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Journal Articles: 47 results
Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise  Thomas H. Bindel
This laboratory allows students to examine relationships among the microscopicmacroscopicsymbolic levels using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. The exercise also reinforces Lewis dot structures, VSEPR theory, and the identification of molecular and coordination geometries.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 822.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
VSEPR Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Physical Properties
Diamagnetic Corrections and Pascal's Constants  Gordon A. Bain and John F. Berry
This article presents an explanation for the origin of diamagnetic correction factors, comprehensive tables of diamagnetic constants and their application to calculate diamagnetic susceptibility, and a simple method for estimating the correct order of magnitude for the diamagnetic correction for any given compound.
Bain, Gordon A.; Berry, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 532.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Transition Elements
Molecular Models of Antioxidants and Radicals  William F. Coleman
This months Featured Molecules include L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), trans-cinnamic acid, citric acid monohydrate, Fremy's salt (nitrosodisulfonate)dianion, hydroquinone, salicylic acid, TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), and (R,R,R)-a-tocopherol (vitamin E).
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 464.
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  P. K. Chattaraj, U. Sarkar, and D. R. Roy
Electronic structure principles dictate that aromatic molecules are associated with low energy, polarizability, and electrophilicity but high hardness values, while antiaromatic molecules possess the opposite characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated through B3LYP/6-311G** calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 354.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Quantum Chemistry
From "Greasy Chemistry" to "Macromolecule": Thoughts on the Historical Development of the Concept of a Macromolecule  Pedro J. Bernal
This paper presents a narrative about the historical development of the concept of a macromolecule. It does so to illustrate how the history of science might be used as a pedagogical tool to teach science, particularly to non-majors.
Bernal, Pedro J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 870.
Colloids |
Nonmajor Courses |
Polymerization |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A 3D Model of Double-Helical DNA Showing Variable Chemical Details  Susan G. Cady
A 3D double-helical DNA model, made by placing beads on a wire and stringing beads through holes in plastic canvas, is described. Suggestions are given to enhance the basic helical frame to show the shapes and sizes of the nitrogenous base rings, 3' and 5' chain termini, and base pair hydrogen bonding. Students can incorporate random or real gene sequence data into their models.
Cady, Susan G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 79.
Biotechnology |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Teaching Molecular Geometry with the VSEPR Model  Ronald J. Gillespie
The difficulties associated with the usual treatment of the VB and MO theories in connection with molecular geometry in beginning courses are discussed. It is recommended that the VB and MO theories should be presented only after the VSEPR model either in the general chemistry course or in a following course, particularly in the case of the MO theory, which is not really necessary for the first-year course.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 298.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Theoretical Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
MO Theory
A Program of Computational Chemistry Exercises for the First-Semester General Chemistry Course  Scott E. Feller, Richard F. Dallinger, and Paul Caylor McKinney
A series of 13 molecular modeling exercises designed for the first-semester general chemistry course is described. The modeling exercises, which are used as both prelecture explorations and postlecture problems, increase in difficulty and in student independence.
Feller, Scott E.; Dallinger, Richard F.; McKinney, Paul Caylor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 283.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
The Use of Molecular Modeling and VSEPR Theory in the Undergraduate Curriculum to Predict the Three-Dimensional Structure of Molecules  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard L. Frock
Despite the simplicity and elegance of the VSEPR model, however, students often have difficulty visualizing the three-dimensional shapes of molecules and learning the more subtle features of the model, such as the bond length and bond angle deviations from ideal geometry that accompany the presence of lone pair or multiple bond domains or that result from differences in the electronegativity of the bonded atoms, partial charges and molecular dipole moments, and site preferences in the trigonal bipyramidal electron geometry.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Frock, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1018.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
Simplified Lewis Structure Drawing for Nonscience Majors  Barnabe B. Miburo
Lewis structures are drawn using a simplified novel method with the following features: 1) the atoms used are brought in carrying all their valence electrons; 2) bonds are created by pairing up valence electrons between the central atoms and peripheric atoms; 3) anions are formed by addition of electrons to single electrons on appropriate atoms, while cations are formed by removal of single electrons.
Miburo, Barnabe B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 317.
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Drawing Lewis structures: A step-by-step approach  Ahmad, Wan-Yaacob; Omar, Siraj
A simple step-by-step approach for deriving Lewis structures for students studying introductory chemistry.
Ahmad, Wan-Yaacob; Omar, Siraj J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 791.
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular models for the do-it-yourselfer  Birk, James P.; Foster, John
Instructions for making molecular models from styrofoam balls and wooden dowels.
Birk, James P.; Foster, John J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1015.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Teaching a model for writing Lewis structures  Pardo, Juan Quilez
A general procedure for the representation of Lewis structures.
Pardo, Juan Quilez J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 456.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
How to use crystallographic information in teaching first-year chemistry   Bevan, D. J. M.; Taylor, M. R.; Rossi, M.
These authors describe material appropriate for inclusion in a first-year chemistry lecture course. This article stresses how basic chemical principles have been derived from crystallographic results. A potential instructor need not have crystallographic training to incorporate these lectures.
Bevan, D. J. M.; Taylor, M. R.; Rossi, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 477.
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis structures for compounds with expanded octets  Malerich, Charles J.
A simple method for recognizing expanded octets given only the molecular formula of the compound.
Malerich, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 403.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
MOLEC, Review II (Owen, G. Scott; Currie, James O.)  Hull, Leslie
A molecular structures graphics program that offers a variety of different ways of looking at molecular geometries.
Hull, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A246.
Molecular Properties / Structure
MOLEC, Review I (Owen, G. Scott; Currie, James O.)  Coleman, William F.
A molecular structures graphics program that offers a variety of different ways of looking at molecular geometries.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A245.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The "6N+2 Rule" for writing Lewis octet structures  Zandler, Melvin E.; Talaty, Erach R.
Applying the "6N+2 Rule" to writing Lewis octet structures.
Zandler, Melvin E.; Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 124.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Another procedure for writing Lewis structures  Clark, Thomas J.
A simple procedure for writing a correct Lewis structure for a molecule or ion containing only s- and p-block elements.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 100.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A different approach to hybridization and geometric structure of simple molecules and ions  Eberlin, Diana; Monroe, Manus
A step-by-step teaching technique that directly correlates hydridization with structure.
Eberlin, Diana; Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 285.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Prospects and retrospects in chemical education  Pauling, Linus
Pauling provides suggestions for what concepts to focus on in an elementary chemistry course.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 38.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The aromatic ring  Kolb, Doris
Historic analysis and attempts to explain the structure of benzene, the concept of resonance, Huckel's rule, polycyclic aromatic compounds, non-classical aromatic compounds, and a definition for aromaticity.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 334.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Rediscovery in a course for nonscientists. Use of molecular models to solve classical structural problems  Wood, Gordon W.
Describes exercises using simple ball and stick models that students with no chemistry background can solve in the context of the original discovery.
Wood, Gordon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 177.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Nonmajor Courses
A criticism of the valence shell electron pair repulsion model as a teaching device  Drago, Russell S.
The factors that influence the geometry of molecules are much more complicated than the VSEPR model would lead one to believe.
Drago, Russell S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 244.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular geometry: Bonded versus nonbonded interactions  Bartell, L. S.
Proposes simplified computational models to facilitate a comparison between the relative roles of bonded and nonbonded interactions in directed valence.
Bartell, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 754.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Extensions in the use of plastic tetrahedral models  Fieser, Louis F.
Describes the modification of existing models to provide for the construction of specialized organic and inorganic structures and their use in teaching.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 408.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Stereo molecular models  Godfrey, John C.
Presents a system of stereo molecular models designed by the author and their various applications.
Godfrey, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 404.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Atomic and molecular models made from vinyl covered wire  Larson, G. Olof.
This paper presents a series of scalar models made from vinyl covered wire.
Larson, G. Olof. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 219.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. II. Uses in Teaching  Bent, Henry A.
Tangent-sphere models can be used to represent highly strained bonds and multicentered bonds, atoms with expanded and contracted octets, inter- and intramolecular interactions, and the effects of electronegative groups, lone pairs, and multiple bonds on molecular geometry, bond properties, and chemical reactivity.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 523.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Plastic Dreiding models  Fieser, Louis F.
This article describes superior molecular models of a new type available at cost low enough to allow purchase by students.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 457.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory of directed valency  Gillespie, R. J.
Presents the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory of directed valency and its use to determine molecular shapes, bond angles, and bond lengths.
Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 295.
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Non-existent compounds  Dasent, W. E.
The purpose of this review is to examine compounds that do not violate the rules of valence but which are nevertheless characterized by a high degree of instability, and to consider why these structures are unstable or non-existent.
Dasent, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 130.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models for demonstrating electronegativity and "partial charge"  Sanderson, R. T.
Describes a three-dimensional set of atomic models arranged periodically to illustrate trend in electronegativity and the use of molecular models to illustrate important concepts in general chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 507.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nonmetals
Accurate molecular models  Godfrey, John C.
Describes the construction of molecular models that rely on plastics to represents as accurately as possible all of the physical characteristics of real molecules.
Godfrey, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 140.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Construction of molecular models  Anker, Rudolph M.
Describes the construction of simple, durable, and inexpensive molecular models consisting primarily of sponge rubber balls of varying sizes.
Anker, Rudolph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 138.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
Inexpensive molecular models for use in the laboratory  Tanaka, John
It has been found that satisfactory low-cost models can be made from wax.
Tanaka, John J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 603.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lone pair electrons  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
The lone pair electrons, whether in simple or hybrid orbitals, have profound effects on the properties of the molecule; these effects may be discussed as bond angles, dipole moments, bond energies and lengths, and coordination and hydrogen bonding.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Kekule's theory of aromaticity  Gero, Alexander
Examines what Kekule really wrote in his famous paper on the structure of benzene.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 201.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Cork-ball experiments on crystalline and molecular structure  Davidson, Norman
Cork balls and pins are used to construct models of crystalline and molecular structures.
Davidson, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 249.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling