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Journal Articles: 60 results
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding: Analysis within the Hückel Model of Electronic Structure  Sture Nordholm, Andreas Bäck, and George B. Bacskay
Hckel molecular orbital theory is shown to be uniquely useful in understanding and interpreting the mechanism of covalent bonding. Using the Hckel model it can be demonstrated that the dynamical character of the molecular orbitals is related simultaneously to the covalent bonding mechanism and to the degree of delocalization of the electron dynamics.
Nordholm, Sture; Bäck, Andreas; Bacskay, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1201.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Predicting the Stability of Hypervalent Molecules  Tracy A. Mitchell, Debbie Finocchio, and Jeremy Kua
In this exercise, students use concepts in thermochemistry such as bond energy, ionization potentials, and electron affinities to predict the relative stability of two hypervalent molecules (PF5 and PH5) relative to their respective non-hypervalent counterparts.
Mitchell, Tracy A.; Finocchio, Debbie; Kua, Jeremy. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 629.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Valence, Covalence, Hypervalence, Oxidation State, and Coordination Number  Derek W. Smith
It is argued that the terms valence, covalence, hypervalence, oxidation state, and coordination number are often confused and misused in the literature. It is recommended that use of the term valence, and its associated terminology, should be restricted to simple molecular main group substances and to some oxoacids and derivatives, but avoided in both main group and transition element coordination chemistry.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1202.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation State
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
The Role of Lewis Structures in Teaching Covalent Bonding  S. R. Logan
Difficulties with the Lewis theory of covalent bonding and upgrading it to the Molecular Orbital theory.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1457.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Nonmajor Courses |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Investigation of the Value of Using Concept Maps in General Chemistry  Gayle Nicoll, Joseph S. Francisco, and Mary B. Nakhleh
Study of the degree to which students in introductory chemistry classes linked related concepts; comparisons of a class in which concept mapping was used and another in which it was not.
Nicoll, Gayle; Francisco, Joseph S.; Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1111.
Covalent Bonding |
Learning Theories
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
The Gravity of the Situation  Damon Diemente
This article presents a few calculations demonstrating that gravitational attraction between atoms is many orders of magnitude weaker than the gravitational attraction between Earth and an atom, and that the gravitational attraction between two ions is many orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
An Alternative Framework for Chemical Bonding  William R. Robinson
Recent, qualitative research in science education has uncovered many nave or incorrect ideas about aspects of science commonly held by students and others at all levels. This article discusses how misconceptions can cluster and compound.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1074.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Lewis Structures of Oxygen Compounds of 3p-5p Nonmetals  Darel K. Straub
Procedure for writing Lewis structures of oxygen compounds of 3p-5p nonmetals.
Straub, Darel K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 889.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
A Quantitative van Arkel Diagram  Jensen, William B.
Using van Arkel diagrams to schematically represent relationships between ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 395.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Visualization of the Abstract in General Chemistry  Paselk, Richard A.
A series of software programs for beginning chemistry, including a series of modules addressing the fundamental phenomena associated with bonding, the microscopic phenomena underlying commonly observed systems, and a reference periodic table.
Paselk, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 225.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Classifying Substances by Electrical Character: An Alternative to Classifying by Bond Type  Nelson, P. G.
An alternative classification of substances based on their electrical properties.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 24.
Conductivity |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Semiconductors
Electronegativity and bond type: I. Tripartate separation  Sproul, Gordon D.
As a unifying concept of bonding, electronegativity has been widely applied but gets only a limited treatment in most general chemistry texts.
Sproul, Gordon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 531.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
No rabbit ears on water. The structure of the water molecule: What should we tell the students?  Laing, Michael
Analysis of the bonding found in water and how it results in the observed geometry of the water molecule.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Is the theoretical emperor really wearing any clothes?   Sanderson, R. T.
The author asserts that general chemistry material both pushes material of doubtful value and omits material that is useful to many.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 845.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. II. Dipole moments of binary hydrides  Sacks, Lawrence J.
A discussion of Coulumbic models and their aid in understanding chemical bonding.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 373.
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
A needed replacement for the customary description of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Description of and encouragement to use an alternative to the covalent / ionic model for chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 376.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Review 1 (Pauling, Linus)  Roe, Robert, Jr.
Classic book on the valence-bond theory of chemical bonding.
Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Covalent Bonding
Prospects and retrospects in chemical education  Pauling, Linus
Pauling provides suggestions for what concepts to focus on in an elementary chemistry course.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 38.
Covalent Bonding |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Physical and chemical properties and bonding of metallic elements  Myers, R. Thomas
137. Common textbook errors concerning the physical and chemical properties, conductivity and bonding of metals.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 712.
Physical Properties |
Metallic Bonding |
Metals |
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
Demonstrations for high school chemistry  Castka, Joseph F.
A sequence of demonstrations that may serve to initiate and maintain student interest in the development of acid-base theories and bond strength.
Castka, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 394.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Ionic versus covalent bonding  Goldish, Dorothy M.
Ionic sodium chloride dissolves in water but covalent benzyl chloride does not.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Molecular geometry: Bonded versus nonbonded interactions  Bartell, L. S.
Proposes simplified computational models to facilitate a comparison between the relative roles of bonded and nonbonded interactions in directed valence.
Bartell, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 754.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Bond energies in the interpretation of descriptive chemistry  Howald, Reed A.
Most of the discrepancy between bond energies and bond dissociation energies is eliminated by the inclusion of pi bonding effects and using bond energies referred to as hypothetical "valence state" atoms in those cases where spin pairing provides substantial stabilization for the free atom.
Howald, Reed A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 163.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
IV - Isoelectronic systems  Bent, Henry A.
A detailed consideration of the principles of isoelectric systems.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 170.
Gases |
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
III - Bond energies  Benson, Sidney W.
Examines bond dissociation energies , methods for measuring such energies, some representative values of such energies, structural aspects of bond dissociation energies, and bond energies in ionized species.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 502.
Covalent Bonding
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
The chemistry of the noble gases  Hyman, Herbert H.
Summarizes the chemistry of the noble gases and their bond-forming abilities.
Hyman, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 174.
Gases |
Main-Group Elements |
Covalent Bonding
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
A classical electrostatic view of chemical forces  Jaffe, H. H.
This paper reviews the different types of forces involved in the formation of chemical compounds, solids and liquids.
Jaffe, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 649.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Chemical bonding and the geometry of molecules (Ryschkewitsch, George E.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 441.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Acids, Bases, and the Chemistry of the Covalent Bond (VanderWerf, Calvin A.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 273.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Demonstrations of simple bonding using magnets  Baker, Wilbur L.
Demonstrates a variety of bonding using iron washers, magnets, and steel balls.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 131.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Lone pair electrons  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
The lone pair electrons, whether in simple or hybrid orbitals, have profound effects on the properties of the molecule; these effects may be discussed as bond angles, dipole moments, bond energies and lengths, and coordination and hydrogen bonding.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A chart of chemical compounds based on electronegativities  Yeh, Ping-Yuan
This short note presents a chart of chemical compounds based on the relative electronegativities of the elements.
Yeh, Ping-Yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 134.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
An unconventional representation of multiple bonds  Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F.
There are several advantages to differentiating between sigma and pi electrons in representing multiple bonds.
Gillis, Richard G.; Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 546.
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases