Journal Articles: 347 results 

Manual Data Processing in Analytical Chemistry: Linear Calibration Dora Melucci Most science students are familiar with Excel spreadsheets, but determining which of Excels statistical functions perform a calculation equivalent to a classical equation and calculating errors with Excel are not trivial exercises. Melucci, Dora. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1346.
Calibration 
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis

Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions Paul G. Jasien A semiquantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipoledipole interactions, and Hbonding on the normal boiling points for a series of simple, straightchain organic compounds. Application of this model may be useful in addressing student misconceptions related to the additivity of intermolecular interactions. Jasien, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1222.
Chemometrics 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Noncovalent Interactions 
Physical Properties

Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory Robert J. Olsen This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the firstsemester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set. Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots Joe Lee This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders. Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics 
Kinetics 
Rate Law

The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis Joseph Bularzik In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise. Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Nonmajor Courses 
Physical Properties

Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems. Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics 
Computational Chemistry 
Fourier Transform Techniques 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Understanding Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry Juris Meija Offers a simple graphical tool for obtaining complex isotopic distributions. Meija, Juris. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Mass Spectrometry 
Isotopes 
Chemometrics

The Importance and Efficacy of Using Statistics in the High School Chemistry Laboratory Paul S. Matsumoto This paper describes some statistical concepts and their application to various experiments used in high school chemistry. Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1649.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics

Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories ShuiPing Yang and RueiYing Tsai A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators. Yang, ShuiPing; Tsai, RueiYing. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Chemometrics 
Consumer Chemistry 
Medicinal Chemistry 
Quantitative Analysis 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
UVVis Spectroscopy

Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CH_{w}F_{x}Cl_{y}Br_{z} Guy Beauchamp Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules. Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics 
Physical Properties 
Hydrogen Bonding 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes

CrossProportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative ProblemSolving Skills Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook This paper focuses attention on the crossproportion (CP) method of mathematical problem solving, which was once widely used in chemical calculations. We propose that this method regain currency as an alternative to the dimensional analysis (DA) method, particularly in lowerlevel chemistry courses. In recent years, the DA method has emerged as the only problem solving mechanism offered to highschool and general chemistry students in contemporary textbooks, replacing more conceptual methods, CP included. Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1187.
Learning Theories 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics 
StudentCentered Learning

The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems Paul S. Matsumoto The traditional method to determine the equilibrium concentration of chemicals in a reaction, given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentration of chemicals in the reaction, involves the determination of the reaction quotient. This article will demonstrate that this step may be eliminated; thereby simplifying the algorithm to solve such problems. Such a reduction in the complexity of the algorithm may result in more students successfully being able to solve such problems. Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 406.
Equilibrium 
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "drylab", or as an inclass exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory. Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis 
Quantitative Analysis 
Separation Science 
Chemometrics 
Water / Water Chemistry

Statistical Comparison of Data in the Analytical Laboratory Michael J. Samide In this article, an experiment designed to provide students with an experience involving statistical treatment of data is described. This experiment allows students to compare 11 different techniques for measuring specific volumes of water. Replicate measurements are taken for each technique and comparisons are made both within a data set and between different data sets. Through calculation of tvalues, students are able to draw conclusions about the precision and accuracy of these various techniques. Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1641.
Chemometrics

Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero. Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations? Stephen J. Hawkes "Rigor" in introductory chemistry is often equated with quantitation. Consequently the understanding of chemical reactions and properties is obscured. This was illustrated by Stumpo who asked students to calculate ?E of a reaction, and then on another question on the same test asked a question aimed at its meaning. 77% of the students calculated correctly, but only 24% showed understanding of its meaning. The ability to calculate a number does not measure understanding of the number. Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations? Don L. Lewis A recently published correspondence by Stephen J. Hawkes on teaching equilibrium calculations troubles me. Hawkes dismisses equilibrium calculations as mere algorithms, best deferred until the student can use computer programs. I find it difficult to believe that a computer program enhances understanding. From a chemists point of view, the equilibrium condition is a limit, a limit that (because of stochastic considerations) does not exist. It might be better to make the reaction quotient statement using < or > but the use of those relations is delayed until quantum mechanics. Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a FirstOrder Rate Constant: Author Reply José E. CortésFigueroa When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future. CortésFigueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics 
Chemometrics

Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a FirstOrder Rate Constant Todd P. Silverstein The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semilog data to determine the firstorder rate constant. Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics 
Chemometrics

Effects of an Active Learning Environment: Teaching Innovations at a Research I Institution Maria T. OliverHoyo, DeeDee Allen, William F. Hunt, Joy Hutson, and Angela Pitts This paper describes a new approach for teaching general chemistry that combines lecture and laboratory into one seamless session and incorporates instructional methods supported by researchbased findings. The results of a study that compared two instructional formats, conventional passive lecture and the studentcentered, highly collaborative format known as cAcL2 (concept Advancement through chemistry LabLecture), are also presented. OliverHoyo, Maria T.; Allen, DeeDee; Hunt, William F.; Hutson, Joy; Pitts, Angela. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 441.
Chemometrics 
StudentCentered Learning

Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot Edward Urbansky Reply to comments on original article. Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics 
Mechanisms of Reactions 
Chemometrics

Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity Sue Le Vent Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/halflife); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations. Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics 
Mechanisms of Reactions 
Chemometrics

Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots Gabor Lente Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law. Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics 
Mechanisms of Reactions 
Chemometrics

Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots Gabor Lente Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law. Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics 
Mechanisms of Reactions 
Chemometrics

SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals Constantinos E. Efstathiou SpecSpan is a utility program for Microsoft Windows that generates numerical data from printed spectra or other plots found as figures in text, chart recordings, or freehand drawings. SpecScan can process bitmap (.BMP) images of such figures and drawings. After a brief interaction with the user, it generates and exports numerical data as Excel (.XLS) or text (.TXT) files. Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics 
Spectroscopy

From Our PeerReviewed Collection William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peerreviewed WebWare. Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics 
Spectroscopy

SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals Constantinos E. Efstathiou The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peerreviewed WebWare. Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics 
Spectroscopy

Two Linear Correlation Coefficients Robert de Levie In fitting data to a straight line, many calculators and computer programs display a linear correlation coefficient. Two types of linear correlation coefficients are discussed, one often useful in chemical calculations, the other usually not. de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1030.
Chemometrics

Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC). Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy 
Instrumental Methods 
Food Science 
Lipids 
Chemometrics 
Qualitative Analysis 
Fourier Transform Techniques 
Consumer Chemistry 
Applications of Chemistry

Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series). Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry 
Chemometrics 
Reactions 
Mechanisms of Reactions 
Applications of Chemistry

An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions Jonathan Mitschele Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English and metricunit thermometers. Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry

LIMSport: Optimizing a WindowsBased Computer Data Acquisition and Reduction System for the General Chemistry Laboratory Ed Vitz and Brenda P. Egolf Project to develop a Windows/Excel data acquisition system for LIMSport (a mechanism for automatically acquiring data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet so that teachers and students only need spreadsheet skills to acquire and analyze data) and evaluate its effectiveness in promoting student learning. Vitz, Ed; Egolf, Brenda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1060.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing 
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

Precision in Microscale Titration Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, and Zvi Szafran Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Precision in Microscale Titration Julian L. Roberts Jr. Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Precision in Microscale Titration Julian L. Roberts Jr. Comparing the precision of a 2mL graduated pipet and 50mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration. Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Chemometrics 
Microscale Lab 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet. Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Nonlinear Fits of Standard Curves: A Simple Route to Uncertainties in Unknowns Carl Salter and Robert de Levie The problem of covariance in using calibration curves and a nonlinear leastsquares procedure that permits a direct estimation of uncertainty without the need for covariance. Salter, Carl; de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 268.
Chemometrics

Some Unusual Applications of the "ErrorBar" Feature in Excel Spreadsheets Kieran F. Lim Paper demonstrating how the "errorbar" feature in Excel can be sued to produce highquality graphs for university teaching, learning, and research. Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 135.
Chemometrics

Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UVSensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A648B) Jerry A. Bell Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UVsensitive beads. Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Kinetics 
Photochemistry 
Chemometrics

On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238240) MyungHoon Kim Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes. Kim, MyungHoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases 
Chemometrics 
Physical Properties

On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238240) David W. Miller Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes. Miller, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases 
Chemometrics 
Physical Properties

Analysis of Success in General Chemistry Based on Diagnostic Testing Using Logistic Regression Margaret J. Legg, Jason C. Legg, and Thomas J. Greenbowe Estimating the probability of succeeding in general chemistry based on diagnostic or placement exam scores. Legg, Margaret J.; Legg, Jason C.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1117.
Chemometrics 
Learning Theories 
Student / Career Counseling

Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot! Edward T. Urbansky Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order. Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics 
Mechanisms of Reactions 
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics 
Rate Law

A Simple Method for Illustrating Uncertainty Analysis Paul C. Yates A fast and simple method for generating data for uncertainty analysis; includes statistical analysis and calculation of maximum probable error for a sample set of data. Yates, Paul C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 770.
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis

Chemistry Report. MAACUPM Curriculum Foundations Workshop in Biology and Chemistry, Macalester College, November 25, 2000 Norman C. Craig Chemists list specific knowledge and skills in mathematics needed by chemistry students and indicate whether mathematicians or chemists should deliver the instruction; the course level of the instruction and the use of technological aids are also designated. Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 582.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Learning Theories

What's Been Happening to Undergraduate Mathematics David M. Bressoud An overview of some of the changes that have been occurring in undergraduate mathematics education; based on a workshop held by the Mathematical Association of America to determine what chemists expect their students to learn from undergraduate mathematics courses in terms of understanding, content, and use of technology. Bressoud, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 578.
Learning Theories 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Chemometrics

Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets Pamela Brown This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curvefitting. Brown, Pamela. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 268.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Chemometrics 
Precipitation / Solubility

A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero MyungHoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and SuwYoung Ly A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures. Kim, MyungHoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, SuwYoung. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases 
Physical Properties 
Chemometrics

How Can an Instructor Best Introduce the Topic of Significant Figures to Students Unfamiliar with the Concept? Richard A. Pacer The focus of this paper is how best to introduce the concept of significant figures so that students find it meaningful before a stage is reached at which they become turned off. The approach described begins with measurements students are already familiar with from their life experiences and involves the students as active learners. Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1435.
Learning Theories 
Nonmajor Courses 
Chemometrics

Pixel Conversion: A Simple Way to Extract Coordinates of Points from a Printed Graph Christian Aymard and Randall B. Shirts A very simple method is described for extracting the coordinates of points from printed graphs, student reports, or publications. One only needs a flatbed scanner and a desktop computer. This is a convenient and inexpensive alternative to the tedious traditional method using a ruler or to the more costly programs available commercially. A Windows program has been made available to perform the required operations. Aymard, Christian; Shirts, Randall B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1230.
Chemometrics

Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving Jeff Cohen, Meghan KennedyJustice, Sunny Pai, Carmen Torres, Rick Toomey, Ed DePierro, and Fred Garafalo This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problemsolving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problemsolving strategies. Cohen, Jeff; KennedyJustice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1166.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Chemometrics

A Classroom Exercise in Sampling Technique Michael R. Ross A classroom handson demonstration has been developed that looks at the two important sampling considerations, sample size and nonhomogeneous sample materials. This classroom activity makes use of readily available M&M candies for the sample size and NERDS for the nonhomogeneous sample exercises. Ross, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1015.
Quantitative Analysis 
Chemometrics

Spreadsheet Calculation of the Propagation of Experimental Imprecision Robert de Levie A spreadsheet is used to compute the propagation of imprecision, and a macro is described that will do this automatically. de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 534.
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis 
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing

Predicting AcidBase Titration Curves without Calculations Dennis W. Barnum In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics. Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases 
Quantitative Analysis 
Water / Water Chemistry 
Equilibrium 
Learning Theories 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Chemometrics

Do pH in Your Head Addison Ault Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers. Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium 
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics 
BrønstedLowry Acids / Bases

Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies) Treptow, Richard S. Relation between instrument resolution and skill. Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics 
Instrumental Methods

Precision and Accuracy in Measurements Thomsen, Volker The difference between instrument resolution and precision. Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics 
Instrumental Methods

An Easy and Effective Classroom Demonstration of Population Distributions Marjorie A. Jones Using a simple experimental design and easily obtained materials, a classroom experiment was conducted to demonstrate normaldistribution behavior for a population. We used popcorn and a hotair popper. Popped kernels were collected with time and data were plotted as popped kernels per time interval versus time. The data clearly showed a normal (Gaussian) distribution. Jones, Marjorie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 384.
Chemometrics

Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases. Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis 
Instrumental Methods 
Chemometrics

CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay) Scott White and George Bodner CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations. White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Stoichiometry

Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs ZeroOffset Correction Reuben Rudman The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straightline equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry. Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright A fourpart activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production. Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Chemometrics

There Seems To Be Uncertainty about the Use of Significant Figures in Reporting Uncertainties of Results Julio F. Caballero and Delphia F. Harris A cursory review of two journals indicates that uncertainties in experimental results are not consistently reported in the literature with the correct number of significant figures. The problem seems more frequent in computer generated results in both chemical education and research articles. Examples of published values with uncertainty inappropriately reported are included along with the appropriate rounding. Caballero, Julio F.; Harris, Delphia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 996.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders Richard S. Treptow The concepts of precision and accuracy help students understand that uncertainty accompanies even our best scientific measurements. A model experiment can be used to distinguish the two terms. The experiment uses four graduated cylinders which give measurements of different accuracy and precision. Such terms as mean, range, standard deviation, error, and true value are defined through an illustration. Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 992.
Quantitative Analysis 
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2) Midden, W. Robert Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1) Guare, Charles J. Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (3) Rustad, Douglas Roundingoff rules and significant figures. Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

Precision and Accuracy (1) Sykes, Robert M. Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations. Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics

Percent Composition and Empirical Formula  A New View George L. Gilbert A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula. Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Production of Numerical Chemical Problems Using a Spreadsheet Peter G. Hall The use of spreadsheets for "personalized" assignments. These assignments take the form of printed chemical problems such that every student has different numerical data. The problem sets make a challenging student introduction to word processing and spreadsheet use. Hall, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 243.
Chemometrics

The Chemistry Maths Book (by Erich Steiner) C. Michael McCallum The Chemistry Maths Book contains all the mathematical methods that 99% of chemists would need. Designed as a text for an actual Maths for Chemists course, it is laid out in a logical progression from simple (decimals, algebra, and functions) to the more complicated but no less important (matrix algebra, differential equations, and matrix eigenvalue problems). It seems well suited both for its stated purpose and as a "brushup" book for undergraduates, graduate students, and others. McCallum, C. Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1400.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics

A Note on Covariance in Propagation of Uncertainty Edwin F. Meyer It is pointed out that whenever both the slope and the intercept are used in calculating a physical quantity from a linear regression, propagation of error must include the covariance as well as the variances. The point is illustrated with a calculation of the boiling point of water from the parameters of the lnP vs 1/T fit. If the covariance is omitted from the propagation of error, the estimate of uncertainty is unreasonably large. Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1339.
Chemometrics

Spreadsheet Applications in Chemistry Using Microsoft Excel by Dermot Diamond and Venita C. A. Hanratty Jeffery A. Greathouse Provides chemistry instructors with an introduction to Excel and its applications in chemistry. Greathouse, Jeffery A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1279.
Chemometrics

MathBrowser: WebEnabled Mathematical Software with Application to the Chemistry Curriculum, v 1.0 Jack G. Goldsmith MathBrowser, a freeware webenabled derivative of the MathCad mathematical software (MathSoft Inc., Cambridge, MA), is designed to reconcile the problem of how to distribute mathematically rich information over the WWW and to maintain interactivity for the end user. Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1164.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Chemometrics

Graham's Law and Perpetuation of Error Stephen J. Hawkes Grahams Laws of effusion and diffusion are used in recent articles for traditional experiments to which they do not in fact apply and for which they give the wrong answer. Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1069.
Gases 
Chemometrics 
Transport Properties

Rounding Numbers: Why the "New System" Doesn't Work W. Robert Midden This paper explains a correction to the rounding rule previously published in this Journal. The earlier article reported that the best way to round numbers is to always round up when the first digit dropped is 5. However, this will lead to accumulation of error when errors are averaged. Midden, W. Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 405.
Chemometrics

Sensitivity to Experimental Parameters via Spreadsheets B. R. Sundheim In spreadsheet computations wherever the functional dependence of calculated results on experimental quantities is obscure, sensitivities may be obtained by testing the effects of variations in relevant inputs. An example is given where Hess' law is explored calorimetrically. Sundhein, B. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 328.
Chemometrics

Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry Coleman, William F. 183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper. Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics 
Kinetics

Significant Figures in Graph Interpretation Donald M. Graham A means is derived for calculating the number of significant figures in the slope and intercept of an experimental linear graph. The method is based on the actual scatter in the points rather than on the nominal precision in the original data, and it can be used even by students who are mathematically fairly unsophisticated. Graham, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 211.
Chemometrics

Management of FirstYear Chemistry Laboratories Using Spreadsheets Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W. Use of spreadsheets to record, analyze, and assess experimental data. Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A182.
Chemometrics

Experimental Methods: An Introduction to the Analysis of Data (Kirkup, Les) Title of interest. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A72.
Chemometrics

Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving James R. McClure Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis. McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Celsius to FahrenheitQuick and Dirty Colin Hester Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature. Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Those Baffling Subscripts Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems. Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

How to Determine the Best Straight Line S. R. Logan Consideration of situations in which the use of a leastsquares regression is inappropriate. Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 896.
Chemometrics

The Relationship between the Number of Elements and the Number of Independent Equations of Elemental Balance in Inorganic Chemical Equations R. Subramanian, N.K. Goh, and L. S. Chia The criterion for determining whether a chemical equation can be balanced fully by the algebraic technique and its application. Subramaniam, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 894.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis. Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases 
pH 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Chemometrics

Statistical Analysis Experiment for the Freshman Chemistry Lab John C. Salzsieder Procedure that provides sufficient data for statistical analysis by a freshman chemistry class. Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 623.
Chemometrics

Buoyancy Programs; Viscosity of Polymer Solutions; Precision of Calculated Values Bertrand, Gary L. Software to simulate the determination of the density of solids; the preparation of polymer solutions and their time to flow through a viscometer; and a program to calculate the uncertainties of results given the input values. Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Physical Properties 
Chemometrics

Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions Calero, Diego Lozano Streamlined method for dilution calculations. Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Solutions / Solvents 
Chemometrics

The MATCH Program: A Combined Mathematics and Chemistry Curriculum Wink, Donald J. A curriculum that integrates introductory chemistry with intermediate algebra. Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 411.
Chemometrics

SpreadsheetControlled Potentiometric Analyses Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael 173. Bits and pieces, 53. Discussion of collecting experimental data on spreadsheets directly from laboratory instruments. Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 400.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing 
Chemometrics 
Potentiometry

REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations Ramette, Richard W. Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction. Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry 
Equilibrium 
Thermodynamics 
Chemometrics

Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions. Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Constructivism

Introducing Spreadsheet Data Analysis in the FirstSemester Laboratory Bushey, Michelle M. Massing a collection of pennies in order to introduce statistical concepts about small and large data sets as well as introduce students to the use of spreadsheets. Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A90.
Chemometrics

Spreadsheet Statistics Simpson, John M. Using computer spreadsheets to do statistical analysis on data. Simpson, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A88.
Chemometrics

Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry DeToma, Robert P. Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factorlabel method) to stoichiometry calculations. DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

A Simple Laboratory Experiment Using Popcorn To Illustrate Measurement Errors Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. This experiment focuses on the difference between accuracy and precision and demonstrates the necessity for multiple measurements of an experimental variable. Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 519.
Chemometrics

A Joke Based on Significant Figures Ruekberg, Ben Joke to introduce significant figures. Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 306.
Chemometrics

Solving equilibria problems with a graphing calculator: A robust method, free of algebra and calculus Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. The method of successive approximations is frequently introduced in freshman chemistry as a means for solving equilibrium equations. However, this often requires an understanding of calculus that is problematic for introductory chemistry students. An alternative method to solving such equations is to use graphic calculators to solve problems graphically. Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A184.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Shell thickness of the copperclad cent Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. An exercise in determining the thickness of the copper layer of modern pennies presents the opportunities to combine good chemistry, instrumentation, simple curve fitting, and geometry to solve a simply stated problem. Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1023.
Metals 
Quantitative Analysis 
Chemometrics

How thick/thin is your mirror? McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa When a student reported that his/her water film was 6 cm thick, these authors felt a review of significant figures and dimensional analysis may be in order. McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 851.
Chemometrics

Measurement scales: Changing Celsius to Kelvin is not just a unit conversion Nordstrom, Brian H. The key to understanding the difference between Celsius and Kelvin lies in the different types of measurement scales. Students may have an easier time manipulating equations (such as gas laws) if they knew the difference between these scales. Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 827.
Chemometrics 
KineticMolecular Theory 
Gases

Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab: Part 1. The concepts Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. A concise and practiceoriented introduction to the analysis and interpretation of measurement and errors. Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 776.
Chemometrics

Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 1024 M solution as a limiting case de Vicente, M. Sastre A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory. de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents 
Chemometrics

AnswerSheets Cornelius, Richard Review of a spreadsheetbased program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions. Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A mole of M&M's Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E. Engaging students by asking the question: How thick would the layer of M&M candies be if we covered the continental United States with a mole of these candies? Compare this to a mole of water. Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 453.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

AnswerSheets Cornelius, Richard Review of a spreadsheetlike program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures. Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Empirical formulas from atom ratios: A simple method to obtain the integer factors of a rational number Weltin, E. Most textbooks advise students to use a method tantamount to trial and error when they encounter a ratio in empirical formula calculations where it is not immediately apparent what the coefficients should be. The author describes a simple procedure that is an effective way to find the integer factors. Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 280.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Measuring Avogadro's number on the overhead projector Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu A Petri dish filled with water and stearic acid dissolved in petroleum ether upon an overhead projector can be used to introduce the topic of Avogadro's number. Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 252.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Using monetary analogies to teach average atomic mass Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J. Some strategies to overcome the frequent problem novice students have with calculating average atomic mass. Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 234.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Relative atomic mass and the mole: A concrete analogy to help students understand these abstract concepts de Sanabia, Josefina Arce Suggestions on how to improve student understandings of the mathematical idea of "ratio" to enhance conceptual understanding of this fundamental chemistry concept. de Sanabia, Josefina Arce J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 233.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Concept learning versus problem solving: There is a difference Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C. Previous studies indicate that there is little connection between algorithmic problem solving skills and conceptual understanding. The authors provide some ways to evaluate students along a continuum of lowhigh algorithmic and conceptual problem solving skills. The study shows that current lecture method teaches students to solve algorithms rather than teaching chemistry concepts. Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 190.
Chemometrics 
Learning Theories 
StudentCentered Learning

An Investigative Density Experiment Samsa, Richard A. A laboratory exercise about density that is engaging and allows students to use higherlevel thinking skills and develop a plan to solve a problem. Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 149.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing 
Chemometrics 
Physical Properties

More on the Question of Significant Figures Clase, Howard J. Because so many students have a hard time understanding what significant figures are all about, this author developed a method using "?" to substitute for insignificant zeros. This helps many students finally grasp this convention. Clase, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 133.
Chemometrics

Equilibrium Calculator Allendoerfer, Robert The equilibrium calculator can calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all reagents in an arbitrary chemical reaction with as many as five reactants and products. Allendoerfer, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 126.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Ideas of Equality and Ratio: Mathematical Basics for Chemistry and the Fallacy of Unitary Conversion Ochiai, ElIchiro. The author argues against dimensional analysis (referred to as the "unitary conversion method" in this article) and champions the more elegant "ratio" or "equality" paradigms as a way to help students make sense of chemical equations and "dealgorithmize" chemical calculations at the introductory level. Ochiai, ElIchiro. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 44.
Chemometrics

Is Dimensional Analysis the Best We Have to Offer? Canagaratna, Sebastian G. Dimensional analysis is a unit based approach while the alternative, "method of equations" is a relationsbased approach to solving mathematical problems. The author argues that quantitative chemistry involves relationships between quantities and not units, making the later method more pedagogically sound. Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 40.
Chemometrics

Applying a simple linear leastsquares algorithm to data with uncertainties in both variables Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell There are cases in which it is desirable to find an optimum linear leastsquares fit to data with significant uncertainties in both the x and y variables. Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A130.
Chemometrics

An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions. Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics 
Qualitative Analysis 
Precipitation / Solubility

Classroom experience: Using estimated answers in solving chemistry problems Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A. A textbook is described in which students solve all problems by estimation. Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 898.
Chemometrics 
Learning Theories

On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium calculations, II Ludwig, Oliver G. In a previous paper the author described, using mathematics accessible to students, how an equilibrium calculation leading to a quadratic equation may be shown to have but one "chemical" root. The present work extends this demonstration to some reactions leading to cubic equations. Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 884.
Chemometrics 
Equilibrium

The metric system Mason, Lynn M. Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson. Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Chemometrics

A demonstration of the molar volume of nitrogen gas Hughes, Elvin, Jr. A graphic illustration and a calculation of the approximate molar volume of nitrogen gas. Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Gases 
Chemometrics

Storing solar energy in calcium chloride Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. Using common chemistry concepts to determine the feasibility of storing solar energy in calcium chloride hexahydrate. Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A graphing activity to freshen up the laboratory Pribyl, Jeffrey R. A laboratory activity designed to address students' difficulties in interpreting data from graphs and tables. Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 752.
Chemometrics

Firstyear chemistry laboratory calculations on a spreadsheet Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W. 140. A laboratory exercise to introduce students to the use of computers and spreadsheets. Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 648.
Chemometrics

A mole of salt crystalsOr how big is the Avogadro number? Hoyt, William. Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective. Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

A simple but effective demonstration for illustrating significant figure rules when making measurements and doing calculations Zipp, Arden P. Students can be surprised and confused when different arithmetical operations are performed on experimental data, because the rules change when changing from addition to subtraction to multiplication or division. The following is a simple way to illustrate several aspects of these rules. Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 291.
Chemometrics

Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. 133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described. Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Having fun with the metric system Campbell, Mark L. A puzzle adds some fun to the mundane treatment of the metric system. Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1043.
Chemometrics

Some conundrums of chemical nomenclature Quigley, Michael N. When talking about chemistry, we use some awfully confusing terms that warrant scrutiny. Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1009.
Chemometrics

The development of statistical concepts in a designoriented laboratory course in scientific measuring Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H. This article offers a contribution to the development of curriculum that includes design and evaluation of measurements. Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1005.
Chemometrics

Chemical equations are actually matrix equations Alberty, Robert A. Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations. Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements Liebel, Michael This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements. Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Physical Properties 
Chemometrics 
Descriptive Chemistry

A carbonate project introducing students to the chemistry lab Dudek, Emily A description of a first semester general chemistry laboratory that helps acquaint students with a large variety of chemistry laboratory procedures. Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 948.
Chemometrics 
Gravimetric Analysis 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Separation Science

The use of "marathon" problems as effective vehicles for the presentation of general chemistry lectures Burness, James H. A marathon problem is a long, comprehensive, and difficult problem that ties together many of the topics in a chapter and that is solved together by the instructor and students. Sample problems are included and advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 919.
Chemometrics

An SI mnemonic Quigley, M. N. A mnemonic to help remember the physical quantities associated with the nine base SI units. Quigley, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 815.
Chemometrics

Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry Finster, David C. The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners. Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Chemometrics 
Descriptive Chemistry

Grafit Lisensky, George C. A data manipulation tool and plotting program useful at all levels of chemistry. Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 587.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing 
Chemometrics

Spacefilling PVT models Hilton, Don B. Spacefilling models help beginning students visualize the numerical aspects of the empirical gas laws. Hilton, Don B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 496.
Gases 
Noncovalent Interactions 
KineticMolecular Theory 
Chemometrics

When figures signify nothing Ahmad, Jamil Significant figures in the "real world" set poor standards and confusing examples for chemistry students. Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 469.
Chemometrics

Solving quadratic equations to the correct number of significant figures Thomas, Rudolf Presenting an application of the successive approximations method for solving quadratic or higher order expressions. Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 409.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Is 8C equal to 50F? Thompson, H. Bradford A play, commentary, modest proposal, and a "less modest" proposal regarding calculations and significant figures. Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 400.
Chemometrics

The effect of context on the translation of sentences into algebraic equations Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. Assessing students in a onesemester preparatory chemistry course to see how well students understand proportional relationships. Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 306.
Chemometrics

Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks Gordus, Adon A. The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations. Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Chemical equilibrium: II. Deriving an exact equilibrium equation Gordus, Adon A. In this article appearing in a series on chemical equilibrium, authors consider how to derive a completely general equation for any chemical mixture. Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 215.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

A simple firstorder consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution Hughes, Elvin, Jr. Power series methods should be used whenever possible in chemistry courses. Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 180.
Chemometrics 
Equilibrium

A simple firstorder consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania A different way to present an equilibrium equation that appeared previously in this Journal. Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 179.
Chemometrics 
Equilibrium

Finding largest common factors and simplest integer ratios Macomber, Roger S. General chemistry students can ease some of their mathphobia with an exam question that deals with a familiar topic prior to putting these same mathematical principles into the context of chemistry. Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 42.
Chemometrics

SEQS 3.0 Student Version Simultaneous Equation Solver (Tucker, Edwin E.) Dierenfeldt, K.E. SEQS 3.0 is a program of considerable versatility for solving sets of nonlinear simultaneous equations. Dierenfeldt, K.E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A149.
Chemometrics

A classroom experiment using the Pythagorean theorem in a discussion of the scientific method Sauls, Frederic, C. Experiment to verify the Pythagorean theorem as a means of introducing the importance of accurate measurements, accuracy and error. Sauls, Frederic, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 958.
Nonmajor Courses 
Chemometrics

Accuracy of measurements and the U.S. Census Gorin, George Some aspects of taking the Census can help students to understand the problem of measurement error and the use of significant figures. Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 936.
Chemometrics

Lessons learned from Lord Rayleigh on the importance of data analysis Larsen, Russell D. Analysis of the data collected by Lord Rayleigh in association with his discovery of argon presented as a model for scientific inquiry. Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 925.
Chemometrics 
Atmospheric Chemistry

ChemCalc: A scientific calculator Allendoerfer, Robert D. A scientific calculator program that can be used as a standalone or incorporated into other software written in BASIC. Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Chemometrics

A straightforward derivation of stoichiometric mass relationships Gorin, George An alternative to the factor label method for solving stoichiometric mass relationship problems. Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 762.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A significant example: How many days in a century? Lisensky, George Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures. Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Dynamic data storage in FORTRAN ChungPhillips, Alice 115. Bits and pieces, 44. The purpose of this article is to promote the use of dynamic storage allocation in FORTRAN to chemistry instructors and students in the present computing environment. ChungPhillips, Alice J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Chemometrics

Solving quadratic equations Brown, R. J. C. A better technique than the quadratic equation for chemical equilibria is offered here. Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 409.
Chemometrics 
Equilibrium

Introduction to experiment design for chemists Strange, Ronald S. One purpose of this paper is to review basic concepts and terminology of experimental design, analysis of data, and optimization. Strange, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 113.
Chemometrics

Exception to solving chem problems without the factorlabel approach (the author replies) Cardulla, Frank There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students. Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Exception to solving chem problems without the factorlabel approach Gillette, Marcia L. The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not. Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

The acidbase package: A collection of useful programs for protontransfer systems Hawkes, Stephen J. Four programs that deal with the types of acidbase calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses. Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics

AtlanticPacific sig figs Stone, Helen M. Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations. Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

How to visualize Avogadro's number van Lubeck, Henk Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole. van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Significant figure rules for general arithmetic functions Graham, D. M. Rules for determining what happens to the number of significant figures as various types of mathematical operations are performed upon certain quantities. Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 573.
Chemometrics

A stoichiometric journey Molle, Brian A story to help students overcome some of the difficulties they encounter in stoichiometry calculations. Molle, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 561.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Being a participant in the future Parker, O. Jerry Integrating computer technology into undergraduate chemistry courses. Parker, O. Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 500.
Administrative Issues 
Chemometrics

The relationship between Mdemand, algorithms, and problem solving: A neoPiagetian analysis Niaz, Mansoor One of the most important implements developed by the neoPiagetian theory is task analysis, that is, the evaluation of the Mdemand of a problem. Mdemand can be defined as: maximum number of steps that the subject must mobilize simultaneously in in the course of executing a task. Niaz, Mansoor J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 422.
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

Significant Figures and Error Propagation West, Allen C. Schwartz is wrong to say that 125 mL +/ 5% means a systematic error of +/5%. West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 272.
Chemometrics

Accurate equations of state in computational chemistry projects Allbee, David; Jones, Edward 101. This article presents one method that allows students to become familiar with the use of modern equations of state and also enhances their understanding of how computers can be used in the study and application of chemistry. [Includes "Editor's note: Changes in the computer series", by Lagowski, J. J., p. 226] Allbee, David; Jones, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 226.
Applications of Chemistry 
Chemometrics

Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a BeerLambert standard curve. Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science 
Chemometrics

Graphical analysis III (Vernier, David L.) Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. Two reviews of a complete graphing tool suitable for high school and college applications with a wide range of operations varying in complexity. Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A269.
Chemometrics

Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard) Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more. Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Equilibrium 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Stoichiometry 
Physical Properties 
Acids / Bases 
Covalent Bonding

Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program Henderson, John An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of leastsquares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the leastsquares calculation. Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics 
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing 
UVVis Spectroscopy 
Rate Law 
Kinetics 
Enzymes

Teaching students to use algorithms for solving generic and harder problems in general chemistry Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. This paper describes teaching strategies that help students improve their problemsolving skills. Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 987.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Let's separate theories from calculations Freilich, Mark B. This author writes in a 'provocative opinion' article challenging the readers to think about heavily emphasizing 'thought problems' in chemistry and allowing students to master those before throwing calculations into the mix. Freilich, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 442.
Chemometrics

An alternative to using the PV = nRT equation Desmarais, George This author shares his application of the factorlabel method to solving gas problems which involves using the ideal gas constant as the starting point in the relationship. Desmarais, George J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 392.
Gases 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Avogadro's number: A perverse view Lehman, Thomas A. A way to think of Avogadro's number: take anything and double it 79 times. Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 282.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Remember E = hv is correct only half of the time Leo, Howard, R. Reminder that the title equation (Planck) is not algebraically correct. Leo, Howard, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 11.
Chemometrics 
Photochemistry

Good numerical technique in chemistry: The quadratic equation Thompson, H. Bradford Texts commonly avoid examples with bad roundoff problems or handle them by approximation; none of this is necessary, for simple techniques are available to handle quadratic equations easily and precisely. Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1009.
Chemometrics

Reaction stoichiometry and suitable "coordinate systems" Tykodi, R. J. Methods for dealing with problems involving reactions stoichiometry: unitize and scale up, factorlabel procedure, de Donder ratios, and titration relations. Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 958.
Stoichiometry 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Chemometrics

Hard ways and easy ways Schwartz, Lowell M. Two examples of common general chemistry calculations and different approaches ("hard" and "easy") to solving them. Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 698.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Solving limiting reagent problems (the author replies) Kalantar, A. H. Thanks for clarification and suggestion. Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Solving limiting reagent problems Skovlin, Dean O. Uncertainty in the meaning of the term X. Skovlin, Dean O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Statistical evaluation of class data for two buret readings Gordus, Adon A. Data that serve to illustrate both random and systematic errors in measurements characteristic of titrations. Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 376.
Chemometrics 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Mole fraction revisited Mancott, A. This problem requires the use of algebraic reasoning to derive and solve a fraction linear equation based on the concept of moles and conservation of moles. Mancott, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Slopes of straight lines when neither axis is error free Kalantar, A. H. The iterative effective variance method is not reliable and its use is pedagogically unwise. Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 28.
Chemometrics

The length of a pestle: A class exercise in measurement and statistical analysis O'Reilly, James E. Too many students get through chemistry without acquiring a basic understanding and appreciation of the concepts of measurement science. The purpose of this report is to outline an extremely simple class exercise as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating data. O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 894.
Chemometrics

Calculation of Madelung constants in the first year chemistry course Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward 76. Bits and pieces, 31. A computer program aids in understanding the nature of the Madelung constants. Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 840.
Crystals / Crystallography 
Chemometrics

Teaching significant figures using a learning cycle Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. Can we teach significant figures in a way that will be better retained by our students? These authors propose a solution. Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 786.
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

A flowchart for dimensional analysis Graham, D. M. A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems. Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Stoichiometry

Where did that number come from? DeLorenzo, Ronald With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board. DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Factorlabel: Another view Maloy, Joseph T. It is of interest to our students' academic development that we teach them the mathematical theory behind factor label approaches to problems solving. Maloy, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 186.
Chemometrics

Unit basis a neglected problemsolving technique Beichl, George J. A technique that will prevent students from using ineffective problemsolving techniques such as dimensional analysis. Beichl, George J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 146.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

On writing equations Campbell, J.A. The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach. Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

An interactive, screenoriented, general linear regression program Joshi, Bhairav D. 65. Bits and pieces, 26. Description of GSLINE, a program runs linear regressions. Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1027.
Chemometrics

Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 2. Elementary entities play their part Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley One of the problems that learners have to overcome when doing stoichiometry calculations is to learn how statements about elementary entities given by formulas and equations are related to statements about portions of substances as measured in the macroscopic world. Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1021.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Pandemonium pesticide: A simple demonstration illustrating some fundamental chemical concepts Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D. Demonstration that uses large, visible particles to simulate calculations of atomic / molecular mass, percentage composition, and molecular formula. Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 870.
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically. Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers: Another approach McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. A preliminary activity to help students understand the concept and calculations of the determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers. McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 795.
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Chemometrics

Propagation of significant figures Schwartz, Lowell M. The rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 693.
Chemometrics

A different look at the solubilityproduct principle Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. The progressive addition of Cl to Ag+ yields an ionproduct equal to Ksp at two different points. Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Solutions / Solvents 
Chemometrics

Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis Drake, Robert F. Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis. Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

"Chemistry" problems without chemical terminology Ciereszko, Leon S. Three questions analogous to percentage composition and Charles' law calculations. Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 402.
Chemometrics

Derivation of the ideal gas law Levine, S. Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence. Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases 
Thermodynamics 
Chemometrics

Using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations Berger, Selman A. Two examples of using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations. Berger, Selman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Problemsolving skills in chemistry made easier Fast, Kenneth V. Stepbystep format for performing common calculations in chemistry. Fast, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A convenient device to demonstrate statistically based sampling error in a particulate mixture Reid, R. S. Apparatus to demonstrate statistically based sampling error using a mixture of colored beads. Reid, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 252.
Chemometrics

Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours? Zajicek, O. T. Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples. Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases 
Atmospheric Chemistry 
pH 
Chemometrics

Limiting reagent problems made simple for students Kalantar, A. H. Method for determining the limiting reagent among three or more reactants. Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 106.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Five Avogadro's number problems Todd, David Five problems involving Avogadro's number. Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept Ihde, John The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut] Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Periodicity / Periodic Table

Graphical Analysis, Review II (Dice, David R.) Sievers, Dennis A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data. Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A324.
Chemometrics

Graphical Analysis, Review I (Dice, David R.) Palmer, Glenn E. A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data. Palmer, Glenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A323.
Chemometrics

The Elements of Style in Chemistry, A Computerassisted Instruction Supported Text (Beatty, James W.; Beatty, James J.) Crawford, Victor A. Intended to support students who have trouble solving important types of problems in chemistry. Crawford, Victor A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A27.
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Chemometrics

Uncertainty analysis by the "worst case" method Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise A new method of uncertainty propagation that is in many ways superior to the traditional manipulation of absolute and relative uncertainty. Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 780.
Chemometrics

The factorlabel method: Is it all that great? Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David The development of reasoning skills in chemistry is better achieved by postponing the introduction of the factorlabel method. Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 522.
Chemometrics

The density of solids Burgess, Dale Using density measurements as an opportunity to discuss experimental procedures, error, and significant figures. Burgess, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 242.
Chemometrics 
Physical Properties

Teaching factorlabel method without sleight of hand Garrett, James M. As an aid in teaching the factorlabel method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors. Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Reflections upon mathematics in the introductory chemistry course Goodstein, Madeline P. It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the lack of mathematical competence by chemistry students and to invite consideration of one conceptual scheme which may be used to unify the mathematical approach. Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 665.
Chemometrics 
Gases

On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium problems Ludwig, Oliver G. Students often have a hard time knowing when to disregard equilibrium roots that are too large or are negative. The author suggests a convincing proof that helps students understand how the relationship between the conceptual and mathematical. Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 547.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Empirical pKb and pKa for nonmetal hydrides from periodic table position Bayless, Philip L. The equation in this article was developed by the author. It estimates the aqueous pKa for certain acids to an average deviation of 0.1pK unit for those with experimentally determined values and agrees with experimentally determined values, and as well as with estimates for those too weak or too strong to be measured. Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 546.
Acids / Bases 
pH 
Chemometrics

Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids Brice, L. K. The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman. Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics 
Liquids 
Solids 
Chemometrics 
Equilibrium

The use of the WarnierOrr program design method in the preparation of general chemistry tutorials Hach, Edwin E., Jr. 39. In this article, a modified WarnierOrr approach is illustrated for a computer tutorial involving ideal gas calculations. Hach, Edwin E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 348.
Gases 
Chemometrics

The spilled can of paint Perkins, Robert The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion. Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

The liquid silver parade Perkins, Robert The activity described in this note is useful in illustrating how small atoms are to students. Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Titration calculations a problemsolving approach Waddling, Robin E. L. This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data. Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Chemometrics

Mass spectral analysis of halogen compounds Holdsworth, David K. 37. Bits and pieces, 14. A pocket calculator can be programmed to decide and display the halogen combination in a molecularion cluster by examination of the (M+2)/M or (X+2)/X percentage values. Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 103.
Chemometrics 
Mass Spectrometry

A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations Guida, Wayne C. 37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations . Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH 
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics

Data generation in the classroom Blanco, Luis H. A pendulum device for generating data for statistical analysis. Blanco, Luis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1028.
Chemometrics 
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus

The estimation of Avogadro's number using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III Results and calculations using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer in estimating Avogadro's number. Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 751.
Stoichiometry 
Molecular Properties / Structure 
Chemometrics

Chemical equation balancing: A general method which is quick, simple, and has unexpected applications Blakley, G. R. Using matrices to solve mathematical equations and balance chemical equations. From "The Goals of General Chemistry  A Symposium." Blakley, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 728.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Mathematics in data analysis: An introduction Wang, Taitzer The meaning of simple mathematical equations are described in a perspective that, for some reasons, many beginning students do not seem to be able to obtain from reading textbooks on the subject. Wang, Taitzer J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 592.
Chemometrics

Recurrent difficulties: Solving quantitative problems KramersPals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J. Investigating the process students use to solve quantitative problems using a think aloud strategy. KramersPals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 509.
Chemometrics

Remedial mathematics for the introductory chemistry course: The "CHEM. 99" concept Bohning, James J. An approach that is aimed specifically at mathematical deficiencies and based on the premise that the deductive reasoning process that accompanies basic mathematical technique is crucial for a meaningful comprehension of general chemistry principles. Bohning, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 207.
Chemometrics

Buffers Gold, Marvin A demonstration based on buffer calculations. Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics

Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. 25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules. Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Thermodynamics 
Chemometrics

CAI Programs in BASIC and an associated MATH subroutine Anderson, Robert Hunt 25. Bits and pieces, 9. Four BASIC programs involving basic calculations and mathematical problems in chemistry. Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 129.
Chemometrics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Basic mathematics for beginning chemistry (Goldish, Dorthoy M.) Ellison, Herbert R.
Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A65.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Think Wheeler, S. J., James D. Students have an easy enough time crunching numbers, but it is alarming how little they understand the concepts behind the numbers. Students should not be making remarks such as, "If they keep changing how they write the problems, how am I supposed to know how to solve them?" Wheeler, S. J., James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1004.
Learning Theories 
Chemometrics

Small things and large numbers Rosenberg, Milton H. Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note. Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Superlative problems Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E. The data in the Guinness Book of World Records holds great potential for fun, interesting chemistry exercises. Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 795.
Chemometrics

Balancing complex redox equations by inspection Kolb, Doris A stepbystep walk through of the inspection process for balancing equations. Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 642.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A statistical note on the time lag method for secondorder kinetic rate constants Schwartz, Lowell M. A clever method for finding secondorder kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed. Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics 
Kinetics 
Rate Law

A mathematics readiness test for prospective chemistry students Weisman, Rence L. A mathematics readiness test is prepared to determine whether students have the minimum competency necessary to succeed in chemistry. Weisman, Rence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 564.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics

How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions) Fulkrod, John E. Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system. Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Pressure and the exploding beverage container Perkins, Robert R. The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the firstyear level student. Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry 
Gases 
Thermodynamics 
Chemometrics

A specific heat analogy McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC An analogy for helping students to understand the concepts of specific heat and heat transfer problems. McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 896.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Chemometrics

Sweet heat O'Connor, Rod What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature? O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates 
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Chemometrics

Teaching and learning problem solving in science. Part I: A general strategy Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; KramersPals, H. A systematic approach to solving problems and on designing instruction where students learn this approach. Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; KramersPals, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 882.
Chemometrics

Empirical formulas  A ratio problem Knox, Kerro A problem involving an analogy between ratios of boys to girls given their average weights and percentage composition of the class by weight. Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Chemometrics 
Molecular Properties / Structure

Mole fraction analogies DeLorenzo, Ron An analogy to help students solve concentration problems. DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics 
Solutions / Solvents

Dissociation of a weak acid Ladd, M. F. C. An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results. Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students Burness, James H. Question suitable for a takehome type of exam. Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases 
Solutions / Solvents 
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Significant figures: Removing the zero mystique Treptow, Richard S. Zeros are significant if they appear before a number takes on size or as standins for unknown digits. Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 646.
Chemometrics

Whatever became of significant figures? The trend toward numerical illiteracy Anderlik, Barbara How does one persuade students, when working with physical measurements, to part with excess digits and become numerically literate. Anderlik, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 591.
Chemometrics

An illustration to demonstrate the smallness of molecules Kingston, David W. An exercise in dimensional analysis. Kingston, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Chemometrics

Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus" Gorin, George Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures. Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems. Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Adding another dimension to dimensional analysis DeLorenzo, Ronald Adding words to typical dimensional analysis work to improve understanding and communication. DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 302.
Chemometrics

Significant digits: Numbers and their logarithms Clever, H. Lawrence The number of digits to report in a base 10 logarithm is an unresolved problem for many students. Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 824.
Chemometrics 
pH

The physically meaningful solution of the quadratic equation Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D. Shows that the potential ambiguity of two unequal but physically meaningful roots never arises. Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics

Calculators in freshman chemistry  An alternative view Gold, Marvin There is a serious negative aspect to allowing freshmen use of calculators in chemistry. Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics

Measurement errors: A lecture demonstration Munn, Robert J. A lecture demonstration to realistically discuss precision, accuracy, averaging, data rejection, and significant digits. Munn, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Chemometrics

How many significant digits in 0.05C? Power, James D. Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C. Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Calculators, slide rules, and significant figures McCullough, Thomas, CSC Using a slide rule to help students understand the concept of significant figures before using a calculator. McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Chemometrics

Intuitive and general approach to acidbase equilibrium calculations Felty, Wayne L. The purpose of this paper is to show that the usual intuitive approach used in general chemistry can be readily extended without introduction of additional, sophisticated concepts to give the general, exact expression and to point out the pedagogical advantage of its use. Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 576.
Acids / Bases 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

Pressure calculations Schultz, Charles W. This question requires students to be able to distinguish two kinds of pressure: Boyles law pressure of gas (that depends on volume) from the equilibrium vapor pressure above a liquid (that does not). Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Gases 
Chemometrics

Balancing an atypical redox equation Carrano, S. A. The author presents a particularly tricky redox problem and walks readers through a solution. Carrano, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 382.
Chemometrics 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Stoichiometry

Chemical predictions from pKa values Hassanali, A. The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids. Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases 
pH 
Chemometrics

Teaching the method of successive approximations Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful. Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics 
Acids / Bases 
Gases

Collision theory Myers, Richard S. The question presented here can be employed in general or physical chemistry courses. Myers, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Chemometrics 
Thermodynamics 
Kinetics

The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions Kolb, Doris A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism. Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Reactions

A pregeneral chemistry course for the underprepared student Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse Outline and evaluation of a course in chemical problem solving. Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 730.
Enrichment / Review Materials 
Chemometrics

Chemical equilibrium: Analogies that separate the mathematics from the chemistry DeLorenzo, Ronald A. Demonstrates that the mathematics of chemical equilibria are not difficult, particularly when put in a nonchemical context. DeLorenzo, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

On significant figures MacCarthy, Patrick Illustrating the decrease in uncertainty that accompanies an increase in significant figures. MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Chemometrics

Simple classroom experiment on uncertainty of measurement Sen, B. This activity demonstrates several aspects regarding the statistical treatment of data. Sen, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 468.
Chemometrics

Calculators and significant figures Satek, Larry C. A demonstration on the topic of significant figures and random errors. Satek, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 177.
Chemometrics

Cookbook dimensional analysis DeLorenzo, Ronald Frequently, teachers will hear, "...it looks easy when you do it..." when teaching dimensional analysis. This teacher advises others on a way to help students gain selfefficacy with this problem solvingstrategy. DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 633.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A criterion for the simple approximation in dissociation equilibria Leffler, Amos J. The author demonstrates quantitative criterion for the assumption that permits the neglect of the amount of dissociated species in the denominator of the dissociation equation. Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 460.
Acids / Bases 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics

A logic diagram for teaching stoichiometry Tyndall, John R. Presents a diagram that the author found helpful in teaching the fundamentals of stoichiometry. Tyndall, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 492.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Maximizing profits in equilibrium processes Rish, Ronald J. Provides the student with an example in which both chemical principles and calculus are applied to a realistic industrial situation where profits are a must. Rish, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 441.
Equilibrium 
Industrial Chemistry 
Chemometrics

Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium Chaston, S. H. H. The ControlEquilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials. Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents 
Chemometrics 
Equilibrium

Illustrating large and small numbers. A problem for the birds Sattler, Louis A calculation designed to illustrate the relative size of Avogadro's number. The solution from p. 181 is reproduced in this PDF. Sattler, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 180.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

FeSCN2+  A computer aid to the CHEM Study experiment McCall, Arthur J., Jr. A Fortran program assists in making the calculations that accompany investigation of the iron(III)thiocyanate equilibrium system. McCall, Arthur J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 118.
Equilibrium 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Chemometrics

Discussion: Mathematics in the firstyear chemistry course Richter, G. P. Report of the Third Biennial Conference on Chemical Education and the Second Centennial of Chemistry Celebration. Richter, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 19.
Conferences 
Professional Development 
Chemometrics

A computer program for heat of combustion calculations Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol A computer program is available for converting raw combustion data to the standard state energy of combustion. Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 486.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Chemometrics

A quick scored item analysis for objective tests Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr. Analyzing test data with students in the classroom. Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 354.
Chemometrics

Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator McEachern, Douglas M. A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change. McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Thermodynamics 
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams 
Chemometrics

Problem solving for chemistry (Peters, Edward I.) Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J.
Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A491.
Chemometrics

Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.) Melgaard, Kennett G.
Melgaard, Kennett G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A98.
Chemometrics

Significant digits in logarithmantilogarithm interconversions Jones, Donald E. Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms. Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

A "relevant" first experiment for freshman chemistry laboratory Macomber, Roger S. This activity involves popping corn and introduces students to the processes of observation and inference as well as the use of the analytical balance and gravimetric procedure. Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 714.
Chemometrics

An interactive program for teaching pH and logarithms Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. A computer program written in APL for teaching students logarithms and pH calculations. Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 571.
pH 
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics

The twoplace logarithm table. An aid to understanding and use of logarithms Freiser, Henry Presents a twoplace logarithm table that serves to aid the understanding and use of logarithms. Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 325.
Chemometrics

Density of a binary mixture. A classroom or laboratory exercise Feinstein, H. I. Provides a hypothetical problem in the density of a binary mixture. Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 111.
Physical Properties 
Chemometrics

Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems Mancott, Anatol Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples. Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics 
Solutions / Solvents 
Isotopes

Audio taped explanations of freshman experimental calculations Harrison, Aline M. The authors have found audio tapes to be effective replacements for live, inlab explanations of experimental calculations. Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 826.
Chemometrics 
Laboratory Management

SI units in physicochemical calculations Norris, A. C. This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physicochemical calculations found at the undergraduate level. Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Acidbase reaction parameters Freiser, Henry The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acidbase titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation. Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases 
pH 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Chemometrics

Grading the copper sulfide experiment Novick, Seymour The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment. Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Chemical exponentialism for beginners Larson, G. Olof Presents a method for introducing and reviewing exponential mathematical operations. Larson, G. Olof J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 693.
Chemometrics

Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate Nakayama, F. S. Presents a procedure for obtaining the ion concentrations of the various component species produced by the hydrolysis of sodium carbonate. Nakayama, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 67.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Chemometrics 
pH

Component concentrations in solutions of weak acids Goldish, Dorothy M. presents a new approach to teaching the subject of weak acid equilibria and its associated calculations. Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 65.
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics 
pH

Essential Math for the Sciences: Algebra, Trigonometry, and Vectors (Beiser, Arthur) Reuland, Donald J.
Reuland, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A899.
Chemometrics

Volkswagen versus the hummingbird Nebbia, Giorgio Questions the cited (046070455) thermodynamic calculations. Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics 
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Chemometrics

LTE. Crocker, Roger The author points out that the objections raised to his earlier work are academic. Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

LTE. Algebra and chemical equations Copley, George Novello The author questions the mathematic validity of the cited work. Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Fuel conversion in transport phenomena Gerlach, E. R. Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen. Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry 
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+] Grimm, Larry C. This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+]. Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics 
Acids / Bases 
pH 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry

Hazardous chemicals data National Fire Protection Association Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde. National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics 
Aldehydes / Ketones 
Laboratory Management

Chlorine trifluoride. Steere, Norman V. Summarizes the hazards associated with chlorine trifluoride. Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1057.
Chemometrics 
Laboratory Management

The significance of significant figures Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures. Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Chemometrics

Statistical analysis of data in the general chemistry laboratory Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. Students are asked to analyze data collected with respect to determinations of Dumas molecular weight, equivalent weight of a metal, equivalent weight of an acid, and molecular weight by freezing point depression. Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 564.
Chemometrics

Computer program for the calculation of acidbase titration curves Emery, Allan R. Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acidbase titration curves. Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Chemometrics

Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions. Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Equilibrium 
Acids / Bases 
pH 
Chemometrics 
BrønstedLowry Acids / Bases

Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.) Ramette, R. W.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Precipitation / Solubility 
pH 
Acids / Bases 
Chemometrics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Problem solving in chemistry (Tilbury, Glen) Whitney, Richard M.
Whitney, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A532.
Chemometrics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Operator formalism in dimensional analysis Musulin, Boris Describes another approach to dimensional analysis. Musulin, Boris J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 622.
Chemometrics

The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations Nash, Leonard K. Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry. Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics 
Chemometrics

Beer's law without calculus Pinkerton, Richard C. There is no good reason for using calculus in the presentation of Beer's law. Pinkerton, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 366.
Chemometrics

A method of visual representation of three dimensional functions Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H. Lego blocks are used to visually represent threedimensional functions. Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 165.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics

An amperometrickinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment Young, J. A. Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal. Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research 
Kinetics 
Chemometrics

Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.) Masterton, William L.
Masterton, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 499.
Chemometrics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Basic mathematics of science and engineering (Wood, Reuben E.) Rosenberg, Robert M.
Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A60.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Enrichment / Review Materials

Balancing ionic equations by the method of undetermined coefficients Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. Describes a mathematical method for balancing chemical equations. Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 537.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A simple method for finding slopes Hoare, James P. Describes a simple method for determining the tangent at any point on a given curve using a solid glass rod. Hoare, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 570.
Chemometrics

An approach to complex equilibrium problems Butler, James N. Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations. Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics 
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry

Initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products Haslam, E. Derivation of the initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products. Haslam, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 471.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

An exact titration equation Bolie, Victor W. The purpose of this paper is to show the development of a titration equation for a precipitation reaction which is exact in the mathematical sense. Bolie, Victor W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 449.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Chemometrics 
Undergraduate Research

Radioactive decay calculations without calculus Guenther, William B. Presents a method for halflife calculations that does not rely on the use of calculus. Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 414.
Chemometrics 
Nuclear / Radiochemistry

Solution of problems in chemistry Trousdale, Everett A. Presents a method for analyzing and solving mole calculations. Trousdale, Everett A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 299.
Chemometrics 
Stoichiometry

Dimensional analysis of chemical laws and theories Benfey, O. Theodore The dimensional analysis of the kinetic theory and organic structural theory. Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 286.
Chemometrics 
KineticMolecular Theory

On the second order rate equation Said, Abdel S. Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction. Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics 
Rate Law 
Chemometrics

A formula for indirect gravimetry Fiekers, B. A. Derivation of a formula for indirect gravimetry and application to a sample problem. Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 575.
Gravimetric Analysis 
Chemometrics 
Quantitative Analysis

A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided. Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics 
Chemometrics

The experimental determination of an error distribution Nelson, Lloyd S. Discusses an experiment in which students are asked to the average deviation and probable errors in their measurements. Nelson, Lloyd S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 126.
Chemometrics

Pocket slide rule for pH calculations Pitzer, Edgar C. A pocket slide rule may be used for direct conversion from hydrogenion activity to pH, or vice versa, without the need for arithmetical computation. Pitzer, Edgar C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 300.
pH 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
Chemometrics

Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance Stacy, Irving F. Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance. Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus 
Instrumental Methods 
Chemometrics

A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations Drenan, James W. Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion. Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry 
pH 
Chemometrics

Proper place problems MacKenzie, Scott A mathematical analysis of evaluating problems in which students are asked to place items in the correct order. MacKenzie, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 428.
Chemometrics

A log table for pH problems Condon, Francis E. Provides a readily remembered log table suitable for computing pH from hydroniumion concentration and the reverse. Condon, Francis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 323.
pH 
Chemometrics 
Acids / Bases 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry

Letters to the editor Weaver, Elbert C. Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square. Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents 
Chemometrics

Letters to the editor Wescott, Emery N. Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square. Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents 
Chemometrics

Mathematical chemistry Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David Examines some of the challenges involved in the design of a course in mathematics suitable for undergraduate chemists. Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 570.
Chemometrics 
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics

A procedure for solving equilibrium problems Boyd, Robert Neilson A procedure for solving equilibrium problems is illustrated through several sample problems. Boyd, Robert Neilson J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 198.
Equilibrium 
Chemometrics 
Aqueous Solution Chemistry

