade
This experiment is an investigation of the chemistry and processes involved in "mashing". Crushed malted barley is mixed with hot water and the progress of the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch is monitored using a simple iodine test.
Pelter, Michael W.; McQuade, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1811.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
Some Like It Cold: A Computer-Based Laboratory Introduction to Sequence and Tertiary Structure Comparison of Cold-Adapted Lactate Dehydrogenases Using Bioinformatics Tools  M. Sue Lowery and Leigh A. Plesniak
Students download sequences and structures from appropriate databases, create sequence alignments, and carry out molecular modeling exercises, and then form hypotheses about the mechanism of biochemical adaptation for function and stability. This laboratory is appropriate for biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory courses, special topics, and advanced biochemistry lecture courses, and can be adapted for honors high school programs.
Lowery, M. Sue; Plesniak, Leigh A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1300.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of a Racemic Ester and Its Lipase–Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution  Delia Stetca, Isabel W. C. E. Arends, and Ulf Hanefeld
Reaction sequence to familiarize first-year students with the use of enzymes in organic chemistry.
Stetca, Delia; Arends, Isabel W. C. E.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1351.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Enantiomers |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Introducing Freshmen Students to the Practice of Solid-Phase Synthesis  Alpay Taralp, Can Hulusi Türkseven, Atilla Özgür Çakmak, and Ömer Çengel
Procedure to introduce freshmen to the principles and practice of solid-phase (peptide) synthesis.
Taralp, Alpay; Türkseven, Can Hulusi; Çakmak, Atilla Özgür; Çengel, Ömer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 87.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Undergraduate Research
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
A Modification of a Lactase Experiment by Use of Commercial Test Strips  Tammy J. Melton
Using urinalysis test strips to detect the presence of glucose.
Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1243.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
Chemistry and Flatulence: An Introductory Enzyme Experiment  John R. Hardee, Tina M. Montgomery, and Wray H. Jones
An enzyme experiment using raffinose family sugars extracted from green split peas as a substrate and the enzymes alpha-galactosidase and sucrase found in Beano. The reaction studied was the hydrolysis of raffinose family sugars to galactose, glucose, and fructose, and the reaction rate was determined using a retail glucometer to measure the concentration of glucose.
Hardee, John R.; Montgomery, Tina M.; Jones, Wray H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 498.
Nonmajor Courses |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Soup or Salad? Investigating the Action of Enzymes in Fruit on Gelatin  Erica Jacobsen
Some fruits contain proteases, a group of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of peptide linkages in proteins. This can have an undesired effect in a gelatin salad containing fruit, because proteases in the fruit can cleave the proteins that make up the structure of gelatin so that it will not set.
Jacobsen, Erica. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 624A.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
An Alternative Procedure for the Glucose Oxidase Assay of Glucose as Applied to the Lactase Activity Assay  T. Corbin Mullis, Jeffery T. Winge, and S. Todd Deal
The glucose oxidase assay of glucose has been modified to eliminate the use of micropipets. The modification involves the use of disposable Pasteur pipets and a specified number of drops of each reagent. This simplified technique gives accurate and reproducible results.
Mullis, T. Corbin; Winge, Jeffery T.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1711.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The o-Phenylenediamine-Horseradish Peroxidase System: Enzyme Kinetics in the General Chemistry Laboratory  T. M. Hamilton, A. A. Dobie-Galuska, and S. M. Wietstock
The purpose of the experiment is to measure the kinetic parameters in the oxidative coupling reaction of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) to 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP), a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP).
Hamilton, Todd M.; Dobie-Galuska, A. A.; Wietstock, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 642.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Immobilized Lactase in the Biochemistry Laboratory  Matthew J. Allison and C. Larry Bering
Lactase from over-the-counter tablets for patients with lactose intolerance is immobilized in polyacrylamide, which is then milled into small beads and placed into a chromatography column. A lactose solution is added to the column and the eluant is assayed using the glucose oxidase assay, available as a kit.
Allison, Matthew J.; Bering, C. Larry. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1278.
Enzymes |
Biotechnology
Enzyme-Linked Antibodies: A Laboratory Introduction to the ELISA  Gretchen L. Anderson and Leo A. McNellis
A fast and economical laboratory exercise is presented that qualitatively demonstrates the power of enzyme-linked antibodies to detect a specific antigen. Although ELISAs are commonly used in disease diagnosis in clinical settings, this application uses biotin, covalently attached to albumin, to take advantage of readily available reagents and avoids problems associated with potentially pathogenic antigens.
Anderson, Gretchen L.; McNellis, Leo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1275.
Enzymes |
Nonmajor Courses |
Medicinal Chemistry
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Detection of Catalysis by Taste  Robert M. Richman
The addition of Lactaid to milk will cause the milk to taste sweet due to the hydrolysis of lactose; this can be detected by students drinking milk that has been treated with this catalyst.
Richman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 315.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Two Simulations for Windows: Abstract of Volume 5D, Number 1  
Enzyme Lab: A Virtual Lab for Enzyme kinetics, and Lake Study for Windows.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 871.
Enzymes
Blood or Taco Sauce?: The Chemistry behind Criminalists' Testimony in the O. J. Simpson Murder Case  Donald B. DuPré
A presumptive test for blood using phenolphthalein and hydrogen peroxide was mentioned on several occasions in the murder trial of O. J. Simpson. The chemistry behind this test, along with cautions as to false positives, is discussed for use as a relevant and newsworthy lecture topic or demonstration in general chemistry or biochemistry.
DuPré, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 60.
Enzymes
Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning Reaction by Sulfite  Kim, Hie-Joon
Laboratory procedure for demonstrating the function of sulfite as an effective food additive.
Kim, Hie-Joon J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 242.
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry
Enzyme activity: The ping-pong ball torture analogy  Helser, Terry L.
The author uses this analogy to help students visualize and understand the effect of reaction conditions on the initial rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 137.
Enzymes |
Reactions
Enzyme activity: A simple analogy   Abel, Kenton B.; Halenz, Donald R.
Presented here is a simple analogy that has helped students in our classes grasp the concept of enzyme activity
Abel, Kenton B.; Halenz, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 9.
Enzymes
Substitution of volumetric for gravimetric methods and other improvements in a new molar volume-molar mass experiment  Bedenbaugh, John H.; Bedenbaugh, Angela O.; Heard, Thomas S.
Improvements on an earlier procedure for the quantitative decomposition of 3% hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.
Bedenbaugh, John H.; Bedenbaugh, Angela O.; Heard, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 679.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Enzymes |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Enzyme technology: A practical topic in basic chemical education   Grunwald, Peter
This article elucidates how a new important field of development and research like biotechnology can be integrated into a normal chemistry course.
Grunwald, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 775.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Biotechnology
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Biochemistry off the shelf  Wilson, Jerry L.
Rather than using animal sources for biochemistry experiments, non-animal sources are inexpensive, readily available, and require no special storage.
Wilson, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 796.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids |
Metabolism
A useful model for the "lock and key" analogy  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
A model that nicely illustrates this principle is the "SOMA" puzzle cube.
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 967.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Recognition |
Enzymes
Making candy with enzymes  Kirschenbaum, Donald M.
How is a liquid-center, chocolate-covered cherry made?
Kirschenbaum, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 652.
Enzymes |
Food Science
Catalysis  Kolb, Doris
Definitions for and history of catalysts, speeding up chemical reactions, enzymes, and industrial catalysis.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 743.
Catalysis |
Rate Law |
Enzymes |
Industrial Chemistry
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
Tyrosinase. An introductory experiment with enzymes  Friedman, Michael E.; Daron, Harlow H.
Uses potatoes, apples, bananas, and mushrooms of sources of tyrosinase, which turns brown melanin when exposed to oxygen.
Friedman, Michael E.; Daron, Harlow H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 256.
Enzymes |
Catalysis
New skeletal-space-filling models. A model of an enzyme active site  Clarke, Frank H.
Reviews the molecular modeling systems available for representing organic and biochemical structures; includes requirements and coordinates for a model of the alpha chymotrypsin active site.
Clarke, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 230.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Recognition
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
284-289. Six questions and their answers on practical applications of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 161.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
216-219. Four questions applying chemistry and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 807.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Enzymes |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
175-179. Five ecological chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 171.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes
The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate. A freshman class investigation  Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H.
A study of the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate is made the basis of a biochemistry-oriented quarter in freshman chemistry; after completing the simple hydrolysis studies, the student proceeds to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate.
Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 126.
Reactions |
pH |
Esters |
Enzymes |
Catalysis
A demonstration of enzyme activity for the "Sceptical Chymist"  Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret
A simple laboratory or demonstration that illustrates the nature and fundamental properties of enzymes through a color change.
Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 847.
Enzymes |
Rate Law
Simple method for demonstrating an enzymatic reaction  Tang, Chung-Shih
Uses taste sensations of papaya seeds under varying conditions to demonstrate an enzymatic reaction.
Tang, Chung-Shih J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 692.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Food Science |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Hydrogen sulfide under any other name still smells. A poisonous story  Brasted, Robert C.
The chemistry of hydrogen sulfide affords an excellent opportunity to integrate descriptive inorganic and coordination chemistry with biochemistry.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 574.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Disposable macromolecular model "kits"  Nicholson, Isadore
A brief note suggesting the use of colored pipe cleaners for the construction of three dimensional models of polymers, particularly enzymes and other proteins.
Nicholson, Isadore J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 671.
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
The principle of exponential change: Applications in chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity  Green, Frank O.
Examines the nature of exponential change and its applications to chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity, including radioactive decay, enzyme kinetics, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and first order reaction kinetics.
Green, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 451.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
VI - Biochemistry in the introductory college chemistry course  Sturtevant, Julian M.
To whatever extent one wishes in the introductory chemistry course to stimulate students' interest in the subject, it seems important to include illustrations of the role chemical progress plays in biology.
Sturtevant, Julian M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 184.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioenergetics
Enzymes and metaphor  Asimov, Isaac
Asimov provides a series of metaphors useful in helping students to understand the action of enzymes and catalysts in general.
Asimov, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 535.
Enzymes |
Catalysis