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Equilibrium : CommonIonEffect (9 Variations)
The molar solubility of lead(II) fluoride (PbF_{2}) is
2.1 x 10^{-3} mol/L in pure water at 25^{o}C. What is the molar solubility of lead(II) fluoride in 0.10 M NaF at 25^{o}C? (Assume that the only relevant reaction is the solubility-product equilibrium.)

Equilibrium |

Chemometrics

Equilibrium : ConcFromKsp (8 Variations)
The K_{sp} of BaF_{2} is
1.7 x 10^{-6} mol/L in water at 25^{o}C. What is the concentration of barium ions in equilibrium with solid barium fluoride? (Assume that the only relevant reaction is the solubility-product equilibrium.)

Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base EquilibriaHarry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero. Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ.2004, 81, 1367.

Acids / Bases |

Equilibrium |

Chemometrics

Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without CalculationsDennis W. Barnum In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics. Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ.1999, 76, 938.

Acids / Bases |

Quantitative Analysis |

Water / Water Chemistry |

Equilibrium |

Learning Theories |

Titration / Volumetric Analysis |

Chemometrics

Do pH in Your HeadAddison Ault Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers. Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ.1999, 76, 936.

Visualizing Numerical Methods (2)William F. Coleman These movies are designed to help students visualize various numerical approaches to evaluating functions or solving equations. The methods themselves may be familiar to students from their mathematics courses, but they may have forgotten the material or never made the connection between a statement such as "the derivative of a curve at a given point is the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point" and the way that one might evaluate such a derivative. All of the movies have VCR-style controls that enable the student to step through them one frame at a time and to move backwards as well as forwards.

Chemometrics

A Method of Visual Interactive RegressionMichelle S. Kim, Maureen Burkart, Myung-Hoon Kim Over the past decade many colleges and universities have placed increased emphasis on having students develop statistical and data analysis skills in a range of disciplines. Some institutions now require that all students complete at least one course with a strong component of data analysis, whether the data are from chemical experiments, the census, or some other source. As chemists, one of our concerns should be to ensure that students view data analysis as an integral part of any quantitative experiment, and, as far as possible, do not treat this process as a black box. The authors of A Method of Visual Interactive Regression, a spreadsheet application, have developed a visual approach to linear least-squares curve fitting that drives home the idea of minimizing the sum of the squares of the deviations in order to find the best fit to a set of data that are being described by a linear relationship. For many students these visualizations are likely to persist a great deal longer than the mathematical derivations of the equation for the slope and the intercept. The visualizations will provide a useful connection between a set of equations and the buttons on a calculator or the insertion of a trendline in a spreadsheet.