Keywords: Chemical Education Digital Library

Categories: Audience | Domain | Element | Pedagogy | Topic

Audience indicates the educational level of a student whose instructor makes use of the cataloged resource or the degree of familiarity with chemistry that can be assumed on the part of a user of the resource.
General Public Appropriate for anyone with an interest in chemistry or chemistry education.
Elementary / Middle School Science Appropriate for grades K-8.
High School / Introductory Chemistry Appropriate for grades 9-12, including first-year / introductory high school chemistry, but not second-year or advanced-placement (AP) high school chemistry (see First-Year Undergraduate / General).
First-Year Undergraduate / General Appropriate for college freshmen (topics typical of a collegiate, general chemistry course), including second-year or advanced-placement (AP) high school chemistry.
Second-Year Undergraduate Appropriate for post-general chemistry students (introductory courses in analytical, organic, or inorganic chemistry).
Upper-Division Undergraduate Appropriate for students who have completed the courses typically found in the first two years of the chemistry major curriculum (appropriate for intermediate or advanced courses in analytical, organic, or inorganic chemistry, or courses in physical chemistry or biochemistry).
Graduate Education / Research Appropriate for students who have completed an undergraduate degree in chemistry (including materials presented as part of a seminar and directed or independent study / research).
Continuing Education Continuing education refers to educational practice and materials aimed specifically at adults.
Domain describes a general area of study or interest within chemistry within which the cataloged resource falls; domain keywords represent the first level of specificity beyond the term chemistry itself; chemistry is understood to include chemical education.
Analytical Chemistry Analytical chemistry deals with separating, identifying, and measuring quantities of components of unknown mixtures and substances; methods include spectroscopy, chromatography, titrimetry, potentiometry, and gravimetry.
Biochemistry Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to the study of biological substances, structures, and processes at the cellular and molecular levels.
Chemical Education Research Chemical education research refers to the study of how students learn chemical concepts and the techniques instructors use to effectively facilitate this process.
Chemical Engineering Chemical engineering involves the design, construction, and operation of industrial plants capable of producing commercially important products from raw materials in large quantities.
Chemoinformatics Chemoinformatics encompasses the design, creation, organization, storage, management, retrieval, analysis, dissemination, visualization, and use of chemical information, particularly on and through the Internet.
Curriculum A curriculum consists of a description of the material covered in a course of study and the manner in which it is organized.
Demonstrations Demonstrations are activities that an instructor conducts before an audience to illustrate specific principles or concepts of chemistry. Demonstrations almost always involve props, and many are intended to highlight a particular type of physical or chemical change or property.
Environmental Chemistry Environmental chemistry is the use of chemistry to understand macroscale systems in air, soil, and water, and their interactions with one another and the living things that inhabit them.
History / Philosophy History refers to materials and activities that pertain to past events in the development of chemistry, as well as significant chemists and their contributions. Philosophy refers to principles, theories, beliefs, and practices in the realm of education, particularly with regard to instruction in the sciences.
Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry focuses on the properties of those non-carbon compounds generally excluded from organic chemistry. Of particular interest are the structure and bonding found within crystals, coordination complexes, and organometallics, as well as inorganic reactions and their mechanisms.
Interdisciplinary / Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary / multidisciplinary activities seek to develop skills and knowledge in two or more content areas (some of which may be outside the field of chemistry).
Laboratory Instruction Laboratory instruction pertains to activities in which students conduct experimental procedures in laboratory settings. Such tasks involve the use of laboratory instruments and equipment and are usually designed to illustrate an important concept or principle of chemistry or to involved students in inquiry and discovery.
Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry focuses on the properties of carbon compounds. Of particular interest are the structure of organic compounds, how molecular structure determines physical and chemical properties, and the mechanisms through which and conditions under which one organic compound may be transformed into another.
Physical Chemistry Physical chemistry involves the application of principles and methods of mathematics and physics to explain and predict the behavior of matter by focusing on three key areas: quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetics / dynamics.
Polymer Chemistry Polymer chemistry focuses on the structure and properties of very long molecular chains consisting of many simple, repeating units. Of particular interest are the reactions and mechanisms involved in the formation of polymers.
Public Understanding / Outreach Public understanding pertains to activities intended to improve an appreciation for and understanding of chemistry among the general populace. Outreach consists of programs designed to develop the knowledge, interest, and skills of students and instructors at the elementary, middle, and high school levels.
Safety / Hazards Safety / hazards pertains to measures designed to ensure the safety of individuals in a laboratory or classroom setting, including information on potentially hazardous materials, equipment, or practices.
Element The name of any chemical element may be a keyword.
Pedagogy describes an aid to learning, an instructional approach, or a medium that is associated with the cataloged resource.
Analogies / Transfer Transfer refers to the ability to apply what has been learned in one context to a novel situation. Analogies, similes, metaphors, and other types of comparisons are common instructional techniques used to help students understand new concepts by linking them to familiar ideas.
Calculator-Based Learning Using calculators effectively is an important part of solving problems and analyzing data. Of particular importance are graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratory (CBL) equipment.
Collaborative / Cooperative Learning Collaborative / cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which small, heterogeneous groups of students use a variety of learning activities to collectively improve their understanding of a subject. Individuals are responsible for their own learning as well as that of others in the group.
Communication / Writing Activities designed to develop communication skills help students to improve their ability to effectively convey information through the written and spoken word, often using tables, graphs, and other visual aids in a variety of media for diverse audiences.
Computer-Based Learning Computer-based learning may include simulations for demonstrating concepts to individuals or entire classrooms; programs that allow students to explore and investigate phenomena in virtual environments; tutorials that instruct students, allow them to practice sample problems, and assess their competencies; software for data capture and analysis; and basic spreadsheet, drawing, and word processing packages. (Note: Instructional tools delivered over the Internet should be classified as Internet / Web-Based Learning.)
Distance Learning / Self Instruction Distance learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge outside of the institutional classroom or laboratory setting. Self instruction refers to learning that occurs without the guidance of a teacher.
Hands-On Learning / Manipulatives Hands-on learning provides instruction through doing—helping students to acquire knowledge and skills as active participants in direct experiences. Traditional methods that allow students to draw meaning and understanding through hands-on opportunities include laboratory and field activities in which students conduct investigations, use instruments to make observations, and employ a variety of scientific equipment. Manipulatives are objects that can be touched, moved, and shaped by students to introduce or reinforce abstract concepts, and may include physical models, toys, or even food. (Note: virtual manipulatives should be classified as Computer-Based Learning.)
Humor / Puzzles / Games These techniques seek to cultivate student interest through light-hearted entertainment and innovative challenges.
Inquiry-Based / Discovery Learning Inquiry-based / discovery methods allow students to draw conclusions and construct meaning for open-ended questions by collecting and analyzing data with minimal guidance or instruction. In such activities, the process of investigating is valued as much as, if not more than, the results of those efforts. Skills associated with scientific inquiry include asking questions, planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate tools and techniques to gather data, thinking critically and logically about relationships between evidence and explanations, constructing and analyzing alternative explanations, and communicating scientific arguments.
Internet / Web-Based Learning Internet / Web-based learning may include simulations for demonstrating concepts to individuals or entire classrooms; programs that allow students to explore and investigate phenomena in virtual environments; tutorials that instruct students, allow them to practice sample problems, and assess their competencies; and web sites for research and enrichment purposes. (Note: CD-ROM and network delivered software should be classified as Computer-Base Learning.)
Misconceptions / Discrepant Events Misconceptions refer to common, erroneous beliefs that students use to understand and explain the world around them. Such assumptions often become entrenched and resist modification by traditional instruction. A discrepant event is an experiment, demonstration, or other occurrence that challenges a misconception by producing a result counter to that predicted by the mistaken belief. When this happens, students are forced to reevaluate and adjust their conceptual framework in order to account for the discrepant event.
Mnemonics / Rote Learning A mnemonic is a device, such as a phrase, word, or acronym, used as an aid in remembering. Rote learning refers to memorization through repetition.
Multimedia-Based Learning Multimedia-based learning refers to instructional strategies or materials that incorporate more than one format (printed text, audio, video, music, and computerized graphics or animation).
Problem Solving / Decision Making Problem solving (or problem-based learning) requires students to identify problems, gather information, collect and analyze data, and propose solutions. Decision making requires students to establish criteria, identify alternatives, apply criteria to the alternatives, and reach a conclusion. In activities requiring the application of these skills, instructors attempt to develop the ability of their students to think independently, critically, and creatively.
Testing / Assessment There are many techniques for assessing the skills and understandings of students; testing is perhaps the most formal and common. Other methods include observation, group discussion, individual questions, interviews, portfolios, homework, projects, laboratory reports, research papers, oral presentations, and self-evaluation.
Textbooks / Reference Books Printed materials that teachers may assign or refer to for instructional purposes.
Topic indicates with greater specificity than Domain an area within chemistry (and chemical education) that is closely related to the cataloged resource.
Acids / Bases The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of acids and bases.
Addition Reactions Addition reactions are organic reactions in which atoms or groups of atoms add to a carbon-carbon multiple bond.
Administrative Issues The category of administrative issues encompasses information pertaining to professional organizations; the supervision and evaluation of instructors.
Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural chemistry applies chemistry and biochemistry to agricultural production; the processing of raw crops into foods, beverages, and other products; and environmental monitoring and remediation applied to agriculture.
Alcohols The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of alcohols—organic compounds containing the hydroxyl functional group.
Aldehydes / Ketones The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of aldehydes and ketones—organic compounds containing the aldehyde or ketone functional group.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of alkanes and cycloalkanes—saturated hydrocarbons.
Alkenes The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of alkenes—organic compounds containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
Alkylation Alkylation is an organic reaction in which an alkyl group replaces a hydrogen atom in an organic compound.
Alkynes The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of alkynes—organic compounds containing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.
Amides The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of amides—organic compounds containing the amide functional group.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of amines and related ammonium compounds—organic substances containing the amine functional group.
Amino Acids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of amino acids—the constituents of polypeptides and proteins.
Applications of Chemistry Applications of chemistry refer to relevant and practical uses of chemistry skills and information.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry The cataloged resource pertains to reactions that occur in aqueous solution as well as the properties of aqueous solutes.
Aromatic Compounds The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of aromatic compounds, including benzene derivatives and other planar, cyclic, conjugated compounds with (4n + 2) pi electrons.
Astrochemistry Astrochemistry studies the composition of and chemical interactions between interstellar gases and dust, as well as the chemistry of stellar atmospheres and other planets.
Asymmetric Synthesis Asymmetric synthesis is the synthesis of a chiral substance from an achiral precursor such that one enantiomer predominates over another.
Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric chemistry explores the chemical composition of the natural atmosphere; the way that gases, liquids, and solids in the atmosphere interact with each other and with the earth's surface and living organisms; and how human activities may be changing the chemical and physical characteristics of the atmosphere.
Atomic Properties / Structure Atomic properties include atomic and mass numbers, atomic weight and radius, electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity. Atomic structure includes electron configurations and quantum numbers.
Atomic Spectroscopy Atomic spectroscopy includes atomic absorption, atomic emission, and atomic fluorescence. These techniques are used analytically to determine the concentration and composition of unknown samples.
Bioanalytical Chemistry Bioanalytical chemistry uses analytical techniques to separate, identify, and quantify substances in biological samples.
Bioenergetics Bioenergetics studies energy flow and transformations in living cells and organisms through respiration and metabolism.
Bioinorganic Chemistry Bioinorganic chemistry focuses on the properties, structure, and reactions of inorganic compounds found in living systems.
Biological Cells Biological cells are the smallest living systems.
Bioorganic Chemistry Bioorganic chemistry focuses on the properties, structure, and reactions of organic compounds found in living systems.
Biophysical Chemistry Biophysical chemistry involves the application of principles and methods of mathematics and physics to explain and predict the behavior of matter in living systems.
Biosignaling Biosignaling refers to the ability of biological cells to receive and act on signals from outside their plasma membrane.
Biosynthesis Biosynthesis is the production of biologically important compounds as a result of reactions that occur within living cells.
Biotechnology Biotechnology is the use of living organisms, biological cells, cell components, and biological processes to improve human health and the human environment.
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases—substances that act as proton donors or acceptors.
Calibration Calibration is the systematic evaluation, adjustment, or standardization of a quantitative instrument.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry Thermochemistry is the study of energy changes that accompany chemical reactions. Calorimetry is a technique for measuring such energy changes by measuring the temperature change of a known mass of water.
Carbocations The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of carbocations—reactive intermediates containing a positively charged carbon atom.
Carbohydrates The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of carbohydrates—polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones (sugars).
Carboxylic Acids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of carboxylic acids—organic compounds containing the carboxyl functional group.
Catalysis Catalysis is the processes whereby a chemical species accelerates a reaction without itself being consumed in the chemical reaction.
Chemical Technicians A chemical technician assists instructors and students in carrying out laboratory procedures; obtains, stores, and supplies chemical and biological materials; prepares standardized chemical solutions; sets up, calibrates, cleans and sterilizes laboratory equipment and instruments; and ensures compliance with laboratory standards, specifications, and regulations.
Chemometrics Chemometrics refers specifically to any mathematical manipulation of chemical data, and is most frequently applied as an analytical tool to predict properties from such information (particularly spectra). As a JCE keyword, chemometrics is intended to subsume the subjects of accuracy and error analysis, precision and significant figures, statistics and data analysis, and numerical methods.
Chirality / Optical Activity Chirality refers to the property that structures have of being non-superimposable with their mirror images (also known as stereoisomers or enantiomers). Optical activity is the attribute of nonracemic chiral substances to rotate the plane of polarized light.
Chromatography Chromatography refers to a collection of analytical techniques used to separate and analyze complex mixtures by employing a system with mobile and stationary phases.
Colloids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure and properties of colloids—suspensions of particles in dispersing media.
Combinatorial Chemistry Combinatorial chemistry is a method for carrying out a large number of reactions simultaneously on a small scale to generate a library of related compounds for further study, such as biological testing.
Computational Chemistry Computational chemistry uses computers to perform extremely complex calculations or simulations of phenomena that are otherwise difficult or impossible to analyze.
Conductivity Conductivity refers to the ability of an electric current to flow through a particular material.
Conferences Conferences pertain to meetings of professional chemical and educational organizations.
Conformational Analysis Conformational analysis is the study of the conformations available to a molecule, their relative stability, and the role they play in defining the properties of the molecule.
Constitutional Isomers Constitutional isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula but different connectivity of atoms.
Constructivism Constructivism refers to an instructional approach in which students build their own understanding of important concepts by collaboratively collecting, analyzing, and discussing relevant observations, empirical data, and other information.
Consumer Chemistry Consumer chemistry examines the structure, properties, and reactions associated with common consumer products and the materials from which they are made.
Coordination Compounds The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of coordination compounds ? substances containing a metallic atom or ion surrounded by ligands bound to the metal by coordinate covalent bonds.
Covalent Bonding The cataloged resource pertains to covalent bonding—the intermolecular force that exists between shared electrons and the nuclei of the bonded atoms.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory Crystal or ligand field theory is one that attempts to explain the magnetism and color of coordination compounds through an analysis of the energies associated with d orbital electrons.
Crystals / Crystallography Crystallography refers to the study of the structure and properties of crystals. Crystals are solid substances in which atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regular array that results in characteristic macroscopic shapes.
Descriptive Chemistry Descriptive chemistry deals with the properties and reactions characteristic of each of the chemical elements and its compounds.
Diastereomers The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of diastereomers—stereoisomers that are not enantiomers.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of drugs and pharmaceuticals.
Dyes / Pigments The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of dyes and pigments.
Electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the study of chemical reactions that occur as a result of the transfer of electrons from one substance to another.
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials An electrolytic or galvanic cell is a device that transforms energy released by a chemical reaction into electrical energy. The cell potential measures the tendency of the reaction to occur.
Electrophilic Substitution Electrophilic substitution is the main reaction type exhibited by aromatic compounds in which an electrophile attacks an aromatic ring and replaces one of the hydrogens bonded there.
Electrophoresis Electrophoresis is an analytical method used to separate charged or polar molecules using an electric field in a gel matrix.
Elimination Reactions Elimination reactions involve the elimination of molecular fragments from each of two adjacent carbon atoms, resulting in the formation of a multiple bond between the two carbons.
Enantiomers The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of enantiomers—compounds that are non-superimposable mirror images of one another.
Enrichment / Review Materials Enrichment and review materials are resources that most would consider to fall outside a core curriculum in chemistry.
Enzymes The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of enzymes—proteins and other biomolecules that catalyze biochemical reactions.
Epoxides The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of epoxides—organic compounds containing a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen and two carbon atoms.
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify the composition and determine the structure of chemical species by studying the electromagnetic radiation they emit, transmit, or absorb. EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) and ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) are synonymous acronyms used to refer to measurements of the absorption of energy by unpaired electron(s) in a magnetic field.
Equilibrium Equilibrium describes the state of a system in which any changes that occur are offset by opposing changes in such a way that there is no net change to the system.
Esters The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of esters—organic compounds containing the ester functional group.
Ethers The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of ethers—organic compounds containing the ether functional group.
Ethics Ethics refers to the role that moral principles or values play in science and science education.
Fatty Acids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of fatty acids ? biomolecules containing a carboxyl functional group attached to a hydrocarbon (fatty acids belong to the class of lipids).
Fluorescence Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify the composition and determine the structure of chemical species by studying the electromagnetic radiation they emit, transmit, or absorb. Fluorescence spectroscopy refers to several methods (including X-ray and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy) that study the emission of light from irradiated chemical samples.
Forensic Chemistry Forensic chemistry applies principles of chemistry to law enforcement, particularly with regard to the identification of individuals through fingerprint and DNA analysis and the processing of crime scenes through an analytical examination of the materials found there.
Fourier Transform Techniques Fourier transform is a mathematical technique used to separate a composite signal into its component, characteristic frequencies.
Free Radicals The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of free radicals, highly reactive chemical species containing an unpaired electron.
Gas Chromatography Gas chromatography (often abbreviated GC) is an analytical technique used to separate and detect the components of a mixture of gaseous substances (particularly volatile organic compounds or VOCs).
Gases The cataloged resource pertains to the structure and properties of materials in the gaseous state.
Geochemistry Geochemistry is the study of the properties, distribution, circulation, and interactions among the chemical elements and compounds found in the minerals, ores, rocks, soils, water and atmosphere of our planet.
Glycolysis Glycolysis is an anaerobic metabolic pathway used by biological cells to generate ATP through the conversion of glucose and other carbohydrates into pyruvate.
Gravimetric Analysis Gravimetric analysis includes any analytical technique in which the final quantitative step consists of a mass measurement.
Green Chemistry Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances and environmental pollutants.
Grignard Reagents The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of Grignard reagents—organomagnesium halides.
Group Theory / Symmetry Group theory is a branch of mathematics that allows chemists to analyze the symmetry of crystals and molecular structures. It is one of the most powerful tools used in quantum chemistry and spectroscopy, and allows the user to predict, interpret, rationalize, and often simplify complex theory and data.
Heat Capacity Heat capacity is the quantity of energy required to increase the temperature of a specific mass of a particular substance by one degree Celsius.
Heterocycles The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of heterocycles—organic compounds containing a ring that includes an atom other than carbon.
Hormones The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of hormones—biomolecules that act as chemical messengers in living organisms.
HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is an analytical technique used to separate and detect the components of a mixture based upon the interaction of their functional group(s) with the stationary substrate.
Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding refers to a stronger-than-usual dipole attraction between molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom (generally oxygen or nitrogen).
Industrial Chemistry Industrial chemistry is the study of the chemical processes and materials used to manufacture consumer products.
Inner Transition Elements The cataloged resource pertains to the properties and reactions of the inner transition elements—the f-block elements, also known as the lanthanides and actinides.
Instrumental Methods Instrumental methods refers to any resource that involves the use of scientific instruments, particularly those used for compositional analysis.
Ion Exchange Ion exchange is a process in which ions are selectively removed from solution and replaced by other ions through interaction with a stationary substrate; water softening is a form of ion exchange.
Ion Selective Electrodes Ion selective electrodes are analytical instruments used for determining the concentrations of various ions in aqueous solutions.
Ionic Bonding Ionic bonding refers to the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
IR Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify the composition and determine the structure of chemical species by studying the electromagnetic radiation they emit, transmit, or absorb. IR (infrared) spectroscopy studies light in the infrared region absorbed by vibrating (stretching and bending) chemical bonds within molecular (generally organic) structures.
Isotopes Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory The kinetic-molecular theory states that all matter is made up of very tiny particles in random motion; the speeds of the particles increase with temperature.
Kinetics Kinetics is the study of the rates at which chemical reactions occur and the factors that influence such rates.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing Laboratory computing and interfacing refers to the use of computers in a laboratory setting to collect, analyze, record, and summarize empirical data.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus Laboratory equipment and apparatus includes any application of specific devices in a laboratory setting.
Laboratory Management Laboratory management pertains to maintaining a safe and productive laboratory, and includes the organization and supervision of lab facilities; the proper and efficient preparation of standard solutions, compounds, and other common materials used or investigated in chemistry laboratories; and the correct storage of chemicals.
Lasers The cataloged resource pertains to the operation of lasers or their application in understanding the structure, properties, and reactions of chemical species.
Learning Theories Learning theories refers to assumptions, principles, and procedures regarding the manner in which students acquire skills and knowledge.
Lewis Acids / Bases The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of Lewis acids and bases—substances that act as electron-pair acceptors or donors.
Lewis Structures A Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the arrangement of valence electrons (both shared and unshared) within a molecule or polyatomic ion.
Lipids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of lipids—biomolecules containing a hydrophilic group connected to a long hydrophobic chain.
Liquids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure and properties of substances in the liquid state.
Magnetic Properties The cataloged resource pertains to magnetic fields, substances, and their interactions.
Main-Group Elements The cataloged resource pertains to the properties and reactions of the main-group elements—the s and p-block elements, found in columns one, two, and thirteen through eighteen of the periodic table.
Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique used to separate compounds based on differences in their molecular mass, as well as identify unknown compounds, quantify known compounds, and determine the structure and chemical properties of molecules. Common types of mass spectrometry (MS) include FAB (fast atom bombardment), ESI (electrospray ionization), MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption), TOF (time of flight), FT (Fourier transform), and ICP (inductively coupled plasma). Mass spectrometry is also often combined with other analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC).
Materials Science Materials science studies the structure, properties, and development of novel materials with specialized applications. Such materials include exotic metals and alloys, ceramics and glasses, semiconductors and superconductors, polymers, composites, biomaterials, and new materials produced using nanotechnological techniques.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics Mathematics used as a formal mechanism to interpret chemical phenomena and create models for chemical phenomena. Symbolic Mathematics signifies the use of one of the popular symbolic mathematics software tools, e.g. Maple, Mathematica, Mathcad, or MatLab, to create working templates of mathematical models that explain chemical phenomena.
Mechanisms of Reactions A mechanism is a description of the events that take place and the intermediates that are formed as reactants are transformed into products through the course of a chemical reaction.
Medicinal Chemistry Medicinal chemistry concerns the application of chemical principles to create substances to cure disease, treat injuries, and maintain human health.
Membranes A membrane is a thin sheet of natural or synthetic material permeable to substances in solution. Of particular importance are biological membranes that surround and protect the cell and control the movement of materials in and out of the cell through their selective permeability.
Metabolism Metabolism is the study of the biological reactions that take place in living organisms, including their coordination, regulation, and energy relationships.
Metallic Bonding Metallic bonding refers to the force that exists between many delocalized, valence electrons and the cationic nuclei they surround within any metal.
Metalloids / Semimetals Metalloids or semimetals are those elements found between the metals and nonmetals in the periodic table and include boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine.
Metallurgy Metallurgy concerns procedures for extracting metals from their ores, purifying metals, and manufacturing useful products from metals.
Metals Metals are those elements in the left two-thirds of the periodic table (including the lanthanides and actinides but excluding hydrogen) that are typically shiny solids at room temperature and share the characteristic properties of high electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, and ductility with high tensile strength.
Micelles A micelle is an aggregate of amphiphilic molecules (often fatty acids) whose polar, hydrophilic ends are in contact with water and form the outer surface of a sphere, inside of which are clustered the nonpolar, hydrophobic molecular ends.
Microscale Lab A microscale lab is one in which very small quantities of materials are used to minimize cost and waste while enhancing safety.
Minorities in Chemistry Minorities in chemistry pertains to issues regarding groups whose members may be disadvantaged or underrepresented in chemistry education; examples include handicapped, learning disabled (LD), and English-as-second-language (ESL) students.
MO Theory MO (molecular orbital) theory is one in which shared, delocalized, valence electrons are viewed as occupying regions of space extending over several atoms.
Molecular Biology Molecular biology is the study of the structure and function of living systems at the molecular level, focusing particularly on genes and the DNA from which they are made.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics Molecular mechanics defines a molecule mathematically in terms of the characteristics, spatial position, and lengths and angles of the bonds between each atom in the structure. Molecular dynamics determines the net force acting on each atom in a molecule due to electrical interactions with other atoms in that structure.
Molecular Modeling Molecular modeling encompasses a range of computerized techniques based on methods of theoretical chemistry and empirical data that can be used to analyze molecules and molecular systems and predict their structures and properties.
Molecular Properties / Structure The cataloged resource pertains to the structure and properties of molecules.
Molecular Recognition Molecular recognition occurs when two molecules are both geometrically and electronically complementary; that is, when they can both "fit together", as well as bind to each other using non-covalent forces, including hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions and weak metal coordination. Examples of this process include the binding of an enzyme to a substrate, a drug to a biological target, and two complementary strands of DNA. The study of molecular recognition is extremely important for drug design in the pharmaceutical industry.
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the creation of materials, devices, and systems through the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.
Natural Products Natural products are naturally occuring organic compounds that maintain life by regulating biological reactions. Natural products possess a variety of biological activities; thus the investigation of their molecular mechanisms is very important to understand reactions occuring in living systems.
NMR Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify the composition and determine the structure of chemical species by studying the electromagnetic radiation they emit, transmit, or absorb. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy relies on the absorption and emission of radio-frequency radiation by the nuclei of certain atoms when they are placed in a magnetic field, and can be used to determine both the structure and relative amounts of analyzed samples.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols Nomenclature, units, and symbols includes notations and conventions used to name, quantify, and represent chemical species and their composition, structure, properties, changes, and interactions.
Noncovalent Interactions Noncovalent interactions refers to electrostatic forces that do not involve shared pairs of electrons and includes ionic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, and hydrogen bonding. These types of interactions play a particularly important role in biochemistry and the study of protein folding.
Nonmajor Courses Nonmajor courses describes resources that pertain to non-science majors, particularly suggestions for teaching chemistry effectively to students with weak backgrounds in science.
Nonmetals Nonmetals are those elements found on the right-hand side of the periodic table (including hydrogen) that are generally gases or brittle solids at room temperature and poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry Nuclear or radiochemistry is that branch of chemistry that focuses on the atomic nucleus and includes the subjects of radiation, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, and nuclear energy.
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of nucleic acids and DNA / RNA.
Nucleophilic Substitution Nucleophilic substitution is a reaction initiated by a species with an unshared pair of electrons (a nucleophile) that replaces a substituent (a leaving group) that departs with an unshared electron pair.
Nutrition Nutrition concerns the assimilation of food by living organisms for energy and development.
Organometallics Organometallics are compounds containing a carbon-metal bond.
Organosulfur Compounds The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of organosulfur compounds—organic substances containing sulfur.
Oxidation / Reduction Oxidation / reduction refers to reactions in which one species gains one or more electrons (reduction) while another loses those electrons (oxidation).
Oxidation State Oxidation state (or oxidation number) provides a way for keeping track of electrons in oxidation / reduction reactions.
Periodicity / Periodic Table The periodic table is an organization of all the known elements in such a way that those with similar properties are placed in the same vertical column. Periodicity refers to the regular interval in which elements with similar properties appear in the periodic table.
pH pH is the logarithmic scale used to conveniently express the concentration of hydrogen ions in any aqueous solution.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams Phases, phase transitions, and phase diagrams include any information referring to states of matter, changes from one physical state to another, or graphical representations of the physical state of substances under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Phenols The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of phenols—organic compounds containing a hydroxyl group attached to a benzene ring.
Photochemistry Photochemistry studies the interaction of radiation with matter to produce reactive, excited states and the reactions that result from this process.
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plants store energy from the sun by producing carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.
Physical Properties Physical properties include characteristics such as color, luster, hardness, crystalline structure, conductivity, solubility, malleability, ductility, density, viscosity, boiling and melting points.
Plant Chemistry Plant chemistry studies the chemical composition of plants, the biochemical reactions that occur within plants, and the chemical relationships that exist among plants, their environment, and other living organisms.
Polymerization Polymerization is a chemical process whereby simple units (monomers) are attached to one another to produce a long, chain-like structure (a polymer).
Potentiometry Potentiometry is a branch of analytical chemistry in which measurements of electrical potential are used to determine the analytical quantity of interest (generally the concentration of some component of the analyte solution).
Precipitation / Solubility Solubility is the degree to which one material (a solute) will dissolve in another (a solvent). Two soluble reactants in solution can combine chemically in a precipitation reaction to produce an insoluble product.
Professional Development Professional development is designed to improve an understanding of chemistry and teaching among chemistry instructors.
Proteins / Peptides The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of polypeptides and proteins—biochemical compounds consisting of long chains of amino acids.
Qualitative Analysis Qualitative analysis is any method used to determine the identity or presence of a particular substance.
Quantitative Analysis Quantitative analysis is any method used to determine how much of a particular substance is present.
Quantum Chemistry Quantum chemistry is the application of quantum mechanics to predict and explain the spectra, structure, and other properties of atoms and molecules.
Raman Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify the composition and determine the structure of chemical species by studying the electromagnetic radiation they emit, transmit, or absorb. Raman spectroscopy relies on the scattering of light from a gas, liquid or solid with a shift in wavelength from that of the usually monochromatic incident radiation.
Rate Law Rate law is an expression that describes how the rate of a reaction depends on the concentrations of reactants and other substances.
Reactions Reactions includes any information regarding chemical changes or interactions.
Reactive Intermediates Reactive intermediates are energetic and unstable structures that exist briefly as reactants are transformed into products during a chemical reaction.
Receptors Receptors are structures on the outer surface of a cell (generally proteins) that provide binding sites for signal molecules (such as hormones).
Resonance Theory Resonance in regards to bonding is the delocalization over adjacent bonds of lone pair electrons or electrons in multiple covalent bonds.
Semiconductors Semiconductors are materials that exhibit an electrical conductivity intermediate between that of metals and nonmetals.
Separation Science Separation science studies methods for isolating and purifying substances from complex mixtures.
Solid State Chemistry Solid state chemistry is concerned with the synthesis, structure, properties, and applications of solid materials.
Solids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure and properties of materials in the solid state.
Solutions / Solvents Solutions are mixtures of two or more substances; solvents are that component of a mixture present in the greatest amount or that exists in the same phase as the solution.
Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify the composition and determine the structure of chemical species by studying the electromagnetic radiation they emit, transmit, or absorb.
Standards National / State Standards are statements of understanding and descriptions of skills that have been deemed to be most important for students to know and be able to exhibit; they have been written at both state and national levels.
Statistical Mechanics Statistical mechanics applies statistical methods to the quantitative theoretical study of systems consisting of a large number of interacting particles, such as the atoms or molecules of a solid, liquid, or gas.
Stereochemistry Stereochemistry is the study of chemical species that differ only in the spatial arrangement of their atoms and how those differences influence the chemical properties of those structures.
Steroids The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of steroids; steroids are lipids derived from a structure containing three 6-membered rings and one 5-membered ring fused in a specific way.
Stoichiometry Stoichiometry refers to the relationships that exist between the quantities of reactants and products of any chemical reaction and between quantities of elements in chemical compounds.
Student / Career Counseling Student or career counseling pertains to guiding students in terms of courses, programs, schools, or employment opportunities.
Student-Centered Learning Student-Centered Learning refers to an instructional approach in which the teacher seeks out student interests, is willing to explore student viewpoints and perspectives, involves students in planning, and actively listens to students as people and learners.
Superconductivity Superconductivity is the condition in which electrons flow through a conductor with no resistance.
Surface Science Surface science is the study of the physical and chemical processes that occur on or at surfaces, as well as structure and properties of surfaces.
Synthesis Synthesis refers to any technique designed to produce a specific chemical species.
TA Training / Orientation TA (teaching assistant) training and orientation refers to efforts to develop skills and understandings among instructional aides.
Theoretical Chemistry Theoretical chemistry is concerned with understanding, describing and predicting the behaviors of chemical systems on the basis of theoretical principles, derived from fundamental physical laws, expressed by mathematical equations, and usually analyzed by computers.
Thermal Analysis Thermal analysis determines the properties of unknown samples by measuring how samples respond to changes in their temperature and includes thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA).
Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations.
Thin Layer Chromatography Thin layer chromatography (or TLC) is an analytical technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures by allowing appropriate solvents to carry their components through a thin layer of solid on a surface.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis Titration and volumetric analysis are analytical techniques in which the amount or concentration of a particular substance present in a sample is determined using measured volumes of appropriate reagents.
Toxicology Toxicology is the study of the properties, effects, detection, and treatment of poisons.
Transition Elements The cataloged resource pertains to the properties and reactions of the transition elements—the d and f-block elements, found in columns three through twelve of the periodic table (including the inner transition elements).
Transport Properties Transport properties involve the movement of particles or energy from one point to another, and include phenomena such as diffusion, permeability, and capillary flow.
Undergraduate Research Undergraduate research refers to independent original investigations conducted by undergraduates.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify the composition and determine the structure of chemical species by studying the light they emit, transmit, or absorb. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies the production of and interactions with light in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Valence Bond Theory Valence bond theory concerns the manner in which atoms form electron-pair covalent bonds through the overlap of atomic orbitals on adjacent atoms.
Vitamins The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of vitamins—organic compounds required in small quantities to maintain health of an organism.
VSEPR Theory VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory is used to predict the shape of simple molecules or parts of larger molecules through the repulsive effects among pairs of electrons on the same atom.
Water / Water Chemistry The cataloged resource pertains to the structure, properties, and reactions of water.
Women in Chemistry Women in chemistry pertains to the role that women have played in the development of our understanding of chemistry, as well as efforts to promote the participation of females in chemistry courses and careers.
X-ray Crystallography X-ray crystallography is a technique in which the structure of a crystalline lattice may be determined by analyzing the diffraction pattern produced when X-rays interact with the atoms in that structure.