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2 Videos
10 Assessment Questions
7 Molecular Structures
25 Journal Articles
3 Other Resources
Videos: 2 results
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions  
Solvolysis of secondary versus tertiary halides, effects of leaving groups, solvolysis of/and reactions of sodium iodide and silver nitrate with isomers of bromobutane, SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, and hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride are demonstrated.
Nucleophilic Substitution
Formaldehyde Copolymers  
Formaldehyde Copolymers
Electrophilic Substitution |
Phenols |
Polymerization
Assessment Questions: First 3 results
Electrophilic Substitution (3 Variations)
A collection of 3 assessment questions about Electrophilic Substitution
Carbocations |
Electrophilic Substitution
Nucleophilic Substitution (18 Variations)
A collection of 18 assessment questions about Nucleophilic Substitution
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Carbocations |
Alcohols |
Stereochemistry |
Epoxides |
Ethers
Radicals (9 Variations)
A collection of 9 assessment questions about Radicals
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
View all 10 results
Molecular Structures: First 3 results
Nitrogen Trioxide NO3(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

VSEPR Theory |
Nonmetals |
Free Radicals

Chlorine Monoxide ClO(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

Free Radicals |
VSEPR Theory |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Nonmetals

Nitrogen Dioxide NO2(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

Free Radicals |
VSEPR Theory |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Nonmetals

View all 7 results
Journal Articles: First 3 results.
Pedagogies:
More on ClO and Related Radicals  William B. Jensen
The novel Lewis structure for the ClO radical and other related 13e isoelectronic species presented by Hirsch and Kobrak is identical to that proposed by Linnett over 40 years ago for the same species on the basis of his well-known double-quartet approach to Lewis structures.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 783.
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Incomplete Combustion of Hydrogen: Trapping a Reaction Intermediate  Bruce Mattson and Trisha Hoette
In this demonstration, a hydrogen flame is played across the face of an ice cube and the combustion is quenched in an incomplete state. The resulting solution contains a stable side-product, hydrogen peroxide, whose presence can be verified with two simple chemical tests.
Mattson, Bruce; Hoette, Trisha. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1668.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
View all 25 articles
Other Resources: 3 results
Molecular Models of Antioxidants and Radicals  William F. Coleman
This month's featured molecules come from the paper by John M. Berger, Roshniben J. Rana, Hira Javeed, Iqra Javeed, and Sandi L. Schulien (1) describing the use of DPPH to measure antioxidant activity. DPPH was one of the featured molecules in September 2007 (2) and the basics of antioxidant activity were introduced in last month's column (3). In addition, some of the other molecules in the paper are already in the featured molecules collection (4). The remaining structures in the Figure 1 and Table 1 of the paper have been added to the collection. All structures have been optimized at the 6-311G(D,P) level. These molecules suggest a number of possible student activities, some reminiscent of previous columns and some new. (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol is one of the molecules in the mixture that goes by the name vitamin E. These molecules differ in the substituents on the benzene ring and on whether or not there are alternating double bonds in the phytyl tail. In (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol the R's refer to the three chiral carbon atoms in tail while α refers to the substituents on the ring. (R,R,R)-α-Tocopherol is the form found in nature. An interesting literature problem would be to have students learn more about the vitamin E mixture and the differing antioxidant activity of the various constituents. Additionally they could be asked to explore the difference between the word natural as used by a chemist, and "natural" as used on vitamin E supplements. Can students find regulations governing the use of the term "natural"? Can they suggest alternative legislation, and defend their ideas? If students read about vitamin C they will discover that only L-ascorbic acid is useful in the body. It would be interesting to extend the experiment described in the Berger et al. paper (1) to include D-ascorbic acid. How do the antioxidant abilities of the enantiomers, as determined by reaction with DPPH compare? Is this consistent with the behavior in the body? Why or why not? Berger et al. mention two other stable neutral radicals, TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and Fremy's salt. In a reversal from the use of stable radicals to measure antioxidant properties, these two molecules have proven to be very versatile oxidation catalysts in organic synthesis, and would make a rich source of research papers for students in undergraduate organic courses.
Free Radicals |
Natural Products
Biologically Active Exceptions to the Octet Rule  Ed Vitz
A section of ChemPrime, the Chemical Educations Digital Library's free General Chemistry textbook.
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals |
Vitamins
Exceptions to the Octet Rule  Ed Vitz, John W. Moore
A section of ChemPrime, the Chemical Educations Digital Library's free General Chemistry textbook.
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure