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Journal Articles: 102 results
The Electrochemical Synthesis of Transition-Metal Acetylacetonates  S. R. Long, S. R. Browning, and J. J. Lagowski
The electrochemical synthesis of transition-metal acetylacetonates can assist in the transformation of an entry-level laboratory course into a research-like environment where all members of a class are working on the same problem, but each student has a personal responsibility for the synthesis and characterization of a specific compound.
Long, S. R.; Browning, S. R.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1429.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Introducing Undergraduate Students to Electrochemistry: A Two-Week Discovery Chemistry Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills, Richard S. Herrick, Louise W. Guilmette, Lisa P. Nestor, Heather Shafer, and Mauri A. Ditzler,
Within the framework of a laboratory-focused, guided-inquiry pedagogy, students discover the Nernst equation, the spontaneity of galvanic cells, concentration cells, and the use of electrochemical data to calculate equilibrium constants.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Herrick, Richard S.; Guilmette, Louise W.; Nestor, Lisa P.; Shafer, Heather;Ditzler, Mauri A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1116.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery  Hiromasa Goto, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Fumihiro Togashi, Reina Ohta, Akitsu Tsujimoto, Eiji Kita, and Ken-ichi Ohshima
The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level.
Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1067.
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
Metal Electrodeposition on an Integrated, Screen-Printed Electrode Assembly  Yieu Chyan and Oliver Chyan
Screen-printed, carbon strip electrodes illustrate the essential concepts of electrochemistry and electrodeposition; their light weight facilitates sensitive measurements of electrodeposited metal, allowing for the exploration of Faraday's law and electrodeposition efficiency.
Chyan, Yieu; Chyan, Oliver. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 565.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
Electrochemical Polishing of Silverware: A Demonstration of Voltaic and Galvanic Cells  Michelle M. Ivey and Eugene T. Smith
Using a battery and a graphite electrode, an electrolytic cell is constructed to generate a layer of tarnish on silverware. Students then determine that the tarnish can be removed by electrochemically converting it back to silver using aluminum foil and baking soda.
Ivey, Michelle M.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 68.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Redox Titration of Ferricyanide to Ferrocyanide with Ascorbic Acid: Illustrating the Nernst Equation and Beer–Lambert Law  Tina H. Huang, Gail Salter, Sarah L. Kahn, and Yvonne M. Gindt
In this simple experiment, which illustrates the Nernst equation and BeerLambert law, students monitor the reduction of ferricyanide ion to ferrocyanide electrochemically and spectrophoto-metrically upon titration with ascorbic acid. The Nernst equation is used to calculate the standard reduction potential of the redox couple at pH 7 and the number of electrons transferred.
Huang, Tina H.; Salter, Gail; Kahn, Sarah L.; Gindt, Yvonne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1461.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Potentiometry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Textbook Error: Short Circuiting an Electrochemical Cell  Judith M. Bonicamp and Roy W. Clark
Reports a serious error in the electrochemical diagrams in eight, 21st century texts and offers an analogy to electrical potential energy and a diagram to clarify the interrelationships between electromotive force E, reaction quotient Q, and Gibbs free energy G.
Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 731.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc–Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes  Masahiro Kamata and Miei Paku
Describes a new educational experiment using low-cost zincair batteries and current regulative diode arrays to quickly confirm Faraday's law of electrolysis.
Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 674.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
Small-Scale and Low-Cost Electrodes for "Standard" Reduction Potential Measurements  Per-Odd Eggen, Lise Kvittingen, and Truls Grønneberg
This article describes how to construct three simple and inexpensive, microchemistry electrodes: hydrogen, chlorine, and copper.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Grønneberg, Truls; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Student-Centered Learning
Introducing New Learning Tools into a Standard Classroom: A Multi-Tool Approach to Integrating Fuel-Cell Concepts into Introductory College Chemistry   Matthew J. DAmato, Kenneth W. Lux, Kenneth A. Walz, Holly Walter Kerby, and Barbara Anderegg
Describes an approach to deliver the science and engineering concepts involved in fuel-cell technology to the introductory college chemistry classroom using traditional lectures, multimedia learning objects, and a lab activity to enhance student learning in a hands-on, interactive manner.
DAmato, Matthew J.; Lux, Kenneth W.; Walz, Kenneth A.; Kerby, Holly Walter; Anderegg, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 248.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Membranes
An Easy Way to Personalize Your Iron or Stainless Steel Items  Ejaz ur Rehman
Describes a simple and useful method for permanently labeling metallic items by the application of alternating current through a mask.
Rehman, Ejaz ur. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 40.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Effectiveness of Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy To Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya, Musa Üce, Hakan Sariçayir, and Musa Sahin
This article presents efforts to develop a conceptual change-oriented strategy to teaching galvanic cells in electrochemistry. The objective is to assess the effectiveness of conceptual change-oriented instruction relative to conventional instruction using statistical comparisons.
Özkaya, Ali Riza; Üce, Musa; Sariçayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1719.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Electropolymerized Conducting Polymer as Actuator and Sensor Device: An Undergraduate Electrochemical Laboratory Experiment  María T. Cortés and Juan C. Moreno
A trilayer formed by two conducting polymer films sandwiched around an adhesive polymer layer works as actuator and sensor simultaneously. This device can be bent up to 180 and it can be used as a sensing device of physical chemistry parameters such as cell temperature and electrolyte concentration. In this article, it is shown in a didactic way how to electrochemically synthesize ClO4-doped polypyrrole (PPy) films, how to fabricate a trilayer device, and how to evaluate its actuating and sensing capabilities. The required materials are simple and a complicated setup is not necessary.
Cortés, María T.; Moreno, Juan C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1372.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Polymerization |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices To Teach Materials Science  Hannah Sevian, Sean Müller, Hartmut Rudmann, and Michael F. Rubner
Light-emitting thin films provide an excellent opportunity to learn about principles of electrochemistry, spectroscopy, microscopic structure of the solid state, basic circuits, and engineering design. There is currently strong interest in academic and industrial engineering research centering on developing organic light-emitting devices for applications in flat panel displays. In this educational module, designed for high school or introductory undergraduate courses, students learn how to make a ruthenium-based thin-film device. In the process, they learn about the solid-state electrochemistry at work in the film, as well as the electroluminescence that results when current passes through the device.
Sevian, Hannah; Müller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1620.
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program To Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries  E.-M. Yang, T. J. Greenbowe, and T. Andre
In this study, college students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course were asked a series of open-ended questions about electrochemistry, flashlights, and batteries. Misconceptions were identified, analyzed, and used to develop and test an Interactive Software Program (ISP).
Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 587.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Student-Centered Learning
A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  Orfeo Zerbinati
Materials and methods for construction of a direct methanol fuel cell.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Prospective Teachers in Electrochemistry: Half-Cell Potential, Cell Potential, and Chemical and Electrochemical Equilibrium in Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya
Study of prospective teachers' conceptual understanding of topics in electrochemistry.
Özkaya, Ali Riza. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 735.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The Electrolytic Recovery of Copper from Brass. A Laboratory Simulation of an Industrial Application of Electrical Energy  Domenico Osella, Mauro Ravera, Cristina Soave, and Sonia Scorza
Procedure demonstrating the electrolytic purification of copper.
Osella, Domenico; Ravera, Mauro; Soave, Cristina; Scorza, Sonia. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Metals
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Just Breathe: The Oxygen Content of Air   JCE Editorial Staff
Students estimate the percent oxygen (volume) in air using steel wool in a test tube that is inverted in a beaker of water. Oxygen in the trapped air reacts with iron to form rust, and the water level rises inside the test tube; within 30-45 minutes, the majority of oxygen is consumed.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 512A.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Observations on Lemon Cells  Jerry Goodisman
The lemon cell, consisting of pieces of two different metals stuck into a lemon or other fruit, is pictured in many general chemistry textbooks without being discussed; manuscript describes simple experiments, suitable for the general chemistry laboratory, which elucidate how this kind of cell works.
Goodisman, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 516.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Understanding Electrochemical Thermodynamics through Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
This discovery-based activity involves entropy analysis of galvanic cells. The intent of the activity is for students to discover the fundamentals of electrochemical cells through a combination of entropy analysis, exploration, and guided discovery.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1031.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Using a Teaching Model to Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry  P. A. Huddle, Margaret Dawn White, and Fiona Rogers
A concrete teaching model for electrochemistry is presented here. It addresses many common student misconceptions about current flow by demonstrating what is occurring at the microscopic level in an electrochemical cell. Both the scope and limitations of the model are discussed.
Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 104.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Lemon Cells Revisited  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Analysis of the reactions and nature of the electrodes in the lemon cell.
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1190.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Developing and Using Conceptual Computer Animations for Chemistry Instruction  K. A. Burke, Thomas J. Greenbowe, and Mark A. Windschitl
This paper discusses several issues surrounding the development and use of instructional conceptual computer animations.
Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Windschitl, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1658.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales  Gavin D. Peckham
Stresses the reference-state approach for students learning the electromotive series and other non-absolute scales.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 49.
Electrochemistry
Constructing Chemical Concepts through a Study of Metals and Metal Ions: Guided Inquiry Experiments for General Chemistry  Ram S. Lamba, Shiva Sharma, and Baird W. Lloyd
A set of inquiry-based experiments designed to help students develop an understanding of basic chemical concepts within the framework of studying the properties and reactivity of metals and metal ions.
Lamba, Ram S.; Sharma, Shiva; Lloyd, Baird W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1095.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Students' Misconceptions in Electrochemistry Regarding Current Flow in Electrolyte Solutions and the Salt Bridge  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
Several researchers have documented students' misconceptions in electrochemistry. One reason for the interest in studying electrochemistry is that surveys of students and teachers suggest that students find this topic difficult and research confirms that students' beliefs about problem complexity affect their performance and learning.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 819.
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Synthesis and Characterization of a Conduction Polymer: An Electrochemical Experiment for General Chemistry  Roger K. Bunting, Karsten Swarat, DaJing Yan, Duane Finello
The electrochemical synthesis of a free-standing film of polypyrrole, using commonly available equipment and materials, is described at a level suitable to application in a general chemistry laboratory. Also described are methods to quantitatively assess the doping level and to characterize the polymer film in terms of its conductivity as a function of temperature.
Bunting, Roger K.; Swarat, Karsten; Yan, DaJing; Finello, Duane. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 421.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Electrode Processes and Aspects Relating to Cell EMF, Current, and Cell Components in Operating Electrochemical Cells: Precollege and College Student Interpretation  N. A. Ogude and J. D. Bradleu
Four areas that present difficulty among high school pupils and tertiary level students in relation to the processes that take place in operating electrochemical cells were identified, including conduction in the electrolyte, electrical neutrality, electrode processes and terminology, and aspects relating to cell emf, current, and cell components. A 20-item questionnaire was designed to determine how widespread misconceptions in these areas were.
Ogude, N. A.; Bradley, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1145.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock  Paul B. Kelter, James D. Carr, Tanya Johnson, and Carlos Mauricio Castro-Acuña
The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration.
Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Castro-Acuña, Carlos Mauricio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1123.
Electrochemistry
Augmenting a classical electrochemical demonstration  Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.
Substituting magnesium for zinc in the copper/zinc electrochemical cell to enhance student understanding of electrochemistry; includes data and analysis.
Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 55.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An Electrochemistry Experiment: Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Different Electrodes   Marin, D.; Medicuti, F.; Teijeiro, C.
This paper presents a simple laboratory experiment designed to acquaint the student with overvoltage in the hydrogen evolution reaction.
Marin, D.; Medicuti, F.; Teijeiro, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A277.
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Not So Late Night Chemistry with USD  Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R.
Through the program, college students enhance their knowledge and expertise on a chemical topic and gain experience in scientific presentations. They also serve as role models to the high school students who can relate to college students more easily than the chemistry faculty members and their high school students.
Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 929.
Forensic Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Electrochemistry |
Isotopes |
Acids / Bases
An Interactive Multimedia Software Program for Exploring Electrochemical Cells  Greenbowe, Thomas J.
The "Electrochemical Workbench" is one component of a software package that allows students and faculty to explore building and testing electrochemical cells by simulating a chemistry laboratory in which students can perform experiments.
Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 555.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Using the Biological Cell in Teaching Electrochemistry  Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz
How electricity is produced in a simple cell is correlated with how commercial batteries work; this concept can then be related to how living cells send electrical impulses.
Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
Ionic Conduction and Electrical Neutrality in Operating Electrochemical Cells: Pre-College and College Student Interpretations  Ogude, A. N.; Bradley, J. D.
Results of an investigation on pre-college and college student difficulties regarding the qualitative interpretation of the microscopic processes that take place in operating chemical cells.
Ogude, A. N.; Bradley, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 29.
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
The aluminum can as electrochemical energy source  Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E.
A high-current electrochemical cell made from aluminum cans and scraps of copper wire that illustrates important electrochemical principles.
Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 495.
Electrochemistry
Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume 4 (Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.)  Kauffman, George B.
78 procedures grouped into two chapters, one on clock reactions, the other on electrochemistry, batteries, electrolytic cells, and plating.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A187.
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Fractal structures for the overhead projector   Silverman, L. Phillip
One of the most interesting electrochemistry demonstrations is the production of dendritic silver fractals via electrodeposition onto water. The demonstration can be adapted easily for use on an overhead projector.
Silverman, L. Phillip J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 928.
Electrochemistry
Helping students to develop an hypothesis about electrochemistry: A demonstration with a lab report and supplemental worksheet   VanderZee, Chester
Author shares a successful electrochemistry demonstration with calculations and assessment.
VanderZee, Chester J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 924.
Electrochemistry |
Metals
Electrochemical measurements in general chemistry lab using a student-constructed Ag-AgCl reference electrode  Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D.
This paper describes a simple method of making a reproducible and durable reference electrode for use by freshmen chemistry students.
Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 74.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Voltaic pile: A stimulating general chemistry experiment   Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin
An inexpensive, simple, and fun way to illustrate many of the principles in electrochemistry.
Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 665.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (6)  Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT
The solution may be to use the etymological meaning of anode and cathode.
Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (5)  Sweeting, Linda M.
The chemical potential of the electrons, not their "richness" determines direction of flow.
Sweeting, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (4)  Fochi, Giovanni
It is sufficient to show what part of the circuit is the electric generator.
Fochi, Giovanni J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (3)  Woolf, A. A.
There are no shortcuts in teaching the electrochemistry of galvanic cells; the process in each cell must be treated holistically.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (2)  Castellan, Gilbert W.
The difficulty is not so much confusion over conventions as the actual wrong use of terminology.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 991.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
An effective approach to teaching electrochemistry  Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney
By interweaving concepts from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics with those of electrochemical measurement, the authors provide students with an enriched appreciation of the utility of ideas from kinetics and thermodynamics.
Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 403.
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
The construction and use of commercial voltaic cell displays in freshman chemistry   Shearer, Edmund C.
This contribution reports two displays in electrochemistry which serve to increase student interest, show a practical application, and illustrate how chemistry and technology work together.
Shearer, Edmund C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 158.
Electrochemistry
The human salt bridge   Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin
In this paper the authors describe a simple device designed for use on an overhead projector to illustrate the "human salt bridge".
Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 156.
Electrochemistry
Alleviating the common confusion caused by polarity in electrochemistry  Moran, P. J.; Gileadi, E.
The issue of polarity encountered in electrochemistry and relevant to a variety of electrochemical concepts often confuses students and is an unnecessary deterrent to the study of electrochemistry.
Moran, P. J.; Gileadi, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 912.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemistry of the zinc-silver oxide system. Part 2. Practical measurements of energy conversion using commercial miniature cells  Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A.
Experiments in which "button cells" are discharged and charged under controlled conditions so that practical energy conversions and a number of other parameters may be studied.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 683.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Confusion over electrochemical conventions: A proposed solution  Al-Soudi, Helen
The present teaching of electrochemistry in U.S. texts leads to confusion.
Al-Soudi, Helen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 630.
Electrochemistry
Using a projecting voltmeter to introduce voltaic cells  Solomon, Sally; Lee, Jeffrey; Schnable, Joseph; Wirtel, Anthony
Using a transparent "projecting" voltmeter and assembling a zinc versus copper cell one component at a time allows students to develop a more concrete notion of the nature of a voltaic cell and the potential it produces.
Solomon, Sally; Lee, Jeffrey; Schnable, Joseph; Wirtel, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 510.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Transformation of old two-electrode polarographs into three-electrode systems  Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P.
In this work a simple circuit is proposed that can transform a two-electrode polarograph into a three-electrode system.
Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 419.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A homemade lemon battery  Worley, John D.; Fournier, James
A brief note about how two instructors worked on and built a successful lemon battery.
Worley, John D.; Fournier, James J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 158.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry demonstrations with an overhead projector  Ward, Charles R.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
A template designed to fit on the surface of an overhead projector and demonstrate electrochemical phenomena.
Ward, Charles R.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1021.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Using NASA and the space program to help high school and college students learn chemistry. Part II. The current state of chemistry in the space program  Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S.
Examples and classroom applications in the areas of spectroscopy, materials processing, and electrochemistry.
Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 228.
Astrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Goals in teaching electrochemistry  Maloy, J. T.
Important concepts regarding the subject of electrochemistry.
Maloy, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1018.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry  Perkins, Ronald I.
Why electrochemistry is important.
Perkins, Ronald I. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1018.
Electrochemistry
A convenient salt bridge for electrochemical experiments in the general chemistry laboratory  Howell, B. A.; Cobb, V. S.; Haaksma, R. A.
These authors share some advice for a setting up a salt bridge.
Howell, B. A.; Cobb, V. S.; Haaksma, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 273.
Electrochemistry
Understanding electrochemistry: Some distinctive concepts  Faulkner, Larry R.
This article addresses a few basic ideas about electrochemical systems that cause confusion among novice students. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Faulkner, Larry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 262.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry in the general chemistry curriculum  Chambers, James Q.
Students in introductory chemistry courses at large universities do not develop sufficient understanding of electrochemical phenomenon. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Chambers, James Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 259.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration of electrochemical cell properties by a simple, colorful oxidation-reduction experiment  Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T.
The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors, depending on whether the electrode reaction is a reduction or oxidation.
Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 586.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Artifacts and the Electromotive Series  Mickey, Charles D.
The chemistry of metals and its application to archeology.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 275.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metallurgy |
Reactions
Corrosion: A Waste of energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Thermodynamics and electrochemical aspects of corrosion, and inhibition of the corrosion process.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 673.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Electrochemistry in organisms. Electron flow and power output  Chirpich, Thomas P.
Electrochemical calculations at an elementary level can be readily applied to living organisms and generate further student interest in electrochemistry.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 99.
Electrochemistry |
Bioenergetics
Corrosion  Slabaugh, W. H.
The topic of corrosion extends several basic concepts of electrochemistry with which students can relate. This article outlines: standard electrochemical potentials; corrosion of iron' corrosion of aluminum; application of electrochemical concepts; and ideas for some experiments.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 218.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Reference electrodes  Caton, Roy D., Jr.
Examines reference electrodes, including both aqueous and nonaqueous reference electrodes.
Caton, Roy D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A571.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Charge and mass of the electron. An introductory experiment  Thompson, C. C.
Procedure for the electrolytic determination of the charge and mass of the electron requiring only the use of a balance and the careful recording of data.
Thompson, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Metals
Free energies of formation measurements on solid-state electrochemical cells  Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.
This experiment demonstrates in a direct fashion the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell.
Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 825.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Solid State Chemistry |
Organometallics
Edison's chemical meter  Vanderbilt, Byron M.
Thomas Edison invented the chemical meter to measure the rate at which electricity was being used.
Vanderbilt, Byron M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Electrochemical reactions in batteries. Emphasizing the MnO2 cathode of dry cells  Kozawa, Akiya; Powers, R. A.
The purpose of this article is to make a simplified, but current presentation of the electrochemical reactions in batteries, particularly those of the manganese dioxide cathode of dry cells.
Kozawa, Akiya; Powers, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 587.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
An inexpensive DC ohmmeter  Getzin, Donald R.
Design for an inexpensive DC ohmmeter.
Getzin, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 442.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Biogalvanic cells  Plumb, Robert C.; Hobey, W. D.
Explains the chemistry behind the potential development of an electrochemical cell that generates electricity using inert electrodes implanted in bodily fluids.
Plumb, Robert C.; Hobey, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 413.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P.
(1) Is there more to nuclear stability than only the neutron to proton ration? - answer by Choppin. (2) What are the products generated by the electrolysis of molten potassium nitrate with stainless steel electrodes? - answer by Young.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 73.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry
A simple quantitative electrolysis experiment for first year chemistry  Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr.
This simple and inexpensive electrolysis experiment for first year chemistry allows a quantitative application of Faraday's laws without the need for analytical balances.
Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 552.
Electrochemistry
The growth of lead trees in silicic acid gels  Hurd, Charles B.; Lamareaux, Harry F.
The fact that more active metals, such as zinc and cadmium, will replace lead in solutions of lead salts is well known; it is not so well known that the lead deposited will form an attractive, tree-like growth, particularly if supported in a gel.
Hurd, Charles B.; Lamareaux, Harry F. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 472.
Electrochemistry
Recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials  Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J.
It is the purpose of this paper to review recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials, particularly with respect to single electrode potential, half-reaction potential, and half-cell electromotive force.
Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 433.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Some electrochemical experiments for freshmen  Gorman, Mel
The purpose of this discussion is to present an exercise for freshman laboratory work involving electrochemical unknowns and special electrode potential projects not usually studied in the first-year course.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 409.
Electrochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrochemistry in the freshman course  Meldrum, William B.
This paper emphasizes the importance of electrochemical concepts in the freshman chemistry course.
Meldrum, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 282.
Electrochemistry