sp3dn Orbital Hybrids and Molecular Geometry©
Mark David Ellison
Wittenberg University
P. O. Box 720
Springfield, OH 45501
United States
mail to: mellison@wittenberg.edu

This document is designed to allow students to interactively explore the hybrid orbitals that give rise to the following molecular geometries: octahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, square planar, and square pyramidal. The linear combinations of solutions to the Schrodinger equation are used to construct hybrid orbitals from s, p, and d orbitals. The exercises in this Mathcad template will introduce students to the graphical representations of complex hybrid orbitals, specifically the angular part of these orbitals. After gaining experience with graphing these orbitals, students should be able to visualize these hybrid orbitals and the resulting molecular geometries. Some introductory material is presented followed by exercises. Questions for students to answer are written in maroon.
Editor's Commentary
Audiences: Upper-Division Undergraduate, Graduate Education / Research
Pedagogies: Computer-Based Learning
Domains: Physical Chemistry
Topics: Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics, Quantum Chemistry
File NameDescriptionSoftware TypeSoftware Version
SpdOrbitalsHybrids.mcd JCE Mathcad Computational Document. Mathcad 11
spd orbi.pdf Read-Only Document
JCE JCE Subscribers only: name and password or institutional IP number access required.
Comments to: Mark Ellison, mellison@wittenberg.edu
©Copyright 2004 Journal of Chemical Education