Journal Articles: 53 results 

The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis Joseph Bularzik In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise. Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Nonmajor Courses 
Physical Properties

Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a FirstOrder Rate Constant: Author Reply José E. CortésFigueroa When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future. CortésFigueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics 
Chemometrics

Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a FirstOrder Rate Constant Todd P. Silverstein The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semilog data to determine the firstorder rate constant. Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics 
Chemometrics

Precision in Microscale Titration Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, and Zvi Szafran Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Precision in Microscale Titration Julian L. Roberts Jr. Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Precision in Microscale Titration Julian L. Roberts Jr. Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

How Can an Instructor Best Introduce the Topic of Significant Figures to Students Unfamiliar with the Concept? Richard A. Pacer The focus of this paper is how best to introduce the concept of significant figures so that students find it meaningful before a stage is reached at which they become turned off. The approach described begins with measurements students are already familiar with from their life experiences and involves the students as active learners. Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1435.
Learning Theories 
Nonmajor Courses 
Chemometrics

There Seems To Be Uncertainty about the Use of Significant Figures in Reporting Uncertainties of Results Julio F. Caballero and Delphia F. Harris A cursory review of two journals indicates that uncertainties in experimental results are not consistently reported in the literature with the correct number of significant figures. The problem seems more frequent in computer generated results in both chemical education and research articles. Examples of published values with uncertainty inappropriately reported are included along with the appropriate rounding. Caballero, Julio F.; Harris, Delphia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 996.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders Richard S. Treptow The concepts of precision and accuracy help students understand that uncertainty accompanies even our best scientific measurements. A model experiment can be used to distinguish the two terms. The experiment uses four graduated cylinders which give measurements of different accuracy and precision. Such terms as mean, range, standard deviation, error, and true value are defined through an illustration. Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 992.
Quantitative Analysis 
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2) Midden, W. Robert Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1) Guare, Charles J. Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (3) Rustad, Douglas Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (1) Sykes, Robert M. Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations. Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

Rounding Numbers: Why the "New System" Doesn't Work W. Robert Midden This paper explains a correction to the rounding rule previously published in this Journal. The earlier article reported that the best way to round numbers is to always round up when the first digit dropped is 5. However, this will lead to accumulation of error when errors are averaged. Midden, W. Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 405.
Chemometrics

Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions. Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Constructivism

A Joke Based on Significant Figures Ruekberg, Ben Joke to introduce significant figures. Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 306.
Chemometrics

Solving equilibria problems with a graphing calculator: A robust method, free of algebra and calculus Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. The method of successive approximations is frequently introduced in freshman chemistry as a means for solving equilibrium equations. However, this often requires an understanding of calculus that is problematic for introductory chemistry students. An alternative method to solving such equations is to use graphic calculators to solve problems graphically. Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A184.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

AnswerSheets Cornelius, Richard Review of a spreadsheetbased program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions. Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

More on the Question of Significant Figures Clase, Howard J. Because so many students have a hard time understanding what significant figures are all about, this author developed a method using "?" to substitute for insignificant zeros. This helps many students finally grasp this convention. Clase, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 133.
Chemometrics

A simple but effective demonstration for illustrating significant figure rules when making measurements and doing calculations Zipp, Arden P. Students can be surprised and confused when different arithmetical operations are performed on experimental data, because the rules change when changing from addition to subtraction to multiplication or division. The following is a simple way to illustrate several aspects of these rules. Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 291.
Chemometrics

The use of "marathon" problems as effective vehicles for the presentation of general chemistry lectures Burness, James H. A marathon problem is a long, comprehensive, and difficult problem that ties together many of the topics in a chapter and that is solved together by the instructor and students. Sample problems are included and advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 919.
Chemometrics

When figures signify nothing Ahmad, Jamil Significant figures in the "real world" set poor standards and confusing examples for chemistry students. Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 469.
Chemometrics

Solving quadratic equations to the correct number of significant figures Thomas, Rudolf Presenting an application of the successive approximations method for solving quadratic or higher order expressions. Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 409.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks Gordus, Adon A. The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations. Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Accuracy of measurements and the U.S. Census Gorin, George Some aspects of taking the Census can help students to understand the problem of measurement error and the use of significant figures. Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 936.
Chemometrics

Solving quadratic equations Brown, R. J. C. A better technique than the quadratic equation for chemical equilibria is offered here. Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 409.
Chemometrics 
Equilibrium

AtlanticPacific sig figs Stone, Helen M. Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations. Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Graphical analysis III (Vernier, David L.) Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. Two reviews of a complete graphing tool suitable for high school and college applications with a wide range of operations varying in complexity. Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A269.
Chemometrics

Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard) Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more. Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Equilibrium 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Stoichiometry 
Physical Properties 
Acids / Bases 
Covalent Bonding

Teaching students to use algorithms for solving generic and harder problems in general chemistry Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. This paper describes teaching strategies that help students improve their problemsolving skills. Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 987.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Solving limiting reagent problems (the author replies) Kalantar, A. H. Thanks for clarification and suggestion. Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Solving limiting reagent problems Skovlin, Dean O. Uncertainty in the meaning of the term X. Skovlin, Dean O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

The length of a pestle: A class exercise in measurement and statistical analysis O'Reilly, James E. Too many students get through chemistry without acquiring a basic understanding and appreciation of the concepts of measurement science. The purpose of this report is to outline an extremely simple class exercise as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating data. O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 894.
Chemometrics

Calculation of Madelung constants in the first year chemistry course Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward 76. Bits and pieces, 31. A computer program aids in understanding the nature of the Madelung constants. Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 840.
Crystals / Crystallography 
Chemometrics

Teaching significant figures using a learning cycle Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. Can we teach significant figures in a way that will be better retained by our students? These authors propose a solution. Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 786.
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

Propagation of significant figures Schwartz, Lowell M. The rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 693.
Chemometrics

Graphical Analysis, Review II (Dice, David R.) Sievers, Dennis A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data. Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A324.
Chemometrics

The density of solids Burgess, Dale Using density measurements as an opportunity to discuss experimental procedures, error, and significant figures. Burgess, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 242.
Chemometrics 
Physical Properties

Basic mathematics for beginning chemistry (Goldish, Dorthoy M.) Ellison, Herbert R.
Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A65.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Empirical formulas  A ratio problem Knox, Kerro A problem involving an analogy between ratios of boys to girls given their average weights and percentage composition of the class by weight. Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Chemometrics 
Molecular Properties / Structure

Significant figures: Removing the zero mystique Treptow, Richard S. Zeros are significant if they appear before a number takes on size or as standins for unknown digits. Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 646.
Chemometrics

Whatever became of significant figures? The trend toward numerical illiteracy Anderlik, Barbara How does one persuade students, when working with physical measurements, to part with excess digits and become numerically literate. Anderlik, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 591.
Chemometrics

Calculators, slide rules, and significant figures McCullough, Thomas, CSC Using a slide rule to help students understand the concept of significant figures before using a calculator. McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Chemometrics

A pregeneral chemistry course for the underprepared student Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse Outline and evaluation of a course in chemical problem solving. Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 730.
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Chemometrics

On significant figures MacCarthy, Patrick Illustrating the decrease in uncertainty that accompanies an increase in significant figures. MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Chemometrics

Calculators and significant figures Satek, Larry C. A demonstration on the topic of significant figures and random errors. Satek, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 177.
Chemometrics

Significant digits in logarithmantilogarithm interconversions Jones, Donald E. Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms. Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Chemical exponentialism for beginners Larson, G. Olof Presents a method for introducing and reviewing exponential mathematical operations. Larson, G. Olof J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 693.
Chemometrics

The significance of significant figures Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures. Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Statistical analysis of data in the general chemistry laboratory Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. Students are asked to analyze data collected with respect to determinations of Dumas molecular weight, equivalent weight of a metal, equivalent weight of an acid, and molecular weight by freezing point depression. Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 564.
Chemometrics

Problem solving in chemistry (Tilbury, Glen) Whitney, Richard M.
Whitney, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A532.
Chemometrics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

A formula for indirect gravimetry Fiekers, B. A. Derivation of a formula for indirect gravimetry and application to a sample problem. Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 575.
Gravimetric Analysis 
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis

Mathematical chemistry Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David Examines some of the challenges involved in the design of a course in mathematics suitable for undergraduate chemists. Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 570.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics

