TIGER

Journal Articles: 679 results
New Observations on the Copper-to-Silver-to-Gold Demonstration  Dorin Bejan, Jeff Hastie, and Nigel J. Bunce
This analysis of the classic copper-to-silver-to-gold demonstration describes the deposition of zinc in the form of the silver-colored alloy ?-brass, the evolution of hydrogen at the copper cathode, and the behavior of the associated electrochemical cell.
Bejan, Dorin; Hastie, Jeff; Bunce, Nigel J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1381.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Manual Data Processing in Analytical Chemistry: Linear Calibration  Dora Melucci
Most science students are familiar with Excel spreadsheets, but determining which of Excels statistical functions perform a calculation equivalent to a classical equation and calculating errors with Excel are not trivial exercises.
Melucci, Dora. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1346.
Calibration |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions  Paul G. Jasien
A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipoledipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points for a series of simple, straight-chain organic compounds. Application of this model may be useful in addressing student misconceptions related to the additivity of intermolecular interactions.
Jasien, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1222.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties
Appreciating Oxygen  Hilton M. Weiss
Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that powers life on earth.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1218.
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Thermodynamics
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery  Hiromasa Goto, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Fumihiro Togashi, Reina Ohta, Akitsu Tsujimoto, Eiji Kita, and Ken-ichi Ohshima
The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level.
Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1067.
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
Prussian Blue: Artists' Pigment and Chemists' Sponge  Mike Ware
The variable composition of Prussian blue tantalized chemists until investigations by X-ray crystallography in the late 20th century explained its many properties and uses.
Ware, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 612.
Applications of Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Toxicology
Metal Electrodeposition on an Integrated, Screen-Printed Electrode Assembly  Yieu Chyan and Oliver Chyan
Screen-printed, carbon strip electrodes illustrate the essential concepts of electrochemistry and electrodeposition; their light weight facilitates sensitive measurements of electrodeposited metal, allowing for the exploration of Faraday's law and electrodeposition efficiency.
Chyan, Yieu; Chyan, Oliver. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 565.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory   Robert J. Olsen
This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set.
Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Yet Another Variation on the Electrolysis of Water at Iron Nails  Mark T. Stauffer and Justin P. Fox
Describes a variation on the electrolysis of water with iron nails in which a sharp contrast in the colors produced effectively demonstrates electrolysis and the diffusion of oxidized and reduced species from the electrodes.
Stauffer, Mark T.; Fox, Justin P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  Joe Lee
This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders.
Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The Use of Conjugate Charts in Transfer Reactions: A Unified Approach  Michael I. Allnutt
Redox reactions are discussed in terms of the relative strengths of the oxidant, the reductant, and their conjugates; a conjugate chart is a convenient and useful way of doing this. A similar chart for acids and bases that can be applied in the same manner is proposed.
Allnutt, Michael I. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1659.
Acids / Bases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration  Metodija Najdoski, Valentin Mirceski, Vladimir M. Petruševski, and Sani Demiri
The classic mercury beating heart demonstration is modified with various electrolytes.
Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1292.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Surface Science
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc–Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes  Masahiro Kamata and Miei Paku
Describes a new educational experiment using low-cost zincair batteries and current regulative diode arrays to quickly confirm Faraday's law of electrolysis.
Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 674.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
Introducing New Learning Tools into a Standard Classroom: A Multi-Tool Approach to Integrating Fuel-Cell Concepts into Introductory College Chemistry   Matthew J. DAmato, Kenneth W. Lux, Kenneth A. Walz, Holly Walter Kerby, and Barbara Anderegg
Describes an approach to deliver the science and engineering concepts involved in fuel-cell technology to the introductory college chemistry classroom using traditional lectures, multimedia learning objects, and a lab activity to enhance student learning in a hands-on, interactive manner.
DAmato, Matthew J.; Lux, Kenneth W.; Walz, Kenneth A.; Kerby, Holly Walter; Anderegg, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 248.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Membranes
An Easy Way to Personalize Your Iron or Stainless Steel Items  Ejaz ur Rehman
Describes a simple and useful method for permanently labeling metallic items by the application of alternating current through a mask.
Rehman, Ejaz ur. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 40.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green–Red–Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard T. Roberts
Describes an oxidationreduction, clock reaction involving iodate, sulfite, and thiosulfate that produces large swings in pH, causing a combination of acidbase indicators to effect greenredgreen color changes.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1804.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Kool Reaction from the Fine Print  Susan A. S. Hershberger and Arlyne M. Sarquis
Students investigate the reduction of artificial food dyes by citric acid-promoted oxidation of a metal in the form of fine or coarse steel wool. The artificial red and yellow food dyes present in drink mixes contain azo linkages (nitrogennitrogen double bonds) that are readily reduced to colorless products under mild reducing conditions.
Hershberger, Susan A. S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1792A.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Understanding Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  Juris Meija
Offers a simple graphical tool for obtaining complex isotopic distributions.
Meija, Juris. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Chemometrics
Effectiveness of Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy To Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya, Musa Üce, Hakan Sariçayir, and Musa Sahin
This article presents efforts to develop a conceptual change-oriented strategy to teaching galvanic cells in electrochemistry. The objective is to assess the effectiveness of conceptual change-oriented instruction relative to conventional instruction using statistical comparisons.
Özkaya, Ali Riza; Üce, Musa; Sariçayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1719.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research
The Importance and Efficacy of Using Statistics in the High School Chemistry Laboratory  Paul S. Matsumoto
This paper describes some statistical concepts and their application to various experiments used in high school chemistry.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1649.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories  Shui-Ping Yang and Ruei-Ying Tsai
A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators.
Yang, Shui-Ping; Tsai, Ruei-Ying. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Todd P. Silverstein
Offers additional solutions to the cracked watch glass problem associated with an earlier published dehydration of sugar demonstration.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
New Highlights on Analyzing First-Order Kinetic Data of the Peroxodisulfate–Iodide System at Different Temperatures  J. Yperman and W. J. Guedens
A pseudo-first order kinetic experiment examining the peroxodisulfateiodide system is executed at different temperatures, making it possible to calculate the activation energy of this reaction.
Yperman, J.; Guedens, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 641.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Thermodynamics
Steel Wool and Oxygen: How Constant Should a Rate Constant Be?  Michiel Vogelezang
In the article Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics, James Gordon and Katherine Chancey describe an experiment about the kinetics between iron and oxygen. Like all good experiments this one is easy to carry out and produces good results. However, the experiment can even have a greater impact with only a small addition.
Vogelezang, Michiel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 214.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Cross-Proportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills  Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook
This paper focuses attention on the cross-proportion (C-P) method of mathematical problem solving, which was once widely used in chemical calculations. We propose that this method regain currency as an alternative to the dimensional analysis (DA) method, particularly in lower-level chemistry courses. In recent years, the DA method has emerged as the only problem solving mechanism offered to high-school and general chemistry students in contemporary textbooks, replacing more conceptual methods, C-P included.
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1187.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
An experimental method is described to study the kinetics of the reaction of the iron in steel wool with molecular oxygen. A calculator-based data collection system is used with an oxygen gas sensor to determine the order of the reaction with respect to oxygen. Using the graphical method, students determine that the reaction follows first-order kinetics with respect to oxygen.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1065.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Modified Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide  Carlos Alexander Trujillo
A safer and cheaper version of the popular catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide demonstration commonly called the Elephants Toothpaste is presented. Hydrogen peroxide is decomposed in the presence of a surfactant by the enzyme catalase producing foam. Catalase has a higher activity compared with the traditional iodide and permits the use of diluted hydrogen peroxide solutions. The demonstration can be made with household products with similar amazing effects.
Trujillo, Carlos Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 855.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems  Paul S. Matsumoto
The traditional method to determine the equilibrium concentration of chemicals in a reaction, given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentration of chemicals in the reaction, involves the determination of the reaction quotient. This article will demonstrate that this step may be eliminated; thereby simplifying the algorithm to solve such problems. Such a reduction in the complexity of the algorithm may result in more students successfully being able to solve such problems.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 406.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
A new detection method is applied to a classic experiment in which gaseous atmospheric oxygen in a test tube is reacted with the iron in steel wool to produce rust. A gas pressure sensor interfaced to a calculator-based data collection system was used to measure the percent of oxygen in the air as the reaction proceeded. The results from the calculator-based experiment were compared to the results from a more traditional water-measurement experiment. The average percent of oxygen obtained using the calculator system was 19.4  0.4%.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 286.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Copper Metal from Malachite circa 4000 B.C.E.  Gordon T. Yee, Jeannine E. Eddleton, and Cris E. Johnson
The experiment starts with a naturally occurring ore, malachite, essentially pure Cu2CO3(OH)2, which is readily available at modest cost in bead form from jewelry stores. Using only a Bunsen burner, a porcelain crucible, and a charcoal briquette, the experiment demonstrates two steps in the ancient processing of copper ore: roasting and reduction. The product is a shiny copper metal bead that can then be hammered, polished, and shown to be electrically conductive.
Yee, Gordon T.; Eddleton, Jeannine E.; Johnson, Cris E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1777.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Statistical Comparison of Data in the Analytical Laboratory  Michael J. Samide
In this article, an experiment designed to provide students with an experience involving statistical treatment of data is described. This experiment allows students to compare 11 different techniques for measuring specific volumes of water. Replicate measurements are taken for each technique and comparisons are made both within a data set and between different data sets. Through calculation of t-values, students are able to draw conclusions about the precision and accuracy of these various techniques.
Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1641.
Chemometrics
Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices To Teach Materials Science  Hannah Sevian, Sean Müller, Hartmut Rudmann, and Michael F. Rubner
Light-emitting thin films provide an excellent opportunity to learn about principles of electrochemistry, spectroscopy, microscopic structure of the solid state, basic circuits, and engineering design. There is currently strong interest in academic and industrial engineering research centering on developing organic light-emitting devices for applications in flat panel displays. In this educational module, designed for high school or introductory undergraduate courses, students learn how to make a ruthenium-based thin-film device. In the process, they learn about the solid-state electrochemistry at work in the film, as well as the electroluminescence that results when current passes through the device.
Sevian, Hannah; Müller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1620.
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Old Nassau Demonstration with Wilkinson Modification  Lawrence E. Wilkinson
A modification of the Old Nassau Reaction demonstration is presented, wherein a 0.025 M silver nitrate solution is used in place of the mercury(II) chloride solution employed in the original demonstration.
Wilkinson, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1474.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A Small-Scale and Low-Cost Apparatus for the Electrolysis of Water  Per-Odd Eggen and Lise Kvittingen
This article describes how to construct two simple, inexpensive, and illustrative apparatuses using disposable polyethene pipets and floral wire for electrolysis of water. These apparatuses suit various grades and curricula.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1337.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?  Stephen J. Hawkes
"Rigor" in introductory chemistry is often equated with quantitation. Consequently the understanding of chemical reactions and properties is obscured. This was illustrated by Stumpo who asked students to calculate ?E of a reaction, and then on another question on the same test asked a question aimed at its meaning. 77% of the students calculated correctly, but only 24% showed understanding of its meaning. The ability to calculate a number does not measure understanding of the number.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?   Don L. Lewis
A recently published correspondence by Stephen J. Hawkes on teaching equilibrium calculations troubles me. Hawkes dismisses equilibrium calculations as mere algorithms, best deferred until the student can use computer programs. I find it difficult to believe that a computer program enhances understanding. From a chemists point of view, the equilibrium condition is a limit, a limit that (because of stochastic considerations) does not exist. It might be better to make the reaction quotient statement using < or > but the use of those relations is delayed until quantum mechanics.
Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  Jared D. Persinger, Geoffrey C. Hoops, and Michael J. Samide
In this article, we describe an experiment for an introductory chemistry course that incorporates the use of mass spectrometry for sample analysis. Several different air samples are collected that represent various chemical processes, and the composition of the air sample is predicted on the basis of known chemical principles. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is used to analyze these samples, and the relative quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and argon are calculated. On the basis of the data, the hypothesized sample composition is validated.
Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1169.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Gases
Spectacular Pseudo-Exfoliation of an Exfoliated–Compressed Graphite  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, S. Verdan, G. Burato, and H. Fuzellier
This kind of reaction has been called pseudo-exfoliation of carbonaceous material. This demonstration spectacularly illustrates the layered nature of graphite.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Verdan, S.; Burato, G.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 819.
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
The Chemistry of Photographic Color Dye Formation  Bruce E. Kahn
A laboratory activity is described where black and white photographs are converted to color images in a variety of ways.
Kahn, Bruce E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 694.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Isolation of Copper from a 5–Cent Coin. An Example of Electrorefining  Steven G. Sogo
The United States 5cent coin, commonly known as a "nickel", is made of an alloy containing 75% copper and 25% nickel. The experiment is a visually appealing illustration of the process of electrorefining using selective reduction.
Sogo, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 530.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant: Author Reply  José E. Cortés-Figueroa
When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant  Todd P. Silverstein
The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semi-log data to determine the first-order rate constant.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Effects of an Active Learning Environment: Teaching Innovations at a Research I Institution  Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, DeeDee Allen, William F. Hunt, Joy Hutson, and Angela Pitts
This paper describes a new approach for teaching general chemistry that combines lecture and laboratory into one seamless session and incorporates instructional methods supported by research-based findings. The results of a study that compared two instructional formats, conventional passive lecture and the student-centered, highly collaborative format known as cAcL2 (concept Advancement through chemistry LabLecture), are also presented.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Allen, DeeDee; Hunt, William F.; Hutson, Joy; Pitts, Angela. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 441.
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
A Reaction That Takes Place in Beakers but Not in Conical Flasks: A Catalysis-Related Demonstration  Colin White
A striking demonstration emphasizing that substances which promote reactions are not catalysts if they are consumed in the process. The demonstration is based on the iron(II) induced oxidation of iodide by chromium(VI).
White, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 364.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Comment on the Hazards of Peroxide Decomposition  J. C. Jones
The issue under discussionthe presence in ether of peroxides and their explosive decompositionis an important one, and the correspondence referred to is focused on laboratory safety. I believe however that an interesting point of pedagogic value can be gleaned from it.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 193.
Ethers |
Oxidation / Reduction
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
SpecSpan is a utility program for Microsoft Windows that generates numerical data from printed spectra or other plots found as figures in text, chart recordings, or freehand drawings. SpecScan can process bitmap (.BMP) images of such figures and drawings. After a brief interaction with the user, it generates and exports numerical data as Excel (.XLS) or text (.TXT) files.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
From Our Peer-Reviewed Collection  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
Two Linear Correlation Coefficients  Robert de Levie
In fitting data to a straight line, many calculators and computer programs display a linear correlation coefficient. Two types of linear correlation coefficients are discussed, one often useful in chemical calculations, the other usually not.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1030.
Chemometrics
Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles  Richard S. Treptow
In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Sailing on the "C": A Vitamin Titration with a Twist  S. Sowa and A. E. Kondo
Guided inquiry experiment where students determine what measurements they need, design and carry out their own procedures, develop their own data and analyses, and make conclusions based on their results.
Sowa, S.; Kondo, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 550.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Blackwater Escape  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery involving electrochemistry and featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 401.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Boric acid is a mild oxidizing agent.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
LIMSport: Optimizing a Windows-Based Computer Data Acquisition and Reduction System for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Ed Vitz and Brenda P. Egolf
Project to develop a Windows/Excel data acquisition system for LIMSport (a mechanism for automatically acquiring data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet so that teachers and students only need spreadsheet skills to acquire and analyze data) and evaluate its effectiveness in promoting student learning.
Vitz, Ed; Egolf, Brenda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1060.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Copper Oxide Salt Using Two Different Methods  Michael J. Sanger and Kimberly Geer
Converting copper oxide into copper metal using two different methods: reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using methane gas, and reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using aluminum in aqueous solution; the results are used to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.
Sanger, Michael J.; Geer, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 994.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Determining Oxidation–Reduction on a Simple Number Line  Amy L. Cox and James R. Cox
Using a simple number line to analyze oxidation-reduction reactions encountered in introductory/general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.
Cox, Amy L.; Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 965.
Oxidation / Reduction
Precision in Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, and Zvi Szafran
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts  Emilio Rodríguez and Miguel Angel Vicente
A 10-hour integrated experiment that covers all the inorganic chemistry topics in first-year chemistry and chemical engineering courses.
Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 486.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents
A Consistent Set of Oxidation Number Rules for Intelligent Computer Tutoring  Dale A. Holder, Benny G. Johnson, and Paul J. Karol
Consistent oxidation number rules derived from the chemical formula alone that are simple enough for introductory chemistry students.
Holder, Dale A.; Johnson, Benny G.; Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Tick Tock, a Vitamin C Clock  Stephen W. Wright
Uses supermarket chemicals to perform a clock reaction; students vary the concentration of reactants and observe the effect on the time required for the reaction to reach its endpoint.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 40A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Nonlinear Fits of Standard Curves: A Simple Route to Uncertainties in Unknowns   Carl Salter and Robert de Levie
The problem of covariance in using calibration curves and a nonlinear least-squares procedure that permits a direct estimation of uncertainty without the need for covariance.
Salter, Carl; de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 268.
Chemometrics
Some Unusual Applications of the "Error-Bar" Feature in Excel Spreadsheets  Kieran F. Lim
Paper demonstrating how the "error-bar" feature in Excel can be sued to produce high-quality graphs for university teaching, learning, and research.
Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 135.
Chemometrics
The Vitamin C Clock Reaction  Stephen W. Wright
Clock reaction using supermarket materials (vitamin C, hydrogen peroxide, tincture of iodine, and starch).
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 41.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Carboxylic Acids
Just Breathe: The Oxygen Content of Air   JCE Editorial Staff
Students estimate the percent oxygen (volume) in air using steel wool in a test tube that is inverted in a beaker of water. Oxygen in the trapped air reacts with iron to form rust, and the water level rises inside the test tube; within 30-45 minutes, the majority of oxygen is consumed.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 512A.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Burning to Learn: An Introduction to Flame Retardants   JCE Editorial Staff
This activity demonstrates the effectiveness of flame retardants, substances added to combustible materials to slow down or hinder burning.
JCE Editorial Staff, . J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 328A.
Oxidation / Reduction
A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater  Barbara A. Balko and Paul G. Tratnyek
Procedure in which students investigate the chemistry of iron-permeable reactive barriers and their application to the remediation of contaminated groundwater.
Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1661.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  Edward G. Senkbeil
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  J. C. Jones
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  Myung-Hoon Kim
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  David W. Miller
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Miller, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
The Joy of Color in Ceramic Glazes with the Help of Redox Chemistry  Allen A. Denio
The chemistry of pottery, ceramic glazes, and the firing process.
Denio, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1298.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Metals
Analysis of Success in General Chemistry Based on Diagnostic Testing Using Logistic Regression  Margaret J. Legg, Jason C. Legg, and Thomas J. Greenbowe
Estimating the probability of succeeding in general chemistry based on diagnostic or placement exam scores.
Legg, Margaret J.; Legg, Jason C.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1117.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student / Career Counseling
Is Every Transparent Liquid Water?  Muhamad Hugerat and Sobhi Basheer
Comparisons of the properties (polarity, electric conductivity, color change due to the presence of an acid-base indicator, and electrolysis) of three transparent and colorless liquids: water, glycerol, hexane, and ethanol.
Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1041.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Electrophoresis
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Icarus and Sun, Not Only in Mythology but Also in the Laboratory!  Mrinalini G. Walawalkar and Herbert W. Roesky
Igniting a paper airplane treated with potassium nitrate using light focussed by a magnifying glass.
Walawalkar, Mrinalini G.; Roesky, Herbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 912.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Combustion of White Phosphorus  Richard L. Keiter and Chaminda P. Gamage
The combustion of white phosphorus.
Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 908.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Method for Illustrating Uncertainty Analysis  Paul C. Yates
A fast and simple method for generating data for uncertainty analysis; includes statistical analysis and calculation of maximum probable error for a sample set of data.
Yates, Paul C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 770.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Analysis of an Oxygen Bleach: A Redox Titration Lab  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
Students balance the reaction of H2O2 and MnO4 in two different ways (one assuming that H2O2 is the oxygen source and a second assuming that MnO4 is the oxygen source), determine which of these balanced equations has the correct stoichiometry by titrating a standard H2O2 solution with KMnO4, and use the correct balanced equation to determine the mass percent of H2O2 in a commercially available bleach solution.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 652.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
Chemistry Report. MAA-CUPM Curriculum Foundations Workshop in Biology and Chemistry, Macalester College, November 2-5, 2000  Norman C. Craig
Chemists list specific knowledge and skills in mathematics needed by chemistry students and indicate whether mathematicians or chemists should deliver the instruction; the course level of the instruction and the use of technological aids are also designated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 582.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Learning Theories
What's Been Happening to Undergraduate Mathematics  David M. Bressoud
An overview of some of the changes that have been occurring in undergraduate mathematics education; based on a workshop held by the Mathematical Association of America to determine what chemists expect their students to learn from undergraduate mathematics courses in terms of understanding, content, and use of technology.
Bressoud, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 578.
Learning Theories |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
The Household Chemistry of Cleaning Pennies  Laurence D. Rosenhein
Although it is well known that solutions of vinegar and table salt are effective in removing tarnish from pennies, chemical explanations of this behavior are not included in sources of this "household chemistry" and erroneous explanations have crept into popular literature on this subject; this article provides some relevant empirical information on the system.
Rosenhein, Laurence D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 513.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets  Pamela Brown
This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting.
Brown, Pamela. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 268.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero  Myung-Hoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and Suw-Young Ly
A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10-mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, Suw-Young. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
The Synthesis and Analysis of Copper(I) Iodide. A First-Year Laboratory Project  Lara A. Margolis, Richard W. Schaeffer, and Claude H. Yoder
This project provides a convenient preparation of a compound whose identity will not be obvious to students. The analytical procedures illustrate the fundamentals of gravimetric analysis and some basic chemical and physical characteristics of the elements. The analytical data allow students to find the identity of the product by determining its empirical formula.
Margolis, Lara A.; Schaeffer, Richard W.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 235.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project  Miri Kesner and Wobbe de Vos
Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education.
Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 41.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
How Can an Instructor Best Introduce the Topic of Significant Figures to Students Unfamiliar with the Concept?  Richard A. Pacer
The focus of this paper is how best to introduce the concept of significant figures so that students find it meaningful before a stage is reached at which they become turned off. The approach described begins with measurements students are already familiar with from their life experiences and involves the students as active learners.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1435.
Learning Theories |
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
Pixel Conversion: A Simple Way to Extract Coordinates of Points from a Printed Graph  Christian Aymard and Randall B. Shirts
A very simple method is described for extracting the coordinates of points from printed graphs, student reports, or publications. One only needs a flatbed scanner and a desktop computer. This is a convenient and inexpensive alternative to the tedious traditional method using a ruler or to the more costly programs available commercially. A Windows program has been made available to perform the required operations.
Aymard, Christian; Shirts, Randall B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1230.
Chemometrics
Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving  Jeff Cohen, Meghan Kennedy-Justice, Sunny Pai, Carmen Torres, Rick Toomey, Ed DePierro, and Fred Garafalo
This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problem-solving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problem-solving strategies.
Cohen, Jeff; Kennedy-Justice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1166.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
A Classroom Exercise in Sampling Technique  Michael R. Ross
A classroom hands-on demonstration has been developed that looks at the two important sampling considerations, sample size and non-homogeneous sample materials. This classroom activity makes use of readily available M&M candies for the sample size and NERDS for the non-homogeneous sample exercises.
Ross, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1015.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Letters  
Points out that solid NaHSO3 does not exist.
Tudela, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Spreadsheet Calculation of the Propagation of Experimental Imprecision  Robert de Levie
A spreadsheet is used to compute the propagation of imprecision, and a macro is described that will do this automatically.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 534.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Entertaining Chemistry--Two Colorful Reactions  John F. Elsworth
Solutions of acid and iodine, with and without starch, are mixed with alkaline solutions containing thiosulfate and appropriate salts to produce desirable color effects.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Lemon Cells Revisited  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Analysis of the reactions and nature of the electrodes in the lemon cell.
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1190.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A Further Demonstration of Sulfite-Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Horacio D. Moya, Eduardo Almeida Neves, and Nina Coichev
Details of a fascinating laboratory demonstration of the sulfite-induced redox cycling of Ni(II)/Ni(III), which is initiated by shaking the solution in the presence of air, are reported. The balance between the sulfite and oxygen concentration controls the direction of the overall reaction.
Moya, Horacio D.; Neves, Eduardo Almeida; Coichev, Nina. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 930.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Catalysis
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
The Methane Balloon  Walter H. Corkern and Elvin Hughes Jr.
The objectives are (i) to describe a novel method of inflating a balloon with methane, (ii) to show that methane is lighter than air, and (iii) to demonstrate the flammability of methane.
Corkern, Walter H.; Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 794.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A Simple, Safe Way To Prepare Halogens and Study Their Visual Properties at a Technical Secondary School  Domingo A. Liprandi, Orlando R. Reinheimer, José F. Paredes, and Pablo C. L'Argentière
In this paper we propose an easy-to-build apparatus to obtain chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The experiment was developed considering not only theoretical and safety conditions but simplicity and clarity as well.
Liprandi, Domingo A.; Reinheimer, Orlando R.; Paredes, José F.; L'Argentière, Pablo C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 532.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies)  Treptow, Richard S.
Relation between instrument resolution and skill.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements  Thomsen, Volker
The difference between instrument resolution and precision.
Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
An Easy and Effective Classroom Demonstration of Population Distributions  Marjorie A. Jones
Using a simple experimental design and easily obtained materials, a classroom experiment was conducted to demonstrate normal-distribution behavior for a population. We used popcorn and a hot-air popper. Popped kernels were collected with time and data were plotted as popped kernels per time interval versus time. The data clearly showed a normal (Gaussian) distribution.
Jones, Marjorie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 384.
Chemometrics
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom
Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases.
Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Nernst Equation: Determination of Equilibrium Constants for Complex Ions of Silver  Martin L. Thompson and Laura J. Kateley
The experiment requires a voltmeter capable of recording millivolts (or a good pH meter) and inexpensive chemicals. It allows students to check the validity of the Nernst equation and compare their experimental Kform values to reported ones.
Thompson, Martin L.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 95.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Microscale Thermite Reactions  Francisco J. Arnáiz, Rafael Aguado, and Susana Arnáiz
The reaction of aluminum with the oxides of a variety of elements illustrates exothermic reactions that require a high activation energy. It is also an appropriate experiment with regard to the discussion of Ellingham diagrams. When drama is not the main objective, conducting these reactions at microscale level offers numerous advantages over the usual scale.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnáiz, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1630.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration  Sally Solomon, Maria Oliver-Hoyo, and Chinhyu Hur
A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described.
Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1581.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Toxicology
Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics  Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright
A four-part activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production.
Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Lead Globules  Francisco J. Arnáiz and Maria R. Pedrosa
Reaction of plumbate solutions with aluminum. A variety of lead films can be formed depending on the conditions. The method we describe permits obtaining a large lead globule in less than 1 minute.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Pedrosa, Maria R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1431.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood  John Fredericks
An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator.
Fredericks, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1299.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Let's Dot Our I's and Cross Our T's  Leenson, Ilya A.

Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1088.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
There Seems To Be Uncertainty about the Use of Significant Figures in Reporting Uncertainties of Results  Julio F. Caballero and Delphia F. Harris
A cursory review of two journals indicates that uncertainties in experimental results are not consistently reported in the literature with the correct number of significant figures. The problem seems more frequent in computer generated results in both chemical education and research articles. Examples of published values with uncertainty inappropriately reported are included along with the appropriate rounding.
Caballero, Julio F.; Harris, Delphia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 996.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders  Richard S. Treptow
The concepts of precision and accuracy help students understand that uncertainty accompanies even our best scientific measurements. A model experiment can be used to distinguish the two terms. The experiment uses four graduated cylinders which give measurements of different accuracy and precision. Such terms as mean, range, standard deviation, error, and true value are defined through an illustration.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 992.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2)  Midden, W. Robert
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1)  Guare, Charles J.
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (3)  Rustad, Douglas
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (1)  Sykes, Robert M.
Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations.
Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Percent Composition and Empirical Formula - A New View  George L. Gilbert
A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical Domino Demonstration  M. Dale Alexander
The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus.
M. Dale Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 490.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 484.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Dyes / Pigments
Analysis of Iron in Ferritin, the Iron-Storage Protein: A General Chemistry Experiment  Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin
The chemical properties of the iron-storage protein ferritin will be examined in this experiment by quantitating the average amount of iron in a ferritin sample, and observing the kinetics of iron release from the protein core under reducing conditions. Students learn and apply the principles of absorption spectroscopy, redox reactions, and metal chelation to study ferritin.
Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
Production of Numerical Chemical Problems Using a Spreadsheet  Peter G. Hall
The use of spreadsheets for "personalized" assignments. These assignments take the form of printed chemical problems such that every student has different numerical data. The problem sets make a challenging student introduction to word processing and spreadsheet use.
Hall, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 243.
Chemometrics
Uncommon Oxidation Numbers of Nonmetals  Wayne P. Anderson
Common oxidation numbers of representative elements can be predicted from valence electron box diagrams. Exception to these values generally result from the presence of an odd number of electrons, homonuclear bonds, or attached atoms having electronegativity values that bracket that of the atom in question.
Anderson, Wayne P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 187.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
"Mud" +" Blood" - A Very Colorful Demonstration  Gordon F. Hambly
The preparation of "blood" and "mud" solutions is given to show that when combined the mixture solutions goes from a mud-color to colorless.
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 56.
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Chemistry Maths Book (by Erich Steiner)   C. Michael McCallum
The Chemistry Maths Book contains all the mathematical methods that 99% of chemists would need. Designed as a text for an actual Maths for Chemists course, it is laid out in a logical progression from simple (decimals, algebra, and functions) to the more complicated but no less important (matrix algebra, differential equations, and matrix eigenvalue problems). It seems well suited both for its stated purpose and as a "brush-up" book for undergraduates, graduate students, and others.
McCallum, C. Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1400.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Redox Balancing without Puzzling  Marten J. ten Hoor
Once it has been established by experiment that the given reactants can indeed be converted into the given products, chemistry has done its job. Balancing the equation of the reaction is a matter of mathematics only.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Note on Covariance in Propagation of Uncertainty  Edwin F. Meyer
It is pointed out that whenever both the slope and the intercept are used in calculating a physical quantity from a linear regression, propagation of error must include the covariance as well as the variances. The point is illustrated with a calculation of the boiling point of water from the parameters of the lnP vs 1/T fit. If the covariance is omitted from the propagation of error, the estimate of uncertainty is unreasonably large.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1339.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Applications in Chemistry Using Microsoft Excel by Dermot Diamond and Venita C. A. Hanratty  Jeffery A. Greathouse
Provides chemistry instructors with an introduction to Excel and its applications in chemistry.
Greathouse, Jeffery A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1279.
Chemometrics
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
MathBrowser: Web-Enabled Mathematical Software with Application to the Chemistry Curriculum, v 1.0  Jack G. Goldsmith
MathBrowser, a freeware web-enabled derivative of the MathCad mathematical software (MathSoft Inc., Cambridge, MA), is designed to reconcile the problem of how to distribute mathematically rich information over the WWW and to maintain interactivity for the end user.
Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1164.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Constructing Chemical Concepts through a Study of Metals and Metal Ions: Guided Inquiry Experiments for General Chemistry  Ram S. Lamba, Shiva Sharma, and Baird W. Lloyd
A set of inquiry-based experiments designed to help students develop an understanding of basic chemical concepts within the framework of studying the properties and reactivity of metals and metal ions.
Lamba, Ram S.; Sharma, Shiva; Lloyd, Baird W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1095.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Graham's Law and Perpetuation of Error  Stephen J. Hawkes
Grahams Laws of effusion and diffusion are used in recent articles for traditional experiments to which they do not in fact apply and for which they give the wrong answer.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1069.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Transport Properties
The Sodium Rainbow  Miroslav Proksa
A new approach to the reaction of sodium with water to produce a "rainbow" of colors.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 942.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Analysis of the Algebraic Method for Balancing Chemical Reactions  John A. Olson
A new aspect of this treatment is the mathematical formulation of a third condition involving a balance between oxidation and reduction. The treatment begins with the three general conditions that a balanced chemical reaction must satisfy. These conditions are then expressed in mathematical form that enables the stoichiometric coefficients to be determined.
Olson, John A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 538.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Rounding Numbers: Why the "New System" Doesn't Work  W. Robert Midden
This paper explains a correction to the rounding rule previously published in this Journal. The earlier article reported that the best way to round numbers is to always round up when the first digit dropped is 5. However, this will lead to accumulation of error when errors are averaged.
Midden, W. Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 405.
Chemometrics
Sensitivity to Experimental Parameters via Spreadsheets  B. R. Sundheim
In spreadsheet computations wherever the functional dependence of calculated results on experimental quantities is obscure, sensitivities may be obtained by testing the effects of variations in relevant inputs. An example is given where Hess' law is explored calorimetrically.
Sundhein, B. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 328.
Chemometrics
Redox Rap  Laura Kolonie
Lyrics to a redox rap song.
Kolonie, Laura. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 22.
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox Challenges (the author replies)  Stout, Roland
Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation.
Stout, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A227.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Redox Challenges (2)  Zaugg, Noel S.
Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation.
Zaugg, Noel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Redox Challenges (1)  Hart, David M.
Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation.
Hart, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
A Student-Designed Potentiometric Titration: Quantitative Determination of Iron(II) by Caro's Acid Titration  Joyce R. Powell, Sheryl A. Tucker, William E. Acree Jr., Jennifer A. Sees, Lindsey H. Hall
A laboratory experiment involving the feasibility of using Caro's acid, H2SO5, as a titrant in the potentiometric determination of iron(II) is presented.
Powell, Joyce R.; Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree Jr., William E.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Hall, Lindsey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 984.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Châtelier's Principle  Tomás G. Berger and Edward K. Mellon
This brief article describes a demonstration that has been used to discuss Le Chtelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species.
Berger, Tomás G.; Mellon, Edward K. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 783.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide: A Simple Computer-Interfaced Kinetics Experiment for General Chemistry  John C. Hansen
188. The reaction studied is the iodide-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The rate of oxygen production is measured as a function of time using a computer-interfaced pressure transducer.
Hansen, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 728.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Constant-Current Coulometric Titration of Hydrochloric Acid  James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul
In this experiment we have combined the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and the electrolysis of water into one complete laboratory experience.
James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 679.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Sodium Chloride Revisited  Robert V. Stick and Mauro Mocerino
This "Tested Demonstration" describes the preparation of sodium chloride from its elements, sodium and chlorine. Along the way, tests for chlorine, iodine, and the chloride ion are included.
Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 539.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
On Balancing "Redox Challenges"  Oliver G. Ludwig
This paper offers a systematic procedure for handling such equations using nonconventional oxidation numbers and avoiding a lot of mathematics.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 507.
Oxidation / Reduction
Work Done by a Chemical Reaction  Henry Brouwer
The use of the "hot dog clock" has been the focus of discussions in a number of areas of electrochemistry. Included in these have been oxidation-reduction potentials, battery construction, salt bridges, electrolytes, and the concentration of ions in certain foods.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry  Coleman, William F.
183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Significant Figures in Graph Interpretation  Donald M. Graham
A means is derived for calculating the number of significant figures in the slope and intercept of an experimental linear graph. The method is based on the actual scatter in the points rather than on the nominal precision in the original data, and it can be used even by students who are mathematically fairly unsophisticated.
Graham, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 211.
Chemometrics
A Commercial Device Involving the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Kathleen J. Dombrink
The breathalyzer test, formerly used by law-enforcement agencies to determine the percentage blood alcohol in suspected DUI cases, is still used in the device FINAL CALL, which is available commercially. The reaction involves the reduction of chromuim(VI) in the orange dichromate ion, Cr2O72- to the green chromium(III) ion, Cr3+ by ethyl alcohol.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 135.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Management of First-Year Chemistry Laboratories Using Spreadsheets  Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W.
Use of spreadsheets to record, analyze, and assess experimental data.
Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A182.
Chemometrics
Experimental Methods: An Introduction to the Analysis of Data (Kirkup, Les)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A72.
Chemometrics
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Fe(s) + Cu(II)(aq) ----> Fe(II)(aq) + Cu(s): Fifteen Centuries of Search  Vladimir Karpenko
Historical development of understanding of the title reaction, particularly erroneous alchemical beliefs.
Karpenko, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1095.
Metals |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
How to Determine the Best Straight Line  S. R. Logan
Consideration of situations in which the use of a least-squares regression is inappropriate.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 896.
Chemometrics
The Relationship between the Number of Elements and the Number of Independent Equations of Elemental Balance in Inorganic Chemical Equations  R. Subramanian, N.K. Goh, and L. S. Chia
The criterion for determining whether a chemical equation can be balanced fully by the algebraic technique and its application.
Subramaniam, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 894.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Double Disproportionations   M.E. Cardinali, C. Giomini, Ciancarlo Marrosu
Method for balancing a difficult redox reaction.
Cardinali, Mario E.; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 716.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Making Sparklers: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment   Allen Keeney, Christina Walters, and Richard D. Cornelius
Method for producing sparklers to illustrate redox reactions.
Keeney, Allen; Walters, Christina; Cornelius, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 652.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Metals
Statistical Analysis Experiment for the Freshman Chemistry Lab   John C. Salzsieder
Procedure that provides sufficient data for statistical analysis by a freshman chemistry class.
Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 623.
Chemometrics
Buoyancy Programs; Viscosity of Polymer Solutions; Precision of Calculated Values  Bertrand, Gary L.
Software to simulate the determination of the density of solids; the preparation of polymer solutions and their time to flow through a viscometer; and a program to calculate the uncertainties of results given the input values.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The MATCH Program: A Combined Mathematics and Chemistry Curriculum  Wink, Donald J.
A curriculum that integrates introductory chemistry with intermediate algebra.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 411.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet-Controlled Potentiometric Analyses  Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Discussion of collecting experimental data on spreadsheets directly from laboratory instruments.
Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 400.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Potentiometry
A Convenient Luminol Demonstration  Schechinger, Linda; Waldman, Amy Sue
Simple, inexpensive apparatus for demonstrating the oxidation of luminol.
Schechinger, Linda; Waldman, Amy Sue J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 243.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
Introducing Spreadsheet Data Analysis in the First-Semester Laboratory  Bushey, Michelle M.
Massing a collection of pennies in order to introduce statistical concepts about small and large data sets as well as introduce students to the use of spreadsheets.
Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A90.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Statistics  Simpson, John M.
Using computer spreadsheets to do statistical analysis on data.
Simpson, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A88.
Chemometrics
Vanadium Ions as Visible Electron Carriers in a Redox System  Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo
Demonstration using a column to display the four, differently colored, oxidation states of vanadium simultaneously.
Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 692.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Simple Laboratory Experiment Using Popcorn To Illustrate Measurement Errors  Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R.
This experiment focuses on the difference between accuracy and precision and demonstrates the necessity for multiple measurements of an experimental variable.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 519.
Chemometrics
A Handy Reagent for Testing the Reducing Power of Sugars  Sandell, Arvid
Using the reduction of copper(II) as a semi-quantitative test for reducing sugars.
Sandell, Arvid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 346.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
A Joke Based on Significant Figures  Ruekberg, Ben
Joke to introduce significant figures.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 306.
Chemometrics
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Classroom Demonstration of Chromium(VI)/Chromium(III) in the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H.
Demonstrating the breathalyzer reaction.
Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 158.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Patriotic Electrolysis of Water  DuPre, Donald B.
Producing reversible red, white and blue in a single Petri dish.
DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 70.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Solving equilibria problems with a graphing calculator: A robust method, free of algebra and calculus   Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G.
The method of successive approximations is frequently introduced in freshman chemistry as a means for solving equilibrium equations. However, this often requires an understanding of calculus that is problematic for introductory chemistry students. An alternative method to solving such equations is to use graphic calculators to solve problems graphically.
Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A184.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Shell thickness of the copper-clad cent   Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R.
An exercise in determining the thickness of the copper layer of modern pennies presents the opportunities to combine good chemistry, instrumentation, simple curve fitting, and geometry to solve a simply stated problem.
Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1023.
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
A new use for the candle and tumbler myth  Peckham, Gavin D.
In the time it takes to complete the popular but lengthy steel-wool experiment, this author proposes an activity that can be done to add an extra dimension to analyzing oxygen content. This combination of "good" and "bad" experiments proves to be a powerful pedagogical tool.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1008.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determining the metal activity series using a potato porcupine   Fortman, John J.; Battino, Rubin
Determining the metal activity series using a potato porcupine.
Fortman, John J.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 939.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
How thick/thin is your mirror?  McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa
When a student reported that his/her water film was 6 cm thick, these authors felt a review of significant figures and dimensional analysis may be in order.
McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 851.
Chemometrics
Investigating protective coatings for steel   Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary
Learning about corrosion chemistry provides students with authentic inquiry experience as well as an opportunity to learn relevant and applicable content.
Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 843.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science
Measurement scales: Changing Celsius to Kelvin is not just a unit conversion   Nordstrom, Brian H.
The key to understanding the difference between Celsius and Kelvin lies in the different types of measurement scales. Students may have an easier time manipulating equations (such as gas laws) if they knew the difference between these scales.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 827.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
General treatment of aqueous ionic equilibria using predominance diagrams  Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M.
This paper illustrates the advantage of a unified instructional treatment based on the similarities o equilibria between acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions that could be used in a general chemistry course.
Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 790.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab: Part 1. The concepts  Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J.
A concise and practice-oriented introduction to the analysis and interpretation of measurement and errors.
Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 776.
Chemometrics
Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 10-24 M solution as a limiting case  de Vicente, M. Sastre
A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory.
de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
A visual illustration of oxidation numbers and moles: Using balloons to demonstrate moles of electrons  Bergquist, Wilbur
Illustrating the connection between moles of electrons and oxidation number.
Bergquist, Wilbur J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 586.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-based program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A mole of M&M's   Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E.
Engaging students by asking the question: How thick would the layer of M&M candies be if we covered the continental United States with a mole of these candies? Compare this to a mole of water.
Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 453.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-like program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Empirical formulas from atom ratios: A simple method to obtain the integer factors of a rational number  Weltin, E.
Most textbooks advise students to use a method tantamount to trial and error when they encounter a ratio in empirical formula calculations where it is not immediately apparent what the coefficients should be. The author describes a simple procedure that is an effective way to find the integer factors.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 280.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Measuring Avogadro's number on the overhead projector   Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu
A Petri dish filled with water and stearic acid dissolved in petroleum ether upon an overhead projector can be used to introduce the topic of Avogadro's number.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 252.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Using monetary analogies to teach average atomic mass   Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J.
Some strategies to overcome the frequent problem novice students have with calculating average atomic mass.
Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 234.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Relative atomic mass and the mole: A concrete analogy to help students understand these abstract concepts   de Sanabia, Josefina Arce
Suggestions on how to improve student understandings of the mathematical idea of "ratio" to enhance conceptual understanding of this fundamental chemistry concept.
de Sanabia, Josefina Arce J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 233.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Concept learning versus problem solving: There is a difference   Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C.
Previous studies indicate that there is little connection between algorithmic problem solving skills and conceptual understanding. The authors provide some ways to evaluate students along a continuum of low-high algorithmic and conceptual problem solving skills. The study shows that current lecture method teaches students to solve algorithms rather than teaching chemistry concepts.
Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 190.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student-Centered Learning
An Investigative Density Experiment   Samsa, Richard A.
A laboratory exercise about density that is engaging and allows students to use higher-level thinking skills and develop a plan to solve a problem.
Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 149.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
More on the Question of Significant Figures  Clase, Howard J.
Because so many students have a hard time understanding what significant figures are all about, this author developed a method using "?" to substitute for insignificant zeros. This helps many students finally grasp this convention.
Clase, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 133.
Chemometrics
Equilibrium Calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert
The equilibrium calculator can calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all reagents in an arbitrary chemical reaction with as many as five reactants and products.
Allendoerfer, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 126.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Ideas of Equality and Ratio: Mathematical Basics for Chemistry and the Fallacy of Unitary Conversion   Ochiai, El-Ichiro.
The author argues against dimensional analysis (referred to as the "unitary conversion method" in this article) and champions the more elegant "ratio" or "equality" paradigms as a way to help students make sense of chemical equations and "de-algorithmize" chemical calculations at the introductory level.
Ochiai, El-Ichiro. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 44.
Chemometrics
Is Dimensional Analysis the Best We Have to Offer?  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Dimensional analysis is a unit based approach while the alternative, "method of equations" is a relations-based approach to solving mathematical problems. The author argues that quantitative chemistry involves relationships between quantities and not units, making the later method more pedagogically sound.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 40.
Chemometrics
Is This Reaction a Substitution, Oxidation-Reduction, or Transfer?  Imyanitov, Naum S.
Author argues that separation of chemical reaction types based on convention do not always follow objective and consistent rules. This leads to confusion among students and artificial borders within the various sub-disciplines in chemistry.
Imyanitov, Naum S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 14.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Applying a simple linear least-squares algorithm to data with uncertainties in both variables  Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell
There are cases in which it is desirable to find an optimum linear least-squares fit to data with significant uncertainties in both the x and y variables.
Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A130.
Chemometrics
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
A more environmentally acceptable determination of iron in an ore  Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W.
The method for titrimetric determination of iron in which zinc is used as the reactant in situ rather that as a Jones reductor, has several advantages over conventional determination of iron.
Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 935.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez
In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Classroom experience: Using estimated answers in solving chemistry problems  Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A.
A textbook is described in which students solve all problems by estimation.
Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 898.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium calculations, II  Ludwig, Oliver G.
In a previous paper the author described, using mathematics accessible to students, how an equilibrium calculation leading to a quadratic equation may be shown to have but one "chemical" root. The present work extends this demonstration to some reactions leading to cubic equations.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 884.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
A demonstration of the molar volume of nitrogen gas  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
A graphic illustration and a calculation of the approximate molar volume of nitrogen gas.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Storing solar energy in calcium chloride  Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F.
Using common chemistry concepts to determine the feasibility of storing solar energy in calcium chloride hexahydrate.
Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A graphing activity to freshen up the laboratory  Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
A laboratory activity designed to address students' difficulties in interpreting data from graphs and tables.
Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 752.
Chemometrics
First-year chemistry laboratory calculations on a spreadsheet  Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W.
140. A laboratory exercise to introduce students to the use of computers and spreadsheets.
Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 648.
Chemometrics
Frost diagrams: A tool for predicting redox reactions.  Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi.
A HyperCard stack that provides an easily used format for making redox reaction predictions for one or two elements by comparing slopes of the lines connecting two oxidation states.
Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 509.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The computer as student: An application of artificial intelligence  Birk, James P.
The author describes how the development of computer software to teach about chemical reactivity also provides information about how we should teach several topics in general chemistry.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 294.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
A simple but effective demonstration for illustrating significant figure rules when making measurements and doing calculations  Zipp, Arden P.
Students can be surprised and confused when different arithmetical operations are performed on experimental data, because the rules change when changing from addition to subtraction to multiplication or division. The following is a simple way to illustrate several aspects of these rules.
Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 291.
Chemometrics
Balancing a chemical equation: What does it mean?  Filgueiras, Carlos A
Students were puzzled by the idea that one chemical equation could be balanced in several different ways. This led to a fruitful discussion on how exact a science chemistry really is.
Filgueiras, Carlos A J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 276.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Algorithm for plotting titration curves (author response).  Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel.
Our model, contrary to Jackman's statement, can be applied to redox systems that are pH-dependant.
Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Algorithm for plotting titration curves.  Jackman, Donald C.
de Moura's algorithm for plotting redox titration curves seems to be good for systems that are not dependent on pH or product concentration, but is not applicable to those situations that is student is more likely to encounter.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
When the barking dog bites the hand that feeds it: A safety caution.  Worley, John D.
Plastic gloves should not be used at any point during the barking dog demonstration.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 241.
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox equations with an infinite number of balanced solutions  Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R.
Some mathematically minded students prefer to use various algebraic methods to solve oxidation/reduction problems instead of the half-reaction method. This can lead to redox reactions in which the reactants actually yield a family of balanced equations rather than a unique solution.
Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 114.
Oxidation / Reduction
The bird-scarer (combustion) demo   Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B.
This is a demonstration version of a device used to scare birds with loud noises occurring at regular intervals.
Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 64.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chem 1 concept builder (Lower, Steve with Instructional Software)  Hair, Sally R.
A review of a software package designed for tutorial and drill.
Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A19.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Having fun with the metric system  Campbell, Mark L.
A puzzle adds some fun to the mundane treatment of the metric system.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1043.
Chemometrics
Some conundrums of chemical nomenclature  Quigley, Michael N.
When talking about chemistry, we use some awfully confusing terms that warrant scrutiny.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1009.
Chemometrics
The development of statistical concepts in a design-oriented laboratory course in scientific measuring  Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H.
This article offers a contribution to the development of curriculum that includes design and evaluation of measurements.
Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1005.
Chemometrics
Chemical equations are actually matrix equations  Alberty, Robert A.
Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations.
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements  Liebel, Michael
This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements.
Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A carbonate project introducing students to the chemistry lab  Dudek, Emily
A description of a first semester general chemistry laboratory that helps acquaint students with a large variety of chemistry laboratory procedures.
Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 948.
Chemometrics |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
The use of "marathon" problems as effective vehicles for the presentation of general chemistry lectures  Burness, James H.
A marathon problem is a long, comprehensive, and difficult problem that ties together many of the topics in a chapter and that is solved together by the instructor and students. Sample problems are included and advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 919.
Chemometrics
An SI mnemonic  Quigley, M. N.
A mnemonic to help remember the physical quantities associated with the nine base SI units.
Quigley, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 815.
Chemometrics
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Grafit  Lisensky, George C.
A data manipulation tool and plotting program useful at all levels of chemistry.
Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 587.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Space-filling P-V-T models  Hilton, Don B.
Space-filling models help beginning students visualize the numerical aspects of the empirical gas laws.
Hilton, Don B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 496.
Gases |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Chemometrics
When figures signify nothing  Ahmad, Jamil
Significant figures in the "real world" set poor standards and confusing examples for chemistry students.
Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 469.
Chemometrics
Solving quadratic equations to the correct number of significant figures  Thomas, Rudolf
Presenting an application of the successive approximations method for solving quadratic or higher order expressions.
Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 409.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Is 8C equal to 50F?  Thompson, H. Bradford
A play, commentary, modest proposal, and a "less modest" proposal regarding calculations and significant figures.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 400.
Chemometrics
Teaching photometry with overhead projector experiments   Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J.
Description of a photometry demonstration with an overhead projector.
Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 325.
Potentiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
The effect of context on the translation of sentences into algebraic equations  Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J.
Assessing students in a one-semester preparatory chemistry course to see how well students understand proportional relationships.
Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 306.
Chemometrics
Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks   Gordus, Adon A.
The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 3. Copper (I)-copper(II) equilibria   Ophardt, Charles E.
The unusual redox properties of copper (I) and copper (II) ions explained and illustrated.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 248.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical equilibrium: II. Deriving an exact equilibrium equation   Gordus, Adon A.
In this article appearing in a series on chemical equilibrium, authors consider how to derive a completely general equation for any chemical mixture.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 215.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Power series methods should be used whenever possible in chemistry courses.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 180.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania
A different way to present an equilibrium equation that appeared previously in this Journal.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 179.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
In praise of copper  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of copper make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory activities.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 106.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Finding largest common factors and simplest integer ratios   Macomber, Roger S.
General chemistry students can ease some of their math-phobia with an exam question that deals with a familiar topic prior to putting these same mathematical principles into the context of chemistry.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 42.
Chemometrics
SEQS 3.0 Student Version Simultaneous Equation Solver (Tucker, Edwin E.)  Dierenfeldt, K.E.
SEQS 3.0 is a program of considerable versatility for solving sets of nonlinear simultaneous equations.
Dierenfeldt, K.E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A149.
Chemometrics
A classroom experiment using the Pythagorean theorem in a discussion of the scientific method  Sauls, Frederic, C.
Experiment to verify the Pythagorean theorem as a means of introducing the importance of accurate measurements, accuracy and error.
Sauls, Frederic, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 958.
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
Accuracy of measurements and the U.S. Census  Gorin, George
Some aspects of taking the Census can help students to understand the problem of measurement error and the use of significant figures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 936.
Chemometrics
Lessons learned from Lord Rayleigh on the importance of data analysis  Larsen, Russell D.
Analysis of the data collected by Lord Rayleigh in association with his discovery of argon presented as a model for scientific inquiry.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 925.
Chemometrics |
Atmospheric Chemistry
ChemCalc: A scientific calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
A scientific calculator program that can be used as a stand-alone or incorporated into other software written in BASIC.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Chemometrics
A straightforward derivation of stoichiometric mass relationships  Gorin, George
An alternative to the factor label method for solving stoichiometric mass relationship problems.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Reduction of permanganate: A kinetics demonstration for general chemistry  Steffel, Margaret J.
Using the reduction of MnO4- to Mn2+ in aqueous solution to demonstrate the four factors that control reaction rates in solution: the natures of the reactants, concentrations of the reactants, temperature, and the presence of a catalyst.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions (author response)  Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L.
While oxidation-reduction is not given a major heading, it is included in several different places in the syllabus.
Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 540.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions   Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D.
The author believes that the main criticism of the proposed program is the lack of a redox section.
Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 539.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nonmajor Courses
Dynamic data storage in FORTRAN  Chung-Phillips, Alice
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The purpose of this article is to promote the use of dynamic storage allocation in FORTRAN to chemistry instructors and students in the present computing environment.
Chung-Phillips, Alice J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Chemometrics
REDOX: A Tutorial on REDuction/Oxidation Equations  Davenport, Derek A.; Groves, Paul; Jensen, Dale L.
This suite of programs provides a computer-based tutorial on the subjects of oxidation numbers and balancing redox equations.
Davenport, Derek A.; Groves, Paul; Jensen, Dale L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 498.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Redox reactions and the electropotential axis   Vella, Alfred J.
An introductory discussion should not get bogged down with the problems of representing cells by standard cell diagrams and notations and instead should concentrate on the chemistry of galvanic cells and the use of these cells in describing the concepts of redox chemistry.
Vella, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 479.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Electrochemistry
Solving quadratic equations  Brown, R. J. C.
A better technique than the quadratic equation for chemical equilibria is offered here.
Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 409.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Oxidation-reduction in blood analysis: Demonstrating the reaction in a Breathalyzer   Anderson, John M.
The principle of a Breathalyzer involves the oxidation of alcohol in expired breath by a solution of potassium dichromate.
Anderson, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 263.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of cysteine to cystine using hydrogen peroxide  Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E.
This synthesis has several advantages as an undergraduate laboratory exercise.
Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 172.
Amino Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Introduction to experiment design for chemists  Strange, Ronald S.
One purpose of this paper is to review basic concepts and terminology of experimental design, analysis of data, and optimization.
Strange, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 113.
Chemometrics
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What chemistry do our students need to learn?  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Suggested topics of importance to chemistry nonmajors.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 831.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Significant figure rules for general arithmetic functions  Graham, D. M.
Rules for determining what happens to the number of significant figures as various types of mathematical operations are performed upon certain quantities.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 573.
Chemometrics
A stoichiometric journey  Molle, Brian
A story to help students overcome some of the difficulties they encounter in stoichiometry calculations.
Molle, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 561.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Being a participant in the future  Parker, O. Jerry
Integrating computer technology into undergraduate chemistry courses.
Parker, O. Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 500.
Administrative Issues |
Chemometrics
A laboratory procedure for the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III)  Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.
The authors describe work aimed at reducing the hazards associated with the disposal of Cr(VI) compounds.
Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 443.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Interaction between scientific research and chemical education: Development of a corrosion experiment  Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L.
This work presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole on copper corrosion through weight-loss experiments.
Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 441.
Oxidation / Reduction
The relationship between M-demand, algorithms, and problem solving: A neo-Piagetian analysis  Niaz, Mansoor
One of the most important implements developed by the neo-Piagetian theory is task analysis, that is, the evaluation of the M-demand of a problem. M-demand can be defined as: maximum number of steps that the subject must mobilize simultaneously in in the course of executing a task.
Niaz, Mansoor J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 422.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Significant Figures and Error Propagation  West, Allen C.
Schwartz is wrong to say that 125 mL +/- 5% means a systematic error of +/-5%.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 272.
Chemometrics
Accurate equations of state in computational chemistry projects  Allbee, David; Jones, Edward
101. This article presents one method that allows students to become familiar with the use of modern equations of state and also enhances their understanding of how computers can be used in the study and application of chemistry. [Includes "Editor's note: Changes in the computer series", by Lagowski, J. J., p. 226]
Allbee, David; Jones, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 226.
Applications of Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Chemically induced pulsations of interfaces: The mercury beating heart  Avnir, David
When an iron needle just touches a mercury drop submerged in a pool of an acidic solution of an oxidizer, it pulsates rapidly in a mode that resembles a beating heart.
Avnir, David J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 211.
Oxidation / Reduction
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
Graphical analysis III (Vernier, David L.)  Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H.
Two reviews of a complete graphing tool suitable for high school and college applications with a wide range of operations varying in complexity.
Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A269.
Chemometrics
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Oxidation states of manganese   Kolb, Doris
This demonstration illustrates oxidation states of manganese.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1004.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Teaching students to use algorithms for solving generic and harder problems in general chemistry  Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L.
This paper describes teaching strategies that help students improve their problem-solving skills.
Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 987.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Experimental work with tin(II) chloride in a high school   Sanchez, Manuela Martin
The author describes a final-project performed by students that integrates concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Students seek answers to questions such as: "What reactions were involved; why is an aqueous solution of SnCl2 acidic; how can elemental tin be recovered from the system?"
Sanchez, Manuela Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 898.
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
Manganese color reactions   Pearson, Robert S.
Taming 'disproportionation' with a colorful demonstration.
Pearson, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 451.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State
Let's separate theories from calculations   Freilich, Mark B.
This author writes in a 'provocative opinion' article challenging the readers to think about heavily emphasizing 'thought problems' in chemistry and allowing students to master those before throwing calculations into the mix.
Freilich, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 442.
Chemometrics
An alternative to using the PV = nRT equation   Desmarais, George
This author shares his application of the factor-label method to solving gas problems which involves using the ideal gas constant as the starting point in the relationship.
Desmarais, George J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 392.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Test tube geology: A slowly developing redox system for class study   Cortez, James A.; Powell, Dick; Mellon, Ed.
To capture the imagination of advanced high school chemistry students, this simply constructed experiment can reinforce their proper observation and recording techniques while getting them to think about the chemical techniques and concepts presented in their previous courses.
Cortez, James A.; Powell, Dick; Mellon, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 350.
Geochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Avogadro's number: A perverse view  Lehman, Thomas A.
A way to think of Avogadro's number: take anything and double it 79 times.
Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 282.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Iron analysis by redox titration: A general chemistry experiment  Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard
The authors have devised a simplified redox method for total iron analysis suitable for execution in a three-hour laboratory period by general chemistry students.
Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 183.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Oxidation numbers and their limitations  Woolf, A. A.
An in-depth look at oxidation numbers of various elements in a number of different compounds.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 45.
Organometallics |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Remember E = hv is correct only half of the time  Leo, Howard, R.
Reminder that the title equation (Planck) is not algebraically correct.
Leo, Howard, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 11.
Chemometrics |
Photochemistry
Good numerical technique in chemistry: The quadratic equation  Thompson, H. Bradford
Texts commonly avoid examples with bad round-off problems or handle them by approximation; none of this is necessary, for simple techniques are available to handle quadratic equations easily and precisely.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1009.
Chemometrics
Reaction stoichiometry and suitable "coordinate systems"  Tykodi, R. J.
Methods for dealing with problems involving reactions stoichiometry: unitize and scale up, factor-label procedure, de Donder ratios, and titration relations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 958.
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
A convenient demonstration of combustion and explosion  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
Demonstrating the correct molar ratio between propane and oxygen.
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 894.
Stoichiometry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of lead compounds: An exercise in applied chemistry  Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj
Uses and synthesis of Pb(NO3)2, PbO2, PbCrO4, PbS, PbO, lead carbonate, lead acetate, and lead metal itself.
Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 811.
Synthesis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 2. Halogens  Ophardt, Charles E.
Oxidation states of bromine and iodine.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 807.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 1. Metals  Ophardt, Charles E.
The oxidation states of iron, tin, and mercury.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 716.
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Hard ways and easy ways  Schwartz, Lowell M.
Two examples of common general chemistry calculations and different approaches ("hard" and "easy") to solving them.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 698.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
The stepwise reduction of permanganate in alkaline conditions: A lecture demonstration  Ruoff, Peter
Demonstrates the +VII, +VI, +V, and +IV oxidation states of manganese and their characteristic colors.
Ruoff, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 624.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Solving limiting reagent problems (the author replies)  Kalantar, A. H.
Thanks for clarification and suggestion.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Solving limiting reagent problems  Skovlin, Dean O.
Uncertainty in the meaning of the term X.
Skovlin, Dean O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Statistical evaluation of class data for two buret readings  Gordus, Adon A.
Data that serve to illustrate both random and systematic errors in measurements characteristic of titrations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 376.
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Mole fraction revisited  Mancott, A.
This problem requires the use of algebraic reasoning to derive and solve a fraction linear equation based on the concept of moles and conservation of moles.
Mancott, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Slopes of straight lines when neither axis is error free  Kalantar, A. H.
The iterative effective variance method is not reliable and its use is pedagogically unwise.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 28.
Chemometrics
The science and magic of chemistry: A learning cycle laboratory on oxidation-reduction  Silberman, Robert G.; Zipp, Arden P.
This article reports the details of an experiment that can be helpful in developing the topic of oxidation-reduction using the learning cycle.
Silberman, Robert G.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1098.
Learning Theories |
Oxidation / Reduction
The length of a pestle: A class exercise in measurement and statistical analysis  O'Reilly, James E.
Too many students get through chemistry without acquiring a basic understanding and appreciation of the concepts of measurement science. The purpose of this report is to outline an extremely simple class exercise as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating data.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 894.
Chemometrics
Calculation of Madelung constants in the first year chemistry course  Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A computer program aids in understanding the nature of the Madelung constants.
Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 840.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Chemometrics
Electrodeposition of nickel on copper  Manjkow, Joseph; Levine, Dana
In the classroom, one can demonstrate electroplating by the simple, fast, inexpensive, and visually interesting reaction between nickel ions and copper metal.
Manjkow, Joseph; Levine, Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 809.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Teaching significant figures using a learning cycle  Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L.
Can we teach significant figures in a way that will be better retained by our students? These authors propose a solution.
Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 786.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simple method for determination of oxidation numbers of atoms in compounds  Kauffman, Joel M.
Some oxidation numbers are hard to get because the student does not have an easy method of obtaining them. To alleviate this problem, the author presents a "Simple method for determination of oxidation numbers of atoms in compounds".
Kauffman, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 474.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Factor-label: Another view   Maloy, Joseph T.
It is of interest to our students' academic development that we teach them the mathematical theory behind factor label approaches to problems solving.
Maloy, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 186.
Chemometrics
Unit basis a neglected problem-solving technique   Beichl, George J.
A technique that will prevent students from using ineffective problem-solving techniques such as dimensional analysis.
Beichl, George J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 146.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Thermodynamics and reactions in the dry way  Tykodi, Ralph J.
In dealing with reactions in the dry way, we can actually "see" in detail the workings of the thermodynamic machinery responsible for moving the reaction in the spontaneous direction. This note presents ideas at the general chemistry level.
Tykodi, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 107.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
On writing equations  Campbell, J.A.
The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach.
Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An interactive, screen-oriented, general linear regression program  Joshi, Bhairav D.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. Description of GSLINE, a program runs linear regressions.
Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1027.
Chemometrics
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 2. Elementary entities play their part  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
One of the problems that learners have to overcome when doing stoichiometry calculations is to learn how statements about elementary entities given by formulas and equations are related to statements about portions of substances as measured in the macroscopic world.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1021.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pandemonium pesticide: A simple demonstration illustrating some fundamental chemical concepts  Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D.
Demonstration that uses large, visible particles to simulate calculations of atomic / molecular mass, percentage composition, and molecular formula.
Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 870.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers: Another approach  McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D.
A preliminary activity to help students understand the concept and calculations of the determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers.
McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 795.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Propagation of significant figures  Schwartz, Lowell M.
The rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 693.
Chemometrics
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical errors  DeLorenzo, Ron
Ten examples of the unexpected consequences that have resulted from ignorance regarding electrochemistry.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 424.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Chemistry" problems without chemical terminology  Ciereszko, Leon S.
Three questions analogous to percentage composition and Charles' law calculations.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 402.
Chemometrics
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations  Berger, Selman A.
Two examples of using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations.
Berger, Selman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Problem-solving skills in chemistry made easier  Fast, Kenneth V.
Step-by-step format for performing common calculations in chemistry.
Fast, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Drug stabilization against oxidative degradation  Akers, Michael J.
Describes the process of oxidation and ways in which pharmaceutical preparations can be protected from oxidative degredation.
Akers, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 325.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
A convenient device to demonstrate statistically based sampling error in a particulate mixture  Reid, R. S.
Apparatus to demonstrate statistically based sampling error using a mixture of colored beads.
Reid, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 252.
Chemometrics
Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours?  Zajicek, O. T.
Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Limiting reagent problems made simple for students  Kalantar, A. H.
Method for determining the limiting reagent among three or more reactants.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 106.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Graphical Analysis, Review II (Dice, David R.)  Sievers, Dennis
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A324.
Chemometrics
Graphical Analysis, Review I (Dice, David R.)  Palmer, Glenn E.
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Palmer, Glenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A323.
Chemometrics
The Elements of Style in Chemistry, A Computer-assisted Instruction Supported Text (Beatty, James W.; Beatty, James J.)  Crawford, Victor A.
Intended to support students who have trouble solving important types of problems in chemistry.
Crawford, Victor A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A27.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Preparation and analysis of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III)trihydrate: A general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III
The analysis of this compound combines gravimetric and titrimeric methods and includes a unique and colorful photoredox reaction.
Olmsted, John, III J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Iodine clock reaction mechanisms  Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T.
Outlines the mechanism for the simple iodine clock reaction and the "Old Nassau" modification.
Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1037.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Uncertainty analysis by the "worst case" method  Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise
A new method of uncertainty propagation that is in many ways superior to the traditional manipulation of absolute and relative uncertainty.
Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 780.
Chemometrics
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
The factor-label method: Is it all that great?  Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David
The development of reasoning skills in chemistry is better achieved by postponing the introduction of the factor-label method.
Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 522.
Chemometrics
Note to: method for balancing redox reactions containing hydroxyl ions  Stark, Franz M.
A much simpler way of balancing the equations presented.
Stark, Franz M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 476.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The density of solids  Burgess, Dale
Using density measurements as an opportunity to discuss experimental procedures, error, and significant figures.
Burgess, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 242.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Metal-ligand complexes-a calculation challenge  Ramette, R. W.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one of the most important experimental methods for studying complex equilibria and to present synthetic data as a challenge to the many sophisticated calculation procedure that enjoy various degrees of loyalty around the world.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 946.
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Dyeing of anodized aluminum  Grotz, Leonard C.
Anodization of Al is widely practiced in industry to improve the corrosion resistance of articles made of aluminum.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 763.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry
Hydrogen peroxide in cleansing antiseptics  Worley, John D.
The author shares a procedure for determining peroxide content by measuring the volume of oxygen released when the peroxide was oxidized by permanganate.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 678.
Oxidation / Reduction
Reflections upon mathematics in the introductory chemistry course  Goodstein, Madeline P.
It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the lack of mathematical competence by chemistry students and to invite consideration of one conceptual scheme which may be used to unify the mathematical approach.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 665.
Chemometrics |
Gases
Indigo  Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E.
A brief history of the uses and origins of indigo as well as a look at the molecular structure of this molecule.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 633.
Dyes / Pigments |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium problems  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Students often have a hard time knowing when to disregard equilibrium roots that are too large or are negative. The author suggests a convincing proof that helps students understand how the relationship between the conceptual and mathematical.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 547.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Empirical pKb and pKa for nonmetal hydrides from periodic table position  Bayless, Philip L.
The equation in this article was developed by the author. It estimates the aqueous pKa for certain acids to an average deviation of 0.1pK unit for those with experimentally determined values and agrees with experimentally determined values, and as well as with estimates for those too weak or too strong to be measured.
Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 546.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
The use of the Warnier-Orr program design method in the preparation of general chemistry tutorials   Hach, Edwin E., Jr.
39. In this article, a modified Warnier-Orr approach is illustrated for a computer tutorial involving ideal gas calculations.
Hach, Edwin E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 348.
Gases |
Chemometrics
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The liquid silver parade   Perkins, Robert
The activity described in this note is useful in illustrating how small atoms are to students.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Titration calculations- a problem-solving approach  Waddling, Robin E. L.
This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data.
Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Mass spectral analysis of halogen compounds   Holdsworth, David K.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A pocket calculator can be programmed to decide and display the halogen combination in a molecular-ion cluster by examination of the (M+2)/M or (X+2)/X percentage values.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 103.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations   Guida, Wayne C.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations .
Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Data generation in the classroom  Blanco, Luis H.
A pendulum device for generating data for statistical analysis.
Blanco, Luis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1028.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Oxidation by Mn207: An impressive demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide  Koch, Klaus R.
Demonstrates the formation of Mn2O7 and its powerful oxidation of simple alcohols.
Koch, Klaus R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The estimation of Avogadro's number using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer  Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III
Results and calculations using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer in estimating Avogadro's number.
Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 751.
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Chemical equation balancing: A general method which is quick, simple, and has unexpected applications  Blakley, G. R.
Using matrices to solve mathematical equations and balance chemical equations. From "The Goals of General Chemistry - A Symposium."
Blakley, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 728.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Mathematics in data analysis: An introduction  Wang, Taitzer
The meaning of simple mathematical equations are described in a perspective that, for some reasons, many beginning students do not seem to be able to obtain from reading textbooks on the subject.
Wang, Taitzer J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 592.
Chemometrics
Demonstration of electrochemical cell properties by a simple, colorful oxidation-reduction experiment  Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T.
The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors, depending on whether the electrode reaction is a reduction or oxidation.
Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 586.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Recurrent difficulties: Solving quantitative problems  Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J.
Investigating the process students use to solve quantitative problems using a think aloud strategy.
Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 509.
Chemometrics
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Remedial mathematics for the introductory chemistry course: The "CHEM. 99" concept  Bohning, James J.
An approach that is aimed specifically at mathematical deficiencies and based on the premise that the deductive reasoning process that accompanies basic mathematical technique is crucial for a meaningful comprehension of general chemistry principles.
Bohning, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 207.
Chemometrics
Buffers  Gold, Marvin
A demonstration based on buffer calculations.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
CAI Programs in BASIC and an associated MATH subroutine  Anderson, Robert Hunt
25. Bits and pieces, 9. Four BASIC programs involving basic calculations and mathematical problems in chemistry.
Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 129.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Basic mathematics for beginning chemistry (Goldish, Dorthoy M.)  Ellison, Herbert R.

Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A65.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Think   Wheeler, S. J., James D.
Students have an easy enough time crunching numbers, but it is alarming how little they understand the concepts behind the numbers. Students should not be making remarks such as, "If they keep changing how they write the problems, how am I supposed to know how to solve them?"
Wheeler, S. J., James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1004.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Small things and large numbers   Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Superlative problems  Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E.
The data in the Guinness Book of World Records holds great potential for fun, interesting chemistry exercises.
Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 795.
Chemometrics
Oxidation and reduction  White, Alvan D.
A simple visual analogy of oxidation and reduction.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 645.
Oxidation / Reduction
Balancing complex redox equations by inspection   Kolb, Doris
A step-by-step walk through of the inspection process for balancing equations.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 642.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Detection of carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke using molybdosilicate  Feinstein, H. I.
This carbon monoxide detector was first developed during WWII: it is simple, rapid, and extremely sensitive.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 633.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds
A statistical note on the time lag method for second-order kinetic rate constants  Schwartz, Lowell M.
A clever method for finding second-order kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Theory and practical use of an hydrogen electrode in aqueous-organic media  Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R.
These authors make a case for a greater use of hydrogen electrodes for acidity measurements in student laboratory courses.
Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A mathematics readiness test for prospective chemistry students  Weisman, Rence L.
A mathematics readiness test is prepared to determine whether students have the minimum competency necessary to succeed in chemistry.
Weisman, Rence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 564.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Soil analysis for high school chemistry students  Eisenmann, Mary A.
Students examine the solubility of nitrate ions, the insolubility of iron hydroxide and iron carbonate, and the reaction between acid and carbonates.
Eisenmann, Mary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A specific heat analogy  McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC
An analogy for helping students to understand the concepts of specific heat and heat transfer problems.
McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 896.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Sweet heat  O'Connor, Rod
What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature?
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching and learning problem solving in science. Part I: A general strategy  Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H.
A systematic approach to solving problems and on designing instruction where students learn this approach.
Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 882.
Chemometrics
Empirical formulas - A ratio problem  Knox, Kerro
A problem involving an analogy between ratios of boys to girls given their average weights and percentage composition of the class by weight.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mole fraction analogies  DeLorenzo, Ron
An analogy to help students solve concentration problems.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Stoichiometry of redox reactions  Parker, Gordon A.
A question involving an amplification reaction sequence and the balancing of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 721.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Significant figures: Removing the zero mystique  Treptow, Richard S.
Zeros are significant if they appear before a number takes on size or as stand-ins for unknown digits.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 646.
Chemometrics
Whatever became of significant figures? The trend toward numerical illiteracy  Anderlik, Barbara
How does one persuade students, when working with physical measurements, to part with excess digits and become numerically literate.
Anderlik, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 591.
Chemometrics
An illustration to demonstrate the smallness of molecules  Kingston, David W.
An exercise in dimensional analysis.
Kingston, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Chemometrics
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adding another dimension to dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Adding words to typical dimensional analysis work to improve understanding and communication.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 302.
Chemometrics
Oxidation-reduction: An example of chemical sophistry  Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A.
Examines the common definition for oxidation - reduction found in most introductory textbooks and specific examples of oxidation - reduction reactions.
Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 42.
Oxidation / Reduction
Significant digits: Numbers and their logarithms  Clever, H. Lawrence
The number of digits to report in a base 10 logarithm is an unresolved problem for many students.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 824.
Chemometrics |
pH
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Corrosion: A Waste of energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Thermodynamics and electrochemical aspects of corrosion, and inhibition of the corrosion process.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 673.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry
The physically meaningful solution of the quadratic equation  Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D.
Shows that the potential ambiguity of two unequal but physically meaningful roots never arises.
Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
Calculators in freshman chemistry - An alternative view  Gold, Marvin
There is a serious negative aspect to allowing freshmen use of calculators in chemistry.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Measurement errors: A lecture demonstration  Munn, Robert J.
A lecture demonstration to realistically discuss precision, accuracy, averaging, data rejection, and significant digits.
Munn, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Chemometrics
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Calculators, slide rules, and significant figures  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
Using a slide rule to help students understand the concept of significant figures before using a calculator.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Chemometrics
More on balancing redox equations  Kolb, Doris
Balancing atypical redox equations.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 181.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A chemiluminescence demonstration - Oxalyl chloride oxidation  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin
An effective chemiluminescence demonstration requiring minimal preparation based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 111.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Intuitive and general approach to acid-base equilibrium calculations  Felty, Wayne L.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the usual intuitive approach used in general chemistry can be readily extended without introduction of additional, sophisticated concepts to give the general, exact expression and to point out the pedagogical advantage of its use.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Pressure calculations   Schultz, Charles W.
This question requires students to be able to distinguish two kinds of pressure: Boyles law pressure of gas (that depends on volume) from the equilibrium vapor pressure above a liquid (that does not).
Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Dissolving iron nails: A kinetics experiment  Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C.
These authors share a kinetics experiment that appeals to students due to its familiarity.
Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 400.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Balancing an atypical redox equation  Carrano, S. A.
The author presents a particularly tricky redox problem and walks readers through a solution.
Carrano, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 382.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Teaching the method of successive approximations  Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R.
The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful.
Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
The chemical equation. Part II: Oxidation-reduction reactions  Kolb, Doris
Oxidation has come to have a much broader meaning than its original iteration.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 326.
Oxidation / Reduction
Collision theory  Myers, Richard S.
The question presented here can be employed in general or physical chemistry courses.
Myers, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
Electroplating of polyethylene  Gorodetsky, Malka
In the process of reorganizing a first-year chemistry laboratory for engineering students the authors have developed experiments that reproduce the approach in solving industrial chemical problems.
Gorodetsky, Malka J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 66.
Industrial Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
A pre-general chemistry course for the underprepared student  Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse
Outline and evaluation of a course in chemical problem solving.
Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 730.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Chemical equilibrium: Analogies that separate the mathematics from the chemistry  DeLorenzo, Ronald A.
Demonstrates that the mathematics of chemical equilibria are not difficult, particularly when put in a non-chemical context.
DeLorenzo, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Oxidation and chemical environment  Grotz, Leonard C.
Demonstrates that the ability to oxidize or reduce a species is dependent not only on the nature of the species but also on its chemical environment.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 618.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
On significant figures  MacCarthy, Patrick
Illustrating the decrease in uncertainty that accompanies an increase in significant figures.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Chemometrics
The burning sugar cube  Smith, Douglas D.
A wide range of powdered solids can be used to produce a burning sugar cube.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 552.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Vanadium for high school students  Grant, A. Ward, Jr.
After the instructor performs the reduction of vanadium(V) as a demonstration, students can perform the oxidation of the vanadium(II) back to its original state.
Grant, A. Ward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 500.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Simple classroom experiment on uncertainty of measurement  Sen, B.
This activity demonstrates several aspects regarding the statistical treatment of data.
Sen, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 468.
Chemometrics
A demonstration in solid state chemistry: The nonstoichiometry of nickel oxide, NiO  Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert
A simple experiment to demonstrate the nonstoichiometric synthesis of nickel oxide.
Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals
White to rose and return: A multipurpose demonstration  Olson, Edwin S.
This demonstration is useful for illustrations of reversible redox reactions and for relative reduction potentials.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 366.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Lecture demonstration of the various oxidation states of manganese  Arora, C. L.
Showing the colors associated with seven different oxidation states of magnesium and methods for preparing each.
Arora, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 302.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Calculators and significant figures  Satek, Larry C.
A demonstration on the topic of significant figures and random errors.
Satek, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 177.
Chemometrics
Cookbook dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Frequently, teachers will hear, "...it looks easy when you do it..." when teaching dimensional analysis. This teacher advises others on a way to help students gain self-efficacy with this problem solving-strategy.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 633.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A criterion for the simple approximation in dissociation equilibria  Leffler, Amos J.
The author demonstrates quantitative criterion for the assumption that permits the neglect of the amount of dissociated species in the denominator of the dissociation equation.
Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 460.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
A simple general chemistry kinetics experiment  Gellender, Martin
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate provides a gradual and clearly distinguishable appearance of color as the reaction proceeds.
Gellender, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Raku: A redox experiment in glass  Cichowski, Robert S.
In this experiment, students are given the opportunity to handle a glass making process, choosing a colorant and exploring possible reduction-oxidation reactions involving the colorant.
Cichowski, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 616.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
The lion roars: Rebuttals to "what is oxidation?"  Schug, Kenneth; Koellner, John; Loveridge, Glen; Janke, James A.
Replies to the suggestion that oxidation and reduction be defined in terms of oxidation numbers.
Schug, Kenneth; Koellner, John; Loveridge, Glen; Janke, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 602.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A logic diagram for teaching stoichiometry  Tyndall, John R.
Presents a diagram that the author found helpful in teaching the fundamentals of stoichiometry.
Tyndall, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 492.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Maximizing profits in equilibrium processes  Rish, Ronald J.
Provides the student with an example in which both chemical principles and calculus are applied to a realistic industrial situation where profits are a must.
Rish, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 441.
Equilibrium |
Industrial Chemistry |
Chemometrics
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Illustrating large and small numbers. A problem for the birds  Sattler, Louis
A calculation designed to illustrate the relative size of Avogadro's number. The solution from p. 181 is reproduced in this PDF.
Sattler, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 180.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
FeSCN2+ - A computer aid to the CHEM Study experiment  McCall, Arthur J., Jr.
A Fortran program assists in making the calculations that accompany investigation of the iron(III)thiocyanate equilibrium system.
McCall, Arthur J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 118.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Discussion: Mathematics in the first-year chemistry course  Richter, G. P.
Report of the Third Biennial Conference on Chemical Education and the Second Centennial of Chemistry Celebration.
Richter, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 19.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Chemometrics
Properties of air-A freshman chemistry lecture demonstration  Schultz, C. W.
A simple yet dramatic lecture demonstration can help tie together concepts of oxygen chemistry, combustion, gas properties and rates of reactions.
Schultz, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 751.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
A new oxidation-reduction experiment  Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D.
The authors describe an experiment in oxidation and reduction that also introduces students to spectroscopy.
Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
Reduction of copper(II) oxide by alkanes of low molecular weight  Hoffman, A. B.; Hoffman, A. J.
This paper describes a laboratory where general chemistry students investigate the reduction of CuO by alkanes of low molecular weight.
Hoffman, A. B.; Hoffman, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 418.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A novel approach for qualitative analysis  Ophadt, Charles E.
This qualitative analysis series allows students to spend a semester exploring the behavior of one ion during the course of a semester that might not be readily learned from a textbook.
Ophadt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 415.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Corrosion  Slabaugh, W. H.
The topic of corrosion extends several basic concepts of electrochemistry with which students can relate. This article outlines: standard electrochemical potentials; corrosion of iron' corrosion of aluminum; application of electrochemical concepts; and ideas for some experiments.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 218.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Analysis of reducing sugars in breakfast cereal and other foods. A general chemistry experiment  Bittman, Robert
The experiment described here has been introduced in the freshman chemistry laboratory and has been found to be of interest to the student and instructive as well.
Bittman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 46.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science
The octane cannon experiment updated for television  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Video recording the detonation of octane in a clear tube for frame-by-frame analysis of a rapid reaction.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 856.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The reduction of CuO with burner gas and without a fume hood. A high school chemistry experiment  Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas
This experiment is a modification of the classic reduction of CuO with hydrogen gas, except natural gas is used as the reducing agent, eliminating the danger of working with hydrogen.
Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 717.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
A computer program for heat of combustion calculations  Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol
A computer program is available for converting raw combustion data to the standard state energy of combustion.
Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 486.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
A quick scored item analysis for objective tests  Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr.
Analyzing test data with students in the classroom.
Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 354.
Chemometrics
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Conjugate acid-base and redox theory  Pacer, Richard A.
Consideration of relative oxidizing / reducing strength would be greatly facilitated if this topic were presented in terms of transfer of one or more electrons between members of a conjugate redox pair.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 178.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Commercial gas replaces hydrogen in general chemistry laboratory  Ehlert, Thomas C.
Methane can be used in place of hydrogen to reduce metal oxides.
Ehlert, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 162.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Metals
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Problem solving for chemistry (Peters, Edward I.)  Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J.

Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A491.
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Melgaard, Kennett G.

Melgaard, Kennett G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A98.
Chemometrics
The reducing property of ammonia  Long, Robert H.
Heating black copper (II) oxide with ammonium carbonate yields metallic copper, red copper (I) oxide, and water.
Long, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A "relevant" first experiment for freshman chemistry laboratory  Macomber, Roger S.
This activity involves popping corn and introduces students to the processes of observation and inference as well as the use of the analytical balance and gravimetric procedure.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 714.
Chemometrics
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
An interactive program for teaching pH and logarithms  Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J.
A computer program written in APL for teaching students logarithms and pH calculations.
Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 571.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  Pinfold, T. A.
The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.
Pinfold, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 506.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
The two-place logarithm table. An aid to understanding and use of logarithms  Freiser, Henry
Presents a two-place logarithm table that serves to aid the understanding and use of logarithms.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 325.
Chemometrics
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Density of a binary mixture. A classroom or laboratory exercise  Feinstein, H. I.
Provides a hypothetical problem in the density of a binary mixture.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 111.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems  Mancott, Anatol
Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Isotopes
When your car rusts out  Knockemus, Ward
Explains the rusting of a car by considering electrochemical corrosion and the Nernst equation.
Knockemus, Ward J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of basic principles of chemistry. [Debut]
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 5.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Vitamins |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Audio taped explanations of freshman experimental calculations  Harrison, Aline M.
The authors have found audio tapes to be effective replacements for live, in-lab explanations of experimental calculations.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 826.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Oxidation of ethanol by chromium(VI). A kinetics experiment for freshmen  Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G.
The experiment presented here generates a good deal of interest and gives clear cut results without the necessity of using elaborate equipment.
Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 473.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
A color indicating time reaction  Chen, Philip S.
Combining solutions of sodium thoisulfate and ferric chloride produces a dramatic color change.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion  Johnson, Joseph E.
Modifications or additions to previously published demonstration.
Johnson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Catalysis demonstrations with Cr2O3  Briggs, Thomas S.
Cr2O3 is used as a catalyst in the oxidation of nonflammable substances such as glycerine and glacial acetic acid.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Benzoic acid tree  Chen, Philip S.
Benzaldehyde undergoes autoxidation to benzoic acid by air, particularly upon exposure to light; the white benzoic acid is caused to form a crystalline tree on twisted pipe cleaners.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Autoxidation of benzoin  Chen, Philip S.
Benzoin in its enediol form undergoes autoxidation in alkaline solution in the presence of air.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Computer evaluation of rates experiment  Krieger, Albert G.
Notes the availability of a Fortran IV computer program for the numerical evaluation of the "Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Persulfate Ion."
Krieger, Albert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 839.
Reactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid-base reaction parameters  Freiser, Henry
The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acid-base titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Grading the copper sulfide experiment  Novick, Seymour
The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment.
Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Chemical exponentialism for beginners  Larson, G. Olof
Presents a method for introducing and reviewing exponential mathematical operations.
Larson, G. Olof J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 693.
Chemometrics
General chemistry experiments: Six short, inexpensive procedures  Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A.
These simple experiments involve conductivity comparisons of derivatives of the acetate ion, paper chromatography, sublimation, the effect of temperature on equilibrium, the detection of I-, and an example of an equilibrium shift.
Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 532.
Electrochemistry |
Chromatography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Interpretation of oxidation-reduction  Goodstein, Madeline P.
Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate  Nakayama, F. S.
Presents a procedure for obtaining the ion concentrations of the various component species produced by the hydrolysis of sodium carbonate.
Nakayama, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 67.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
pH
Component concentrations in solutions of weak acids  Goldish, Dorothy M.
presents a new approach to teaching the subject of weak acid equilibria and its associated calculations.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Essential Math for the Sciences: Algebra, Trigonometry, and Vectors (Beiser, Arthur)  Reuland, Donald J.

Reuland, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A899.
Chemometrics
Thermal decomposition of water by the use of the Nernst glower  Glaser, John O.
Relies on a Nernst glower to decompose water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen gas.
Glaser, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidizing action of sulfur dioxide  Lauren, Paul M.
A burning ribbon of magnesium is dropped into a flask of sulfur dioxide produces elemental sulfur.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Baby bottles and elementary chemistry  Davenport, D. A.
Presents several experiments that rely on baby bottles, including Charles' Law expansion, vapor pressure of volatile liquids, molecular weights of volatile liquids, and closed-atmosphere experiments.
Davenport, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Liquids |
Oxidation / Reduction
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Volkswagen versus the hummingbird  Nebbia, Giorgio
Questions the cited (046-07-0455) thermodynamic calculations.
Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
LTE.  Crocker, Roger
The author points out that the objections raised to his earlier work are academic.
Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
LTE. Algebra and chemical equations  Copley, George Novello
The author questions the mathematic validity of the cited work.
Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+]  Grimm, Larry C.
This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+].
Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
A transparent dust explosion apparatus  Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley
Design for a transparent dust explosion apparatus
Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A833.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Nitrogen chemistry. E. Nitrites and nitrates  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A.
Demonstrations include nitric acid + H2S, sodium nitrate + carbon, fire-writing with KNO3, nitrate ring test, nitrate versus nitrite, and micro-analysis for nitrogen compounds.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic oxidation of natural gas by platinum  Cooper, William C.
A hot platinum wire continues to glow in a stream of natural gas and air.
Cooper, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis
Oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid  Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L.
Demonstrates the oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid.
Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Hazardous chemicals data  National Fire Protection Association
Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde.
National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Management
Studying the chemical properties of metallic aluminum  Feifer, Nathan
Studying the chemical properties of aluminum is made much easier by first producing an amalgam by treating aluminum with mercurous nitrate.
Feifer, Nathan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 648.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Metallurgy C. Reducton of Ore  Rogers, Crosby U.
Demonstrations include the reduction of Cu2O with charcoal, heating zinc carbonate, and zinc sulfide heated in air.
Rogers, Crosby U. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A717.
Metallurgy |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reaction rates and equilibria. D. Redox  Klug, Evangeline B.
Sugar + chlorate + acid produces an exothermic reaction using a violent oxidizing agent.
Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
Burning without access to air  Alfthan, Voldemar
Permanganate in the presence of sulfuric acid furnishes the oxygen needed for rapid combustion.
Alfthan, Voldemar J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Properties of flames  Eberhardt, William H.
Demonstrates the chemistry of flame production.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A345.
Oxidation / Reduction
Chlorine trifluoride.  Steere, Norman V.
Summarizes the hazards associated with chlorine trifluoride.
Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1057.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
Energy C. Electrical Energy  Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin
Demonstrations include aluminum flashed in oxygen; photo-bromination of cinnamic acid, hexane, tartaric acid, toluene; photochemical H2+Cl2 explosion and the slow photochemical H2+Cl2 into 2HCl.
Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A83.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Determination of the combining weight of tin: A new look at an old experiment  Carmody, Walter R.
Describes efforts to improve the determination of the combining weight of tin
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 416.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Synthesis
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction: An elementary chemistry experiment  Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W.
Students are asked to decide which of a number of nitrogen containing species is a reasonable product of the reaction between the hydroxylammonium ion and iron (III) on the basis of the experimentally determined stoichiometry of the reaction.
Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Statistical analysis of data in the general chemistry laboratory  Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F.
Students are asked to analyze data collected with respect to determinations of Dumas molecular weight, equivalent weight of a metal, equivalent weight of an acid, and molecular weight by freezing point depression.
Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 564.
Chemometrics
Combustion versus biological oxidation  Asenjo, Conrado F.
Describes a simple toy that can be used to illustrate the difference between combustion and biological oxidation.
Asenjo, Conrado F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 558.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Decolorization of glass  Dingledy, David
A common error in general chemistry textbooks is a statement that manganese dioxide decolorizes commercial glass by virtue of its ability to oxidize blue-green iron(II) to yellow-brown iron(III).
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 160.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves  Emery, Allan R.
Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Continuous process for catalytic oxidation of ammonia  Olmsted, Michael P.
A heated platinum coil catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia.
Olmsted, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A973.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.)  Ramette, R. W.

Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Problem solving in chemistry (Tilbury, Glen)  Whitney, Richard M.

Whitney, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A532.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Metallic reduction of aqueous hydrogen chloride  Walker, Noojin, Jr.
Calcium reacts with HCl to liberate hydrogen gas.
Walker, Noojin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
Operator formalism in dimensional analysis  Musulin, Boris
Describes another approach to dimensional analysis.
Musulin, Boris J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 622.
Chemometrics
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations  Nash, Leonard K.
Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Beer's law without calculus  Pinkerton, Richard C.
There is no good reason for using calculus in the presentation of Beer's law.
Pinkerton, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 366.
Chemometrics
The burning sugar cube: Still unexplained?  Doty, Gene
This brief note discusses possible explanations for the melting of a sugar cube where another rubbed with cigarette ashes burns.
Doty, Gene J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 244.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A method of visual representation of three dimensional functions  Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H.
Lego blocks are used to visually represent three-dimensional functions.
Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 165.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Demonstration notes: Chemiluminescence in electrolysis  Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio
Suggests a modification to the usual chemiluminescence demonstration with luminol.
Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
An amperometric-kinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment  Young, J. A.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Masterton, William L.

Masterton, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 499.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A simple kinetics experiment for general chemistry laboratory  Cone, W. H.; Hermens, R. A.
This simple kinetics experiment examines the oxidation of benzoic acid by potassium peroxodisulfate in the presence of catalytic amounts of silver ion.
Cone, W. H.; Hermens, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 421.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis
The chemistry of silver  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A960.
Undergraduate Research |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion of H2S  Thomas, P. M.
Hydrogen sulfide passed over lead(IV) oxide bursts into flame.
Thomas, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Basic mathematics of science and engineering (Wood, Reuben E.)  Rosenberg, Robert M.

Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A60.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Balancing ionic equations by the method of undetermined coefficients  Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H.
Describes a mathematical method for balancing chemical equations.
Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A simple method for finding slopes  Hoare, James P.
Describes a simple method for determining the tangent at any point on a given curve using a solid glass rod.
Hoare, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 570.
Chemometrics
Redox revisited  Lockwood, Karl L.
Examines issues regarding instruction in oxidation-reduction chemistry.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 326.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Stoichiometry
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters to the editor  Perkins, Alfred J.
A discussion of balancing redox equations in response to an earlier article in the Journal.
Perkins, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 474.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Writing oxidation-reduction equations: A review of textbook materials  Yalman, Richard G.
The purpose of this paper is to review those parts of a number of textbooks containing aids or suggestions to help students balance oxidation-reduction reactions.
Yalman, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 215.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Balancing organic redox equations  Burrell, Harold P. C.
This paper presents a method for balancing organic redox equations based on the study of structural formulas and an artificial device - the use of hypothetical free radicals.
Burrell, Harold P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 77.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals
Instability of sulfur-potassium chlorate mixture: A chemical view  Tanner, Herbert G.
Provides two experiments intended to display the chemistry of and safety guidelines associated with the ignition of sulfur-potassium chlorate mixtures, regularly used as a fuel by model rocket enthusiasts.
Tanner, Herbert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 58.
Oxidation / Reduction
Explosive hazard of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures  Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L.
Details the serious explosive hazards and ignition properties of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures; this demonstration should NEVER be used for classroom or public viewing purposes.
Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 54.
Oxidation / Reduction
The chemistry of silver. A demonstration sequence  Schwenck, J. Rae
Presents a series of reactions in which silver is transformed from its elemental form into several different compounds and then returned to its elemental form.
Schwenck, J. Rae J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 45.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products  Haslam, E.
Derivation of the initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products.
Haslam, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 471.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An exact titration equation  Bolie, Victor W.
The purpose of this paper is to show the development of a titration equation for a precipitation reaction which is exact in the mathematical sense.
Bolie, Victor W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 449.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Undergraduate Research
Radioactive decay calculations without calculus  Guenther, William B.
Presents a method for half-life calculations that does not rely on the use of calculus.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Solution of problems in chemistry  Trousdale, Everett A.
Presents a method for analyzing and solving mole calculations.
Trousdale, Everett A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 299.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Reduction of oxides by hydrogen: A quantitative experiment for general chemistry laboratory  Masterton, William L.; Demo, Joseph J., Jr.
Six oxides (CuO, NiO, CoO, SnO2, Co3O4, and Cu2O) have been found to give satisfactory results for reduction by hydrogen and determination of equivalent weights.
Masterton, William L.; Demo, Joseph J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 242.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Letters to the editor  Campbell, J. A.
The author includes an interpretation of the "Beating Heart Experiment" which was omitted in an earlier Journal article.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Dimensional analysis of chemical laws and theories  Benfey, O. Theodore
The dimensional analysis of the kinetic theory and organic structural theory.
Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 286.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
On the second order rate equation  Said, Abdel S.
Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction.
Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
A formula for indirect gravimetry  Fiekers, B. A.
Derivation of a formula for indirect gravimetry and application to a sample problem.
Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 575.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions  Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James
Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided.
Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
The experimental determination of an error distribution  Nelson, Lloyd S.
Discusses an experiment in which students are asked to the average deviation and probable errors in their measurements.
Nelson, Lloyd S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 126.
Chemometrics
Pocket slide rule for pH calculations  Pitzer, Edgar C.
A pocket slide rule may be used for direct conversion from hydrogen-ion activity to pH, or vice versa, without the need for arithmetical computation.
Pitzer, Edgar C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 300.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Lecture demonstrations of incendiaries. II  Antelman, Marvin
Demonstrations described involve gunpowder, the combustion of sulfur dioxide, zirconium, nitric acid, sodium peroxide, hot iron, ammonium nitrate, organic chlorates and nitrates, and zinc stearate.
Antelman, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 273.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Proper place problems  MacKenzie, Scott
A mathematical analysis of evaluating problems in which students are asked to place items in the correct order.
MacKenzie, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 428.
Chemometrics
Material balances and redox equations  Bennett, George W.
It is the purpose of this paper to remind teachers of a third method of balancing redox equations that does not depend on rule-of-thumb empiricism but relies on the conservation of matter.
Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 324.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A log table for pH problems  Condon, Francis E.
Provides a readily remembered log table suitable for computing pH from hydronium-ion concentration and the reverse.
Condon, Francis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 323.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Otis Coe Johnson and redox equations  Bennett, George W.
It is the purpose of this paper to point out what is basic verity and what is empiricism in Johnson's method for balancing oxidation-reduction equations.
Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 157.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Stoichiometry
Letters to the editor  Weaver, Elbert C.
Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wescott, Emery N.
Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
A modified silver tree  Shaw, William H. R.; Nowlin, B. T.
This silver tree begins with an evergreen-shaped construction made from sheet copper.
Shaw, William H. R.; Nowlin, B. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 581.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Mathematical chemistry  Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David
Examines some of the challenges involved in the design of a course in mathematics suitable for undergraduate chemists.
Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 570.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Swinehart, D. F.
The author responds to questions raised regarding his earlier article on oxidation states.
Swinehart, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 265.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Letters  Miranda, Bienvenido T.
Commmentary on two earlier Journal articles.
Miranda, Bienvenido T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 264.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Suggestions for demonstrations  Lapp, Walter S.
The author briefly describes demonstrations involving the cathodic protection of iron from corrosion, the use of lithium in preparing hydrogen, an easily constructed conductivity kit, and a support for rubber stoppers.
Lapp, Walter S. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 611.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An experiment on the law of multiple proportions  Secrist, John H.
It is suggested that the reduction of cuprous and cupric oxides serves as a satisfactory laboratory demonstration of the law of multiple proportions.
Secrist, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 283.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems  Boyd, Robert Neilson
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems is illustrated through several sample problems.
Boyd, Robert Neilson J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 198.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Engelhart, Max D.
The author responds to critical comments made in regard to his earlier paper.
Engelhart, Max D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 48.
Oxidation / Reduction
A lecture demonstration of oxidation-reduction  Sanderson, R. T.
A very helpful demonstration of oxidation-reduction by electron transfer can be presented with the aid of a few permanent magnets of progressively increasing strengths to represent atoms of oxidizing agents, and an iron object to represent an electron.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 657.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Briefly describes the use of ferroxyl gels to demonstrate the oxidation of iron.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
Discusses pitfalls in the construction of "objective" examinations.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation number in auto-redox reactions  Eblin, Lawrence P.
Examines the use of oxidation numbers in exploring the chemistry of auto-redox reactions.
Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 221.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction