TIGER

Journal Articles: 77 results
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
Teaching Avogadro's Hypothesis and Helping Students to See the World Differently  Brett Criswell
This article uses a model from educational psychologyChi's theory of ontological misclassificationto explain the source of students' difficulties in understanding Avogadro's hypothesis and provide a method to successfully teach this fundamental concept.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases
The Correlation of Binary Acid Strengths with Molecular Properties in First-Year Chemistry  Travis D. Fridgen
This article replaces contradictory explanations for the strengths of different binary acids in first-year chemistry textbooks with a single explanation that uses a BornHaber cycle involving homolyic bond dissociation energies, electron affinities, and ion solvation enthalpies to rationalize trends in the strengths of all binary acids.
Fridgen, Travis D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1220.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Concept Maps for General Chemistry   Boyd L. Earl
Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a first-semester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Turning Plastic Into Gold: An Analogy To Demonstrate the Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment  Robert B. Gregory
Describes an in-class demonstration designed to be an analogy to the RutherfordGeigerMarsden gold foil experiment that requires only a laser pointer, two picture frames, and a sheet of plastic.
Gregory, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 626.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lasers |
Metals
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Millikan: Good to the Last (Oil) Drop  Earl F. Pearson
In this analogy, drop-shaped pieces of magnet represent oil drops, steel BBs represent the electrons, and the mass of a BB represents the charge of an electron. The smallest possible difference in mass between any two samples of BBs should be the mass of a single BB.
Pearson, Earl F. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1312A.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Do the Series in the Hydrogen Atom Spectrum Ever Overlap?  David W. Ball
Addresses the question, do the series in the hydrogen atom spectrum ever overlap?
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 883.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Factors That Influence Relative Acid Strength in Water: A Simple Model  Michael J. Moran
The pKa's of diverse aqueous acids HA correlate well with the sum of two gas-phase properties: the HA bond-dissociation enthalpy and the electron affinity of the A radical. It is suggested that rather than bond strength alone or bond polarity, the sum of the enthalpies of these two steps is a fairly good indicator of relative acidity.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 800.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Demonstrating Void Space in Solids: A Simple Demonstration To Challenge a Powerful Misconception  Mary Whitfield
The concept of bridging analogies is used in a simple demonstration to illustrate the substantial quantity of empty space that remains when solid spheres are packed together. The same demonstration also shows that the percentage of empty space is independent of particle size.
Whitfield, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 749.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Materials Science |
Solids
Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements  Paul S. Matsumoto
Examines why, as the number of protons increase along a row in the periodic table, the first ionization energies of the transition-metal elements are relatively steady, but that for the main-group elements increases.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1660.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
E = mc2 for the Chemist: When Is Mass Conserved?  Richard S. Treptow
Einstein's famous equation is frequently misunderstood in textbooks and popular science literature. Its correct interpretation is that mass and energy are different measures of a single quantity known as massenergy, which is conserved in all processes.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1636.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
The Meaning of d-Orbital Labels  Guy Ashkenazi
Orbital labels are the angular part of the wave function, expressed in Cartesian coordinates. The mathematical relation between the labels and the shapes of the orbitals is discussed.
Ashkenazi, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 323.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Quantum Chemistry
Turning on the Light: Lessons from Luminescence  Patricia B. OHara, Carol Engelson, and Wayne St. Peter
The goal of this article is to provide secondary school science teachers with a background in an array of luminescent phenomena including fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence that will enable them to teach their students fundamental properties of light and matter. Instructions for building and operating a simple spectrofluorometer and five detailed lesson plans are provided in the Supplemental Material for experiments that utilize these processes.
O'Hara, Patricia B.; Engelson, Carol; St. Peter, Wayne. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 49.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Forensic Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
"We Actually Saw Atoms with Our Own Eyes". Conceptions and Convictions in Using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope in Junior High School  Hannah Margel, Bat-Sheva Eylon, and Zahava Scherz
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the feasibility and potential contribution of using the STM as a learning tool in junior high school (JHS) to support instruction about the particulate nature of matter.
Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 558.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Learning Theories |
Student-Centered Learning |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
LEDs Are Diodes  George C. Lisensky, S. Michael Condren, Cynthia G. Widstrand, Jonathan Breitzer, and Arthur B. Ellis
Comparison of incandescent bulbs with LEDs powered by AC and DC voltages; shows that LEDs are diodes and illustrates the relative energies of different wavelengths of light.
Lisensky, George C.; Condren, S. Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G.; Breitzer, Jonathan; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1664A.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Soda Bottle Orbital Models  Adcock, Louis H.
Better method for connecting bottles.
Adcock, Louis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Ubiquitous Metaphors of Chemistry Teaching  Herbert Beall
The understanding and the confusion resulting from any scientific metaphor thus have to be considered when it is used. For example, a common chemical metaphor for the electron distribution about an atom is a cloud. Some of the entailments of this metaphor are apt, such as the diffuse nature of a cloud. Others, such as the ability of a cloud to evaporate, are not appropriate.
Beall, Herbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 366.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics  Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright
A four-part activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production.
Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Using Balls of Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes  Gabriel Pinto
In this article, an analogy is described about the order of magnitude of the variation of atomic sizes that can be used for discussion in introductory chemistry classes. The order of magnitude of this variation, involving microscopic magnitudes, is difficult for students to imagine.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 725.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
A Refrigerator Magnet Analog of Scanning-Probe Microscopy  Julie K. Lorenz, Joel A. Olson, Dean J. Campbell, George C. Lisensky, and Arthur B. Ellis
The magnetic interactions between a flexible-sheet refrigerator magnet and a probe tip cut from the same magnet is used as a macroscopic analog of scanning probe microscopies.
Lorenz, Julie K.; Olson, Joel A.; Campbell, Dean J.; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1032A.
Surface Science |
Materials Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Atomic and Molecular Structure in Chemical Education: A Critical Analysis from Various Perspectives of Science Education  Georgios Tsaparlis
The perspectives employed in this paper are (i) the Piagetian developmental perspective, (ii) the Ausbelian theory of meaningful learning, (iii) the information processing theory, and (iv) the alternative conceptions movement. The implications for teaching and curriculums are discussed.
Tsaparlis, Georgios. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 922.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constructivism
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Use of Electrochemical Concentration Cells to Demonstrate the Dimeric Nature of Mercury(I) in Aqueous Media  Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating that divalent mercury is monovalent in aqueous solution; includes data and analysis.
Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Transition Metals and the Aufbau Principle  Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D.
Explanation of why the ground state configuration of the neutral transition metals is in most cases 3dn4s2, and why the ground state configuration of the corresponding ions is obtained by preferentially removing the 4s electrons.
Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 469.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
On Using Incomplete Theories as Cataloging Schemes: Aufbau, Abbau, and VSEPR  Tykodi, R. J.
How to restructure as cataloging schemes the aufbau and abbau procedures for obtaining the ground-state electronic structures of atoms and monatomic ions.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 273.
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and atomic charge  Reed, James L.
Because electronegativity is such a fundamental concept, it should be continually developed in sophistication throughout the curriculum; considers the energy function, atomic charges, and chemical reactivities.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 785.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Rutherford: Exploring the scattering of alpha particles.  Rittenhouse, Robert C.
This simulation permits students to design and implement scattering experiments of the sort performed by Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden.
Rittenhouse, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 637.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
Simulation of Rutherford's experiment  Bishop, Carl B.
Apparatus and procedure to simulate Rutherford's classic gold foil experiment.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 889.
Atomic Properties / Structure
How do electrons get across nodes? A problem in the interpretation of the quantum theory  Nelson, P. G.
Suggested responses to the question "How do electrons get across nodes?".
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 643.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Magnetic marbles as teaching aids  Hill, John W.
Magnetic marbles are valuable teaching aids for teachers who have steel chalkboards in their classroom.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 320.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ion Exchange
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A student experiment to demonstrate the energy loss and straggling of electrons in matter  de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J.
The experiment described has been applied routinely for several years in introductory courses in the application of radiation and isotopes. The results obtained give direct insight into the characteristics of the phenomena associated with the absorption of energetic electrons in matter.
de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 86.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Visualization of electron clouds in atoms and molecules  Douglas, John E.
110. Visualization of the electron orbital concept continues to challenge and intrigue chemical educators. [October and November 1989 Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Douglas, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 42.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
What is an element?  Roundy, Willard H., Jr.
Problems with using outdated definitions of what constitutes an element.
Roundy, Willard H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 729.
Isotopes |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ammonium hydroxide does not exist  Yoke, John
No matter how the s and three p orbitals are hybridized, nitrogen can form a maximum of only four bonds.
Yoke, John J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
The squeezed-earth problem   Rhodes, Gale
This take-home-exam question promotes a discussion in class and demonstrates the conceptual difficulties in understanding protons and neutrons.
Rhodes, Gale J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 970.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solid State Chemistry
Is an atom of copper malleable?  Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Silberstein, Judith
It is important to study the mental pictures of the atomic model formed by students at an early stage of their studies, since misunderstanding this model may prevent meaningful learning at later stages.
Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Silberstein, Judith J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Should orbitals be x-rated in beginning chemistry courses?  Bent, Henry A.
Memorizing orbital rules helps students earn credits in science without knowing what science is.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 421.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why doesn't the electron fall into the nucleus?  Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W.
This paper presents a simple, yet essentially correct model of the atom that can be used to answer the title question for even beginning students of chemistry.
Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Developing models: What is the atom really like?  Records, Roger M.
Using physical and computer models to illustrate historical changes in our view of the atom.
Records, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Elemental evolution and isotopic composition  Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R.
Reviews elemental abundances and the processes of elemental creation.
Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 742.
Astrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Geochemistry
But if atoms are so tiny...  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the atomic theory, the laws of chemical combination, atomic weight scales, Avogadro's hypothesis, the development of the mass spectrograph, the meaning of atomic weight, and the difference between mass and weight in answering the question "If atoms are so small, how can we know how much they weigh?" [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 543.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Mass Spectrometry
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
The stability of the hydrogen atom  Rioux, Frank
The Kimball-Neumark-Kleiss model of the atom is conceptually correct, requires only simple mathematics, and clearly explains the stability of the hydrogen atom.
Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nuclear concepts as part of the undergraduate chemistry curriculum  Caretto, A. A., Jr.; Sugihara, T. T.
It is proposed that there are distinct advantages to a freshman curriculum that introduces nuclear concepts simultaneously with the discussion of analogous atomic and molecular concepts.
Caretto, A. A., Jr.; Sugihara, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 569.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Interpretation of oxidation-reduction  Goodstein, Madeline P.
Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
The periodic systems of D. I. Mendeleev and problems of nuclear chemistry  Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter
Examines the acquisition and identification of new chemical elements and the structure of the eighth period of the periodic table.
Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 406.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals
The mole again!  Haack, N. H.
Discusses the definition of the mole.
Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On the discovery of the electron  Morrow, B. A.
Thomson's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the corpuscular or wave nature of cathode rays, while Millikan's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the continuous or discrete nature of electrical phenomena.
Morrow, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 584.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic Structure. Radioactivity. B. Nuclear Phenomena: Radioactivity  Surina, Albert A.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstration include the use of an electroscope and Geiger counter in measuring radioactivity and the formation of fog in an evacuated bottle.
Surina, Albert A.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William K.
The editor addresses questions regarding the sizes of subatomic particles.
Kieffer, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 105.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The structure of the nucleus  Flowers, B. H.
Describes the liquid drop, shell, and optical models of the atomic nucleus.
Flowers, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 610.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Philosophical antecedents of the modern atom  Gorman, Mel
The purpose of this paper is to present a brief survey of Greek atomism, its rise, recession, and revival.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 100.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
An electronic distinction between metals and nonmetals  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents a simple empirical rule for the fundamental properties that determine whether an element is metallic, metalloid, or nonmetallic.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 229.
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metalloids / Semimetals
Regularities among the representative elements: The "paired electron rule"  Condon, F. E.
If the oxidation states characteristic of various groups are correlated in terms of electron subshells, they become reasonable and logical rather than mere facts to be memorized.
Condon, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 651.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
An introduction to the electron theory of metals  Lefever, Robert A.
This discussion is intended to provide a general background for the understanding of metal physics as well as a basis for more advanced study.
Lefever, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 486.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Nair, C. N.
A mathematical derivation demonstrating that masses of different elements equal to their atomic weights must contain the same number of atoms.
Nair, C. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Hakala, Reino W.
The author points out a reference to a relationship between atomic weight and atomic number.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 44.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The long form of the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, A. I.
The authors comment on the independent publication of a periodic table similar to one they produced earlier.
Glockler, George; Popov, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 358.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure