 
Orbital Graphing©  
Mark David Ellison Wittenberg University P. O. Box 720 Springfield, OH 45501 United States mail to: mellison@wittenberg.edu  
Abstract  
This goal of this document is to help students become familiar with preparing and viewing threedimensional graphs of the angular parts of hydrogenlike atomic orbitals. The students plot the angular part of an s (l=0, m=0) orbital and a pz (l=1, m=0) orbital. However, the atomic orbitals p1 (l=1, m=1) and p1 (l=1, m=1) are graphed but look nothing like the familiar shape of a p orbital. Linear combinations of these orbitals are graphed, and the combinations result in the familiar px and py orbitals. The process is repeated for some of the d orbitals. In the second part of the document, the students use linear combinations of s and p orbitals to construct hybrid sp, sp^{2}, and sp^{3} orbitals.  
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Comments to: Mark Ellison  
©Copyright 2004 Journal of Chemical Education  