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Journal Articles: 49 results
Appreciating Oxygen  Hilton M. Weiss
Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that powers life on earth.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1218.
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Thermodynamics
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
Achieving Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Imposed Conditions in the Ammonia Formation Reaction  Joel Tellinghuisen
The conditions under which chemical reactions occur determine which thermodynamic functions are minimized or maximized. This point is illustrated for the formation of ammonia in the ideal gas approximation using a numerical exercise.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1090.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces: A General Chemistry Laboratory Comparison of Hydrogen Bonding in Maleic and Fumaric Acids  Frazier W. Nyasulu and John Macklin
This article presents a simple laboratory experiment that is designed to enhance students' understanding of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding by demonstrating the comparative effect of these phenomena on some chemical and physical properties.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Macklin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Teaching Entropy Analysis in the First-Year High School Course and Beyond  Thomas H. Bindel
A 16-day teaching unit is presented that develops chemical thermodynamics at the introductory high school level and beyond from exclusively an entropy viewpoint referred to as entropy analysis. Many concepts are presented, such as: entropy, spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, qualitative and quantitative entropy analysis, extent of reaction, thermodynamic equilibrium, coupled equilibria, and Gibbs free energy. Entropy is presented in a nontraditional way, using energy dispersal.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1585.
Thermodynamics
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Rubber Bands, Free Energy, and Le Châtelier's Principle  Warren Hirsch
Using a rubber band to illustrate Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 200A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Energy as Money, Chemical Bonding as Business, and Negative ΔH and ΔG as Investment   Evguenii I. Kozliak
Analogy for explaining the sign (+ or -) of ?H, ?G, and ?S to introductory students.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1435.
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Spontaneous Assembly of Soda Straws  D. J. Campbell, E. R. Freidinger, J. M. Hastings, and M. K. Querns
Demonstrating spontaneous assembly using soda straws.
Campbell, D. J.; Freidinger, E. R.; Hastings, J. M.; Querns, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 201.
Materials Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
Determination of Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 for the Dissolution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Euler, Louis J. Kirschenbaum, and Ben Ruekberg
This exercise utilizes low-cost, relatively nonhazardous materials presenting few disposal problems. It reinforces the students' understanding of the interrelationship of solubility, Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0.
Euler, William B.; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1039.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Understanding Electrochemical Thermodynamics through Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
This discovery-based activity involves entropy analysis of galvanic cells. The intent of the activity is for students to discover the fundamentals of electrochemical cells through a combination of entropy analysis, exploration, and guided discovery.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1031.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving  Robert Q. Thompson
Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 532.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes  Anil C. Banerjee
Discussion of the conceptual difficulties experienced by undergraduates when dealing with equilibrium and thermodynamics, along with teaching strategies for dealing with these difficulties.
Banerjee, Anil C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Probing Student Misconceptions in Thermodynamics with In-Class Writing  Beall, Herbert
Examples of the use of in-class writing assignments in the teaching of thermodynamics in general chemistry are presented.
Beall, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1056.
Thermodynamics
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
The reusable heat pack   McAfee, Lyle V.; Jumper, Charles F.
A commercial product that can be used to demonstrate thermodynamic principles.
McAfee, Lyle V.; Jumper, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 780.
Thermodynamics
Two multipurpose thermochemical experiments for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Two multipurpose thermochemical experiments are described in this paper.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1022.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and the bounce  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Explaining the bouncing of a rubber ball using the laws of thermodynamics.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 43.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and reactions in the dry way  Tykodi, Ralph J.
In dealing with reactions in the dry way, we can actually "see" in detail the workings of the thermodynamic machinery responsible for moving the reaction in the spontaneous direction. This note presents ideas at the general chemistry level.
Tykodi, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 107.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Energy interconversions in photosynthesis  Bering, Charles L.
Reviews the energetics of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 659.
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Bioenergetics
Further reflections on heat  Hornack, Frederick M.
Confusion regarding the nature of heat and thermodynamics.
Hornack, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 869.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
What the standard state doesn't say about temperature and phase  Carmichael, Halbert
125. The author develops the concept of the "standard state" in a manner that is more robust than typical textbook treatment.
Carmichael, Halbert J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 695.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
An alternative to free energy for undergraduate instruction  Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank
It is the purpose of this paper to question the usefulness of the Gibbs function for the student and to propose an alternative based on the use of entropy functions that help the student to focus more sharply on the features of a system that relate to its capacity to change.
Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 347.
Thermodynamics
Our freshmen like the second law  Craig, Norman C.
The author affirms the place of thermodynamics in the introductory chemistry course and outlines a presentation that has been used with students at this level.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 342.
Thermodynamics
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Energy cycles  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Points out limitations and potential pitfalls associated with the use energy cycles to show the atomic and molecular energy factors that may influence an observable chemical property.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 420.
Thermodynamics
The use and misuse of the laws of thermodynamics  McGlashan, M. L.
Examines the first and second laws, the usefulness of thermodynamics, the calculation of equilibrium constants, and what entropy does not mean.
McGlashan, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 226.
Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
How can you tell whether a reaction will occur?  MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H.
This paper attempts to answer the title question in a clear and direct fashion.
MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 334.
Thermodynamics
A simple ice calorimeter: A first experiment in thermochemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This note describes a relatively crude and simple ice calorimeter that can be supplied to each student.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 634.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure